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Biblical Hebrew Grammar Charts

Jun 01, 2018

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  • 8/9/2019 Biblical Hebrew Grammar Charts

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    Strong Verb

    I-Guttural Verbs I-Verbs I-Verbs I-Verbs

    II-Guttural Verbs II-/ II-Verbs (Hollow verbs) Double Ayin V

    III-Guttural Verbs

    III-

    Verbs

    III-

    Verbs

    II-waw & III-aleph

    Yiqtol Preformative Vowels

    Pronominal Suffixes

    Volatilisation

    Definite Article & Attached -Preposition Inseparable Preposition

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    Strong Verb

    Qal Niphal Piel Pual Hithpael Hiphil Hoph

    Qatal(Perfect)

    3ms 3fs 2ms 2fs

    1cs 3cp 2mp 2fp 1cp

    qto

    l(Imperfect)

    3ms

    3fs 2ms 2fs 1cs 3mp 3fp

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    I-Guttural Verbs

    Qal Niphal Hiphil Hop

    Qatal

    3ms

    3fs

    2ms 2fs 1cs

    3cp

    2mp 2fp 1cp

    3ms

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    For comparison: I

    Qatal

    3ms

    3fs

    2ms

    2fs

    1cs

    3cp

    2mp

    2fp

    2BI-

    Verbs

    The 1st column represents the 5 "proper" I-verbs:

    , , , , . All other verbs are like

    2nd column, very similar to I-guttural verbs.

    Qal

    Qatal

    3ms

    3fs

    2ms

    2fs

    1cs

    3cp

    2mp

    2fp

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    3BI-Verbs

    Qal (1) Qal (2) Qal (irreg) Niphal Hiphil Hophal

    Qatal

    3ms

    3fs

    2ms

    2fs

    1cs

    3cp

    2mp

    2fp

    1cp

    3ms

    3fs

    2ms

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    4BI-Verbs

    Group (1): , , , , , , [] , (!)Group (2): , , , [[some regular in Qal Impv & Inf Cstr

    Group (3): Qal Yiqtol :(; Group (4 like I-Nun verbs?

    Qal (1) Qal (2) Niphal Hiphil Hophal

    Qatal

    3ms 3fs 2ms 2fs 1cs 3cp

    2mp 2fp 1cp

    3ms 3fs

    ,

    Qatal

    3ms

    3fs

    2ms

    2fs

    1cs

    3cp

    2mp

    2fp

    1cp

    3ms

    3fs

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    II-Guttural Verbs

    Qal Niphal Piel Pual

    Qatal

    3ms

    3fs

    2ms

    2fs

    1cs

    3cp

    2mp

    2fp

    1cp

    3ms

    3fs

    2ms

    2f

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    7BII-/ II-Verbs (Hollow verbs)

    Qal () Qal () Qal () Niphal Hiphil Hop

    Qatal

    3ms

    3fs

    2ms

    2fs

    1cs

    3cp

    2mp

    2fp

    1cp

    3ms

    3fs

    2ms

    2fs

    1cs

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    Double Ayin Verbs (Geminates)

    Verbs with II = III, Group (1): transitive verbs, Group (2): intransitive verbs

    Qal (1) Qal (2) Niphal Hiphil Hophal

    Qatal

    3ms

    3fs

    2ms

    2fs

    1cs

    3cp

    2mp

    2fp

    1cp

    3ms

    3fs

    2ms

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    10BIII-Verbs

    Qal Stat. Qal Niphal Piel Pual Hithpael

    Qatal

    3ms 3fs

    2ms

    2fs 1cs 3cp 2mp 2fp 1cp

    tol

    3ms 3fs 2ms 2fs

    1cs

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    11BIII-Verbs

    Qal Niphal Piel Pual Hithpael

    Qatal

    3ms

    3fs

    2ms

    2fs

    1cs

    3cp

    2mp

    2fp

    1cp

    3ms

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    Doubly weak

    II-waw & III-aleph

    QalIII-aleph II-waw both

    Qatal

    3ms 3fs 2ms

    2fs 1cs 3cp

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    Summary Verb Characteristics

    Yiqtol Preformative Vowels(without suffix, no jussives/wayyiqtols)

    req

    Qal Hithpael(preformative )

    Niphal(dagesh in I)

    req-y

    I-Waw/Yod

    Qal

    sel

    I-Guttural[(hatep-)segol under

    I; Rule of Sheva]

    Qal

    r-y

    I-Yod

    Hiphi

    r

    Niphal

    I-Guttural

    Qal

    I-Waw/YodII-Waw ()

    Geminates

    lengthened

    lengthened

    combined

    qme-p

    Hophal

    le

    I-Aleph

    qibbu

    I-Nun

    lem-waw

    I-Waw

    req

    I-Waw/Yod

    II-Waw/YodGeminates

    paa

    Hiphil I-Guttural

    [(hatep-)patah underI; Rule of Sheva]

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    IPSP

    Qatal

    inflec-

    tion

    suffixes

    Pronominal Suffixes

    singular nouns,

    Infinitive

    construct

    particles,

    most

    prepositions

    plural nouns Some prepositions:

    , ,,

    , ,

    all verbs

    (vowel ending)

    Qatal

    (consonant end

    1cs

    2ms

    2fs /

    3ms - // / / /

    3fs

    1cp

    2mp

    2fp

    3mp

    / /

    3fp /

    accent on suffix accen

    only vocalic (3fs,3cp) & heavy suffixes (2mp,2fp) heavy suffixes (2mp,2fp,3mp) a

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    14BPronominal Suffixes on Certain Prepositions/Particles

    15B 16B 17B(with)mainly less frequent mainly less frequent

    3ms

    ,

    ,

    3fs

    2ms ((pause

    2fs

    1cs

    (poet, pause),

    3mp

    ,

    ,

    ,

    3fp

    2mp

    ,

    2fp

    1cp

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    19BVolatilisation

    volatilisation of open syllables

    [(2) only if (1) does not volatilise]

    nouns: plural & pronominal suffix;

    adjectives; non-finite verbs (Inf/Ptcpl)

    (1) propretonic: a/e

    (2) pretonic: e

    [all preceding a/ewil

    [propretonic edoes n

    nouns: construct everywhere: a/e shortening of long vo

    all finite verbs:

    inflection suffixes

    (1) pretonic: any

    (2) propretonic: any

    Qatal verbs:

    pronominal suffixes

    (1) propretonic: any

    (2) pretonic: any

    theme vowel: aa, i

    (even if previously vo

    Yiqtol/Imperative verbs:

    pronominal suffixes

    pretonic: o/e theme vowel: a/a

    [Qal with 2ms suffix:

    All shortening of closed, long syllables that have lost accent

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    20BDefinite Article & Attached

    -Prep

    Article

    -pr

    Default default

    Before:

    or

    Doubled by implication

    (Virtual doubling)

    D

    Before:

    or

    or

    Compensatory lengthening

    Co

    Before:

    or unaccented

    or unaccented

    Irregular segholAs above: befo

    befo

    Before:

    rejects dagesh forte+

    Before: definite article

    I bl P i i & j i

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    21BInseparable Prepositions & -conjunction

    Inseparable Prepositions-conjunction

    Default

    default defa

    Before: tone-syllable

    Before: labials ( ,, ) default (bump

    Before: simple vocal sheva

    Rule of sheva

    Before: + Rule of sheva

    + combining with

    Rule o

    + combin

    Before: compound vocal sheva e.g. + Sheva vowel taken e.g. + Sheva vow

    Before: + Seghol taken + quiescent+ compensatory lenghtening

    + Seghol taken ++ compensato

    Before: definite article e.g. + dropped, vowel taken defa

    There are virtually no OT Hebrew words starting with a waw, so virtually every wawat the beginning of a word is the waw-co

    Version: January2015by Rene Hamburger

    Credits: Parts of this document are based on the verb paradigm tables from Gary Pratico and Miles Van Pelt, The Basics of Bibli

    Zondervan (www.learnbiblicalgreek.com/public/pdf/bbh_paradigms1.pdf), on various paradigms from Gesenius and lecture ma

    1There are only a total of 31 occurrences in the OT of words starting with a waw, most of which are proper nouns (the main exception is (hook,

    http://www.learnbiblicalgreek.com/public/pdf/bbh_paradigms1.pdfhttp://www.learnbiblicalgreek.com/public/pdf/bbh_paradigms1.pdfhttp://www.learnbiblicalgreek.com/public/pdf/bbh_paradigms1.pdfhttp://www.learnbiblicalgreek.com/public/pdf/bbh_paradigms1.pdf