Jan 15, 2016
Biblical Creation StoriesAdam and Eve anthropomorphic gods Babylon covenant Elohist writer Garden of Eden immanent god Israelites Leviathan Marduk Mesopotamia Moses polytheism Priestly writer puns Rationalization Tiamat transcendent god tree of knowledge Yaweh Yahwist or Jehovist writer
Examples of Paratactic StorytellingGenesis: two accounts of creation, one after the otherGenesis I-2:3 (God as Elohim) PRIESTLYGenesis 2 (God as Yahweh)
COMPARETwo accounts of creation of Pandora in HesiodHesiod. Theogony 561-612 (creation)Hesiod Works and Days 69-89 (creation and urn/box)
Authors of Genesis, 1950 B.C.E.The Yahwist or Jehovist (often referred to as Y or J). This writer referred to God by the Hebrew word Yahweh, which was sometimes rendered Jahweh. To help in identifying this source, the translation used here always renders Yahweh as Lord.Origin: Judaea, South Israel.
Authors of Genesis, 2850 B.C.E.The Elohist (often referred to as E). This writer referred to God by the Hebrew word Elohim. To help in identifying this source, the translation used here always renders Elohim as God.Origin: Ephraim, North Israel.
Authors of Genesis, 3721 B.C.E.Yahwist-Elohist version (often referred to as J-E). Origin: After the fall of the Northern Kingdom, Judaean editors combined parts of the J and E traditions. In parts of Genesis they were so effective in weaving these sources together, that we can no longer separate them.
Authors of Genesis, 4550 B.C.E.The Priestly writer (often referred to as P). This writer also referred to God by the Hebrew word Elohim, but his account can be distinguished from the Elohist by what he writes about. He demonstrates the concerns of a priest: he writes about how Jewish rituals and holy days began, and he keeps track of the generations the so-called "begats." This is because a person's ancestry determines eligibility for religious functions. To help in identifying this source, the translation used here always renders Elohim as God.Origin: In 587 B.C.E, the Jews were captured by Nebuchadnezzar and carried off to Babylon. This is known as the Babylonian Exile. It ended in 538, when Cyrus allowed the Jews to return to their homeland, Israel. In his creation story, the Priestly writer is largely concerned with refuting the Babylonian religion, so we can tell he wrote after the Exile, expressing ideas that were current during it.
Sistine ChapelFor more information on the ceiling paintings, seehttp://gallery.euroweb.hu/tours/sistina/index1.htmlMichelangelo Buonarotti (b. 1475, Caprese, d. 1564, Roma)
The Priestly Version of Creation
The Priestly Version of Creation (2)
The Priestly Version of Creation (3)
The Priestly Version of Creation (4)
God as Immanent or Transcendent?
The Priestly Version of Creation (5)
Creation of humans in the Bible: P1: 1 In the beginning [when] God created the heavens and the earth. 2 The earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the face of the waters.
1: 24 Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth."
Creation of Humans in the Bible: J-E2: 4bIn the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens, 5 when no plant of the field was yet in the earth and no herb of the field had yet sprung up-for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was no man to till the ground; 6 but a mist went up from the earth and watered the whole face of the ground then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being. 8 And the LORD God planted a garden in Eden, in the east; and there he put the man whom he had formed. 9 And out of the ground the LORD God made to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food, the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
The J-E Version of Creation2: 25 And the man and his wife were both naked, and were not ashamed.3: 6 when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate; and she also gave some to her husband, and he ate. 7 Then the eyes of both were opened and they knew that they were naked and they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves aprons.3: 20 The man called his wife's name Eve, because she was the mother of all living. 21 And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them.
Comparison of the J-E writer and the Priestly writer
Comparison of the J-E writer and the Priestly writer (2)
Comparison of the J-E writer and the Priestly writer (3)
Comparison of the J-E writer and the Priestly writer (4)
Similarities Between P and J-EHuman beings matter to GodCovenant appears in both:A covenant, like a contract, binds both God and his people Israel. Under it, God, functions as a patron & promises to take care of his people, who also promise to be loyal to him.P: Implied in the relationship between man and God, as represented by the SabbathJ-E: And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them.
Puns in Hebrew Genesis2:7 adham (man) is created from adhamah (ground) and is named Adam at 3:172:23 ishash (woman) incorporates the rib of ish (man)3:30 hawwa = Eve (mother of all living) sounds like hay (life)
Eve and Pandora
BabylonBabylonian refers to any of the peoples who occupied Mesopotamia from the days of the early Sumerians and Akkadians, right through to 539 BC, when Babylon fell to the Persian leader Cyrus. Mesopotamia refers to the land around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers which is now part of modern IraqSource: http://home.no.net/torawo/skole/samfunnsfag/mesopotamia.htm
Babylonianshad an advanced and prosperous civilizationlived in citieswrote in cuneiform: business records as well as literature and lawwere ruled by Hammurabi: 1760 BCEhttp://ragz-international.com/babylonia.htm
Babylonian CaptivityBabylonians took over the entire Assyrian Empire, and its army reached Jerusalem, the capital of Juda, the southern Kingdom of the Jews, in 597 BCEThe prominent citizens of Judah -- anyone who had influence to exert, money to invest, valuable skills to employ, or the ability to read and write -- were deported to live together in Babylon. When the deportations were finished in 587 BCE, the city of Jerusalem, with its Palace and Temple, was demolished completely. The Babylonian captivity came to an end in 538 BCE when the Persian leader Cyrus (who had captured Babylon) released the Jews
Science of the Babylonianshad considerable engineering knowledge and skill which they used in the preparation of maps, surveys, and plans involved the use of leveling instruments and measuring rodsobserved the heavens in a detailed and accurate manner over many centuries.
Science of the Babylonians (2)had a base-60 place value system used fractions for calculations in base sixtythey used a year of 12 months and a week of 7 days, and also originated the division of the day into hours, minutes, and secondsdeveloped an extensive algebra which allowed them to solve quadratic equations as well as both third and fourth order equations, and als and simultaneous equations in several unknowns. They had an effective algorithm for computing square roots, and generated a remarkable approximation to 2. Using their version of log tables they solved problems in compound interest using linear interpolation.
Enuma ElishThe Babylonian creation story is found in an epic poem from the second millennium BCE titled the
Enuma Elish (=when in the height)
Cosmology of the Babylonians
creation takes place in a watery wastemingling of Apsu (sweet water) and Tiamat (salt water)The god Marduk makes the earth from the body of Tiamat, a monster he killsThe heavens are formed from her upper part and the waters are the liquids which flowed from her veinshttp://www.goetter-und-mythen.de/marduk.htm
Priestly Creation Story Refutes the Cosmogony of BabylonPriestly version of Genesis shows, by describing each aspect of creation as coming from the God of Israel, that it is not Marduk who is responsible for the creation of the worlddarkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the face of the waters. Hebrew 'tehom.' is the equivalent of the Babylonian word Tiamat. Tiamat was the Babylonian deity identified with salt water and killed by the head god Marduk. Here the Priestly writer is showing that Yahweh, not Marduk, prevailed over the deep. The heavenly bodies are not gods but lights produced by God on the fourth day
Babylonian Ishtar Goddess of animal and human fertility Her influence was felt throughout the world Worshipped by recourse to temple prostituteshttp://www.astroconsulting.com/FAQs/goddesses.htm
In Genesis it is not the fertility of Ishtar which causes animal fertility but God, on the sixth day.
Workshop of Albrecht Altdorfer The Rule of Bacchus, c. 1535 National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.Samuel H. Kress Collection 1952.5.31.a
Biblical Creation StoriesAdam and Eve anthropomorphic gods Babylon covenant Elohist writer Garden of Eden immanent god Israelites Leviathan Marduk Mesopotamia Moses polytheism Priestly writer puns Rationalization Tiamat transcendent god tree of knowledge Yaweh Yahwist or Jehovist writerEnuma ElishMichelangelo AltdorferBabylonian ExileApsu and Tiamat