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Basic First Aid By: Amberly Javar Importance It is important to understand the basic first aid principles You must be certified by a trained instructor

Jan 18, 2016

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  • Basic First AidBy: Amberly Javar

  • ImportanceIt is important to understand the basic first aid principlesYou must be certified by a trained instructor in order to be totally qualifiedCourse is available in most communities

  • What is First Aid?

  • Why learn First Aid?Accidents are the leading cause of death in people ages 1-38Time is such a critical factorSelf-help as well as helping others can save livesPreparation for disasters

  • What do you do first?Take action set priorities based on the type of injuriesCall for helpEnsure the victim has an open airwayControl bleedingGive first aid for poisoningDont move victim unless they are in dangerLook for emergency medical identifications, such as a band or braceletAvoid or overcome chillingFind out what happenedExamine the victimCarry out the indicated first aid

  • WoundsAbrasion: outer skin is damaged little bleedingIncision: a cut heavy rapid bleedingLaceration: jagged break of tissue heavy, rapid bleedingPuncture: a small hole in the tissue bleeding limitedAvulsions: torn tissueCaused by common accidents: falls, vehicle accidents and mishandling sharp objects

  • First aid proceduresCall for help!Stop the bleeding apply direct pressure to the wound and elevate the body partProtect the wound from contamination and infectionsUse a dressingCleanse the area if it is not bleedingDo not move the injured areaAttend for shock

  • First aid for animal bitesCall for help!Stop the bleeding and cleanse the areaApply a dressingDo not move the injured areaRestrain the animal

  • First aid for Closed woundsCall for help!

    Maintain open airway

    Keep victim from moving

  • ShockSigns of ShockPale skinMoist skinWeakness of victimRapid PulseShallow, deep, rapid breathingVomiting

    TreatmentKeep victim lying downCover the victim to prevent loss of body heatGet medical help

  • Respiratory Emergencies &Artificial RespirationWhen normal breathing stops or is reduced you have a respiratory emergency! Artificial respiration is a procedure for causing air flow into and out of a persons lungs.The average person may die in 6 minutes if his/her oxygen supply is cut off

  • Cont.All communities have organizations that offer training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Many of these training courses are free. It is worthwhile to take on of these courses. They will off training demonstration and practice (on dummies) in the currently advised methods of treatment for cardiopulmonary arrestWhen a victim is revived treat for shockAlways continue artificial respiration until:The victim breathes for his/herselfIs pronounced dead by a doctor

  • Mouth - to - MouthDo not move the victimLoosen the clothingRemove foreign matterTilt head back and listen for breathingPinch noseBlow air into the victims mouthWatch chestRepeat

  • Chest Pressure Arm LiftRemove foreign matterPlace victim face-upKneel at head, grasp his/her wrist and cross over his/her lower chestRock forwardRock back and pull arms out and up over his/her headRepeatWatch for vomiting

  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)This is a technique of manually forcing a persons heart to beat and his/her lungs to breatheInvolves the following steps:A: Airway openingB: Breathing restoredC: Circulation restoredD: Definitive therapyIt should be carried out by qualified persons. You must be certified by the American Red Cross in order to administer CPR properly. We are only attempting to acquaint you with the procedure.The heart and lungs work together. A lack of air will eventually cause the heart to stop. When this occurs, CPR is needed. CPR combines mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration and chest compressions. By giving CPR you breathe and circulate the blood for a person

  • Review of mouth-to-mouthClick for reviewNEXT

  • General RhythmThe general rhythm for one person CPR given to an adult is:15 compressions (in 10 to 15 seconds) then 2 quick breathsCheck the pulse every few minutes. Continue until help arrives or pulse breathing is restored

  • General RhythmTwo person CPR is more effective. It allows more air to be given and is less tiring. The general rhythm for two person CPR is given to an adult is:5 compressions, then 1 breath. RepeatCheck the pulse every few minutes. Continue until help arrives or until pulse and breathing are restored

  • Swallows objects and chokingThe objective of first aid for a person who is choking, is to allow the victim to assume a comfortable position and encourage him/her to coughIf you suspect that someone is choking, ask Are you choking?If the victim can answer or is coughing, let him/her continue coughingOnly if the victim cannot breathe or speak, should you give the Heimlich Maneuver

  • The Heimlich ManeuverStand behind the victimWrap your arms around the victims waist.Make a fist with one hand.Place your fist (thumb side) against the victims stomach in the center just above the navel and well below the rib marginGrasp your fist with your other handPress into stomach with a quick upper thrustRepeat

  • Victim is unconscious or becomes unconsciousSweep inside the victims mouth with your fingersAttempt mouth-to-mouth artificial respirationGive 6-10 abdominal thrust and repeat the process as long as necessary

  • Break Time ???Do you want a break ORDo you want to continue?

  • POISONINGAlways call the nearest Poison Control Center, local hospital, family doctor, or emergency services number (911) in the case of actual or suspected poisoningWhen someone takes a poison into the body it must be neutralized as quickly as possible. Vomiting (in some cases) must be induced, respiration maintained, vital functions preserved and medical assistance provided

  • When you know its not an acid or petroleum product:Dilute with water/milkInduce vomiting (unless the victim is drowsy or unresponsive)Get helpWhen you dont know what it was:Dilute with water or milkTry to find out what the poison whatGet helpSometimes people are poisoned by contact with chemicals or poisonous plants: If this happens:Remove contaminated clothingWash the areaApply soothing skin lotionGet medical advice

  • Food poisoningOther items they may be poisoned by eating spoiled/bad seafood. If this happens:Induce vomitingDilute poisonTreat for shockGet medical help

  • Poison by insectsApply cold compresses to the area

    Apply soothing lotion to the area

  • Snake PoisoningKeep victim quiet and reassure him/her

    Get medical help as soon as possible

  • BurnsAn injury that is the result of heat, chemical agent or radiation is a burn. They vary in:Depth SizeSeverity

    Burns are classified as first, second, or third degree.1st degree

  • First Degree burnsRedness

    Mild Swelling

    Rapid healing

    Treatment: Apply cold water and dressing2nd degree

  • Second Degree BurningGreater depthRed or matted appearanceBlistersSwellingWet appearance of the skinTreatment:Immerse in cold waterApply cloths (cold, wet)Dressing

    3rd degree

  • Third degree burnsDeep tissue destructionWhite, charred appearanceLoss of layers of skinTreatment:Cover with thick, sterile dressingElevateGet help

  • Heat ExhaustionSigns:Pale and clammy skinProfuse perspirationHeadache, crampsNauseaFaintingTreatment:Salt water (sips)Lie victim down, raise feetLoosen victims clothingApply cool clothsHeat exhaustion is a response to heat characterized by fatigue, weakness or collapse often caused by lack of water to compensate for loss of fluids through sweating

  • Heat StrokeSigns:Hot, red and dry skinHigh temperatureRapid pulseMay be unconsciousTreatment:If victim is unresponsive, check the airway and be sure the victim is breathingCool the body immediately by sponging with waterDo not cause shiveringCall for helphttp://www.jlcomicart.de/images/HeatWave1.jpgHeat stroke is a response to heat characterized by extremely high body temperature and disturbance of the bodys sweating mechanism. It can be life threatening!

  • Heat CrampsSigns:Cramping of leg and arm musclesTreatment:Pressure with hands on the cramped muscle or massageSips of salt waterHeat cramps are muscular pains and spasms due largely to loss of salt.

  • Sudden IllnessIllness is often not related to injury, but can arise due to a crisis.

    Sudden illnesses can be dangerous to ones life.

    Medical attention is very important.

  • Heart AttackSigns:Chest PainsShortness of breathBluish color of the lips. Skin and fingernailsShockExtreme exhaustionSweatingTreatment:Call for helpKeep victim comfortable, usually sitting up!If victim is not breathing, begin artificial respirationDo not give liquids

  • StrokeDid you know?...every 53 seconds a person in the U.S. has a stroke? 160,000 people under the age of 65 have a stroke every year? stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and third-leading cause of death? there are 4.5 million stroke survivors alive today?

  • StrokeSigns:Possible unconsciousnessHeadacheParalysis or weakness on one sideConfusionDisturbance in personalitySlurred speechTreatment:Call a doctorKeep victim calmProtect from harm

  • FaintingSigns:PalenessSweatingCold skinDizzinessNauseaBlurred VisionTreatment:Leave victim lying downLoosen tight clothingObserve after recoveryFainting is partial or complete loss of consciousness caused by a reduced supply of blood to the brain for a short time

  • To summarize, no matter what the emergency, do your best to remain calm and keep control of the situation.

    Know your limitations and seek medical attention as quickly as possible.

  • Do your skills check On