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Balance of Plant Operation (Power Plant)

Jun 04, 2018

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    Jawad Aslam | December 31, 2013

    TRAINING REPORT BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP)

    Submitted to

    Mr. Farhan Javed (Team Leader BOP)

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    I

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I thank Almighty Allah for giving me the strength to complete this Report and for showering His blessings upon me throughout my training period at the BOP Area.

    I would like to thank my Parents for their eternal love and support and for having faith in methroughout my life. I would like to express my deepest appreciation to my seniors and My TeamLeader Mr. Farhan Javed who continually and convincingly guided me throughout the process.Without their guidance and help this report would not have been possible.

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    Table of Contents

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................................................ i

    Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1

    Pre-treatment of Intake Water ......................................................................................................... 2

    Raw Water Intake ........................................................................................................................ 2

    Settling Basins ............................................................................................................................. 3

    Clarifier ........................................................................................................................................ 3

    Choice of Coagulant ................................................................................................................ 5

    Polymers ................................................................................................................................... 6

    Dual Media Filters ....................................................................................................................... 8

    DMF Cleaning / Backwash ...................................................................................................... 8 Demineralization System............................................................................................................... 10

    Multimedia Filters...................................................................................................................... 10

    Backwashing of Filters ........................................................................................................... 11

    Reverse Osmosis System ........................................................................................................... 12

    Reverse Osmosis..................................................................................................................... 12

    Chemical Dosing in R.O. System ........................................................................................... 15

    Demineralizer Train ................................................................................................................... 15

    Regeneration of Demineralizer Train .................................................................................... 17

    Cooling Towers ............................................................................................................................. 18

    Components of Cooling Tower .................................................................................................. 19

    Cooling Tower Specifications ................................................................................................... 21

    Cooling Tower Performance ...................................................................................................... 21

    Chemical Treatment of Cooling Tower ..................................................................................... 23

    Hydrogen Generation System ........................................................................................................ 25

    Electrolytic Cell ......................................................................................................................... 26

    Cell Temperature ................................................................................................................... 26

    Electrolyte .................................................................................................................................. 27

    Electrolyte Strength ................................................................................................................ 28

    Hydrogen Mist Eliminator ......................................................................................................... 28

    Hydrogen Gas Holder ................................................................................................................ 28

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    BOP Area Report

    Hydrogen Purification System ................................................................................................... 28

    Catalytic Purifier ........................................................................................................................ 29

    After Cooler ............................................................................................................................... 29

    Table of Figures ............................................................................................................................. 30

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    BOP Area Report

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    Introduction

    BOP (Balance of Plant) section at Lalpir Thermal Power Plant is responsible for providing wateraccording to desired specifications of different areas and equipment at plant, safe disposal of wastewater and hydrogen generation.

    There are mainly two sources of raw water at Lalpir,

    1. canal water, which is a seasonal source taken into service from April till October2. well water, which is taken into service when canal water is not available

    Raw water from here on is treated to suit the requirement of systems that need water, such as

    Firefighting system Service water system Portable water system Condenser Boiler

    Boiler, amongst the other water consumers at Lalpir, is the most sensitive user that requiresdemineralized water of conductivity less than 0.1 s/cm and silica content less than 0.01 ppm.

    Figure 1 Over-view of BOP Area

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    BOP Area Report

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    CHAPTER 1

    Pre-treatment of Intake Water

    Raw Water Intake

    Once raw water from the canal is taken, it is passed through a travelling band screen that removesany debris that may cause damage to the canal water pumps. There are 22 baskets that are in acontinuous revolution such that the water passes through their center. These baskets are made ofstrong mesh having a size of 1mm. The baskets scoop the raw water out one by one. Any debristhat may have made its way through the intake is taken up by these baskets and later sprayed intoa waste collecting pit which dumps this debris back into the canal. The debris free water is then

    pumped to the plant by canal water pumps. These pumps supply water at a rate of 1200 m 3/hr, each.

    There is a recirculation valve provided with each pump which when operational, will allow waterto circulate back to the bar screen. The total number of canal water pumps is four, two for each unit.When functional, one pump is in service and the other is on standby. All four pumps lubricatingoil and rubber bearings at shaft are cooled by cooling water. Two separate storage tanks are usedfor this purpose.

    Figure 2 Raw Water Intake system

    When canal goes dry, continuous demand of water is met by 18 well water pumps, 9 for each unit,located on the north bank on canal. Each pump has discharge rate of 240 m 3/hr and 6 pumps remainin service at a time.

    The raw water intake from canal constitutes of the following subsystems:

    Travelling band screens Canal water pumps Settling basins

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    BOP Area Report

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    Clarifier supply pumps Distribution box Clarifiers Clear well

    Dual media filters (DMF)

    Settling Basins

    There are three types of objects which can be found in water. In order from smallest to largest,these objects are chemicals in solution, colloidal solids, and suspended solids. The settling basinsare designed to provide ample retention time for settling of heavy suspended particles, debris anduncharged particles.

    All sedimentation basins have four zones - the inlet zone, the settling zone, the sludge zone, andthe outlet zone. Each zone should provide a smooth transition between the zone before and the zoneafter. In addition, each zone has its own unique purpose.

    Figure 3 Settling Basin

    Water from canal pumps through their respective line (PakGen or Lalpir) comes to 3 settling basins(each of 1000 m 3 vol.) having common header with the provision of filling any settling basin, and

    by pass line to cooling tower. Settling basins provide primary settling zone for large suspended particles, sand and silt in canal water. These basins reduce the coagulation cost in clarifier, load onfilters and provide proper suction for clarifier supply pumps.

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