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Automotive electronics Systems by Ch.Ravikumar

Aug 11, 2014



The Presentation mainly concentrates in automotive electronics, sensors, and various In-Vehicle Networks

  • Automotive Electronic Systems By CH.RAVIKUMAR T.E.(EXTC) WIT
  • Disciplines in Automotive Engineer Safety Engineering Fuel Economy/Emissions Vehicle Dynamics Vehicle Electronics Performance Shift Quality Durability / Corrosion engineering Package / Ergonomics Engineering etc
  • Safety Engineering Assessment of various crash scenarios and their impact on the vehicle occupants Requirements Include: Seat belt and air bag functionality Front and side impact testing Full vehicle crashes Assessments are done with various methods and tools: Computer crash simulation Crash test dummies
  • Fuel Economy/Emissions It is the measured fuel efficiency of the vehicle in miles per gallon or litres per 100 kilometers. Emissions testing the measurement of the vehicles emissions: hydrocarbons nitrogen oxides (NOx) carbon monoxide (CO) carbon dioxide (CO2), and evaporative emissions
  • Vehicle Dynamics It is the vehicle's response of the following attributes: ride, handling, steering, braking, comfort and traction Design of the chassis systems: suspension, steering, braking, structure (frame), wheels and tires, and traction control Dynamics engineer to deliver the Vehicle Dynamics qualities desired
  • Automotive electronics is an increasingly important aspect of automotive engineering Responsible for operational controls throttle, brake and steering controls comfort and convenience systems infotainment and lighting systems It would not be possible for automobiles to meet modern safety and fuel economy requirements without electronic controls Vehicle Electronics
  • Performance is a measurable and testable value of a vehicles ability to perform in various conditions how quickly a car can accelerate (e.g. standing start 1/4 mile elapsed time, (0- 60 mph, etc.) Generate without losing grip, recorded lap times, cornering speed, brake fade, etc Performance can also reflect the amount of control in inclement weather (snow, ice, rain) Performance
  • Trends in automotive > 1920 + pneumatic systems low high technical skills + hydraulic systems low driving skills > 1950 + electric systems increasing good technical skills increasing driving skills > 1980 + electronic systems congestion low technical skills + optronic systems starts high driving skills > 2010 + nanoelectronics congested very low technical skills + biotronic systems optimization decreasing driving skills starts > 2040 + robotics maximal and no technical skills + nanotechnology optimized no driving skills CAR Technology TRAFFIC DRIVER SKILLS > 1891 mechanical system very low very high technical skills
  • Automotive Electronics Phase 1: Introduction of Electronics in non-critical applications Driver information and entertainment e.g. radio, Comfort and convenience e.g. electric windows, wiper/washer, seat heating, central locking, interior light control Low intelligence electronic systems Minor communication between systems (pushbutton control) No impact on engine performance No impact on driving & driver skills
  • Automotive Electronics Phase 2: Electronics support critical applications Engine optimization: e.g. efficiency improvement & pollution control Active and Passive Safety e.g. ABS, ESP, airbags, tire pressure, Xenon lamps Driver information and entertainment e.g. radio-CD-GPS, parking radar, service warnings Comfort, convenience and security: e.g. airco, cruise control, keyless entry, transponders Increasingly complex and intelligent electronic systems Communication between electronic systems within the car Full control of engine performance No control of driving & driver skills But reactive correction of driver errors. Electronics impact remains within the car
  • Automotive Electronics Phase 3: Electronics control critical applications Full Engine control e.g. start/stop cycles, hybrid vehicles Active and Passive Safety e.g. X by wire, anti-collision radar, dead-angle radar Driver information and entertainment e.g. traffic congestion warning, weather and road conditions Comfort and convenience Very intelligent and robust electronics Communication between internal and external systems Information exchange with traffic network Full control of engine performance Control of driving and (decreasing) driving skills Proactive prevention of dangerous situations inside and around the car Full control of car and immediate surroundings
  • Automotive Electronics Phase 4: Fully Automatic Driver (1st generation) Traffic network takes control of the macro movements (upper layers) of the car Automatic Driver executes control of the car and immediate surroundings (lower and physical layers) ADAM : Automatic Driver for Auto-Mobile or EVA : Elegant Vehicle Automat Driver has become the Passenger for the complete or at least for most of the journey Driver might still be necessary if ADAM becomes an Anarchistic Driver And Madman or EVA becomes an Enraged Vehicle Anarchist
  • InteriorLight System Auto toll Payment Rain sensor Dashboard controller Automated Cruise Control Light failure control Information Navigation Entertainment Head Up Display Engine: Injection control Injection monitor Oil Level Sensing Air Flow Headlight: Position control Power control Failure detection Brake Pressure Airbag Sensing &Control Seat control: Position/Heating Key transponder Doormodule Keyless entry Central locking Throttle control Valve Control E-gas Suspension control LEDbrake light Compass Stability Sensing Power Window Sensor Backup Sensing Gearbox: Position control Where do we find electronics in a car
  • Emerging In-Vehicle Networks
  • Introduction In-vehicle networks Connect the vehicle's electronic equipments Facilitate the sharing of information and resources among the distributed applications These control and communications networks are based on serial protocols, replacing wire harnesses with in-vehicle networks Change the point-to-point wiring of centralized ECUs to the in-vehicle networking of distributed ECUs
  • Introduction Aims of In-Vehicle Network Open Standard Ease to Use Cost Reduction Improved Quality
  • Benefits of In-Vehicle Network More reliable cars More functionality at lower price Standardization of interfaces and components Faster introduction of new technologies Functional Extendibility Introduction
  • Decreasing wiring harness weight and complexity Electronic Control Units are shrinking and are directly applied to actuators and sensors Introduction
  • modern automobiles networks Buses Speed Origin D2B(5Mbit/s, electrical or optical mainly for digital audio) High Auto MOST(22.5Mbit/s, audio, video,control) High Auto FlexRay(10Mbit/s, x-by-wire, safety-critical control) High Auto Byteflight(10Mbit/s, constant latencies, airbag, sear-belt) High Auto TTP(5~25Mbit/s, real-time distributed/fault-tolerant apps) High Auto Bluetooth(10Mbits/s, wireless for infotainment equipments) High Consumer CAN(50-1000kbit/s control only) Low Auto J1850(10.4kbit/s and 41.6kbit/s, control) Low Auto LIN(20kbps, control) Low Auto Introduction
  • Overview of In-Vehicle Networks D2B (Domestic Data Bus ) Matsushita and Philips jointly developed Has promoted since 1992 D2B was designed for audio-video communications, computer peripherals, and automotive media applications The Mercedes-Benz S-class vehicle uses the D2B optical bus to network the car radio, autopilot and CD systems The Tele-Aid connection, cellular phone, and Linguatronic voice-recognition application
  • Media-Oriented Systems Transport (MOST) It was initiated in 1997 Supports both time-triggered and event-triggered traffic with predictable frame transmission at speeds of 25Mbps Using plastic optic fiber as communication medium Overview of In-Vehicle Networks
  • The interconnection of telematics and infotainment such as video displays, GPS navigation systems, active speaker and digital radio More than 50 firmsincluding Audi, BMW, Daimler-Chrysler, Becker Automotive, and Oasis Silicon Systemsdeveloped the protocol under the MOST Cooperative Overview of In-Vehicle Networks
  • Time-triggered protocol (TTP) It was released in 1998 It is a pure time-triggered TDMA protocol Frames are sent at speeds of 5-25Mbps depending on the physical medium Designed for real-time distributed systems that are hard and fault tolerant It is going on to reach speeds of 1Gbps using an Ethernet based star architecture Overview of In-Vehicle Networks
  • FlexRay FlexRay is a fault-tolerant protocol designed for high-data-rate, advanced-control applications, such as X-by-wire systems (high-speed safety- critical automotive systems) Provides both time-triggered and event-triggered message transmission Messages are sent at 10Mbps Overview of In-Vehicle Networks
  • Both electrical and optical solutions are adopted for the physical layer The ECUs are interconnected using either a passive bus topology or an active star topology FlexRay complements CAN and LIN being suitable for both powertrain systems and XBW systems Overview of In-Vehicle Networks
  • Byteflight Developed from 1996 by BMW A flexible time-division multiple access (TDMA) protocol using a star topology for safety-related applications Messages are sent in frames at 10Mbps support for event-triggered message transmission Overview of In-Vehicle Networks
  • Guarantees deterministic (constant) latencies for a bounded number of high priority real-time message The physical medium used is plastic optical fiber Byteflight can be used with devices such as air bags and sear-belt tensioners Byteflight is a very high performance network with many of the features necessary for X-by-wire Overview of In-Vehicle Networks
  • Bluetooth An open specification for an inexpensive, short- range