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Autism Spectrum

May 24, 2015

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  • 1. Autism Spectrum, Socialization Problems, and Communication Disorders Elyssa Baker Courtney Reinhold Elizabeth Staab Amanda Woloshin

2. Introduction to Autism Spectrum Disorders

  • Includes: Autism, Aspergers Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Retts Syndrome, and PDD-NOS
  • Disorders are distinguished from each other based on
    • Age of onset
    • Presence of language or cognitive delay
    • Presence of co-morbid factors
    • Specific neurological features

3. Communication Disorders and Socialization Problems

  • Communication disorder- condition that partially or totally prevents human communication. The defect can be in producing, receiving or understanding the communication.
  • Socialization problem- an inability to perform social skills other than language. (ex. Eye contact, respond appropriately to others, initiate interactions)
  • Kauffman, 2005

4. Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)

  • Distortion of or lag in all or most levels of development
  • Includes Autism, Rett's disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Aspergers, PDD-NOZ

5. Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)

  • Pervasive delay in development that does not fit into any of the other diagnostic categories
  • Doesnt fit classification of other PDD disorders, placed here

6. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD)

  • Rare condition characterized by late onset (greater than 3 years of age) of developmental delays in 3 areas
      • Language
      • Social Function
      • Motor Skills
  • Similar to Autism, but an apparent period of fairly normal development is noted before regression in skills
  • Children already experience some delay, but delay is not always obvious in young children
  • Kauffman, 2005/wikipedia.com

7. Retts Syndrome

  • Normal development for 5 months to 4 years, then regression and mental retardation
  • Similar to Autism, especially behavior characteristics
  • X-linked dominant: affecting most exclusively girls, mutation
  • Affects 1/12,500 girls by the age of 12
  • Girls are very prone to gastrointestinal disorders and about 30% have seizures
  • Typically have no verbal skills, and about 50% of females are not ambulatory
  • Kauffman, 2005/Wikipedia.com

8. Autism 9. Autism

  • A Pervasive Development Disorder
  • Onset before age of 3
  • Qualitative impairment of social interaction and communication
  • Restricted, repetitive, stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities

10. Symptoms of Autism

  • TRIAD OF IMPAIRMENTS
      • Communication
        • In young children, language delay is a strong indicator of Autism (RISK FACTOR)
      • Social Reciprocity
      • Restricted Interests and Repetitive Behaviors

11. Autism Spectrum Autism Spectrum Disorders PDD-NOS AUTISM ASPERGER SYNDROME Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Retts Disorder 12. Prevalence

  • 1 in 150 children is diagnosed with autism
  • 1 in 94 boys is on the autism spectrum
  • 67 children are diagnosed per day
  • http://www.autismspeaks.org/whatisit/facts.php

13. Facts

  • Autism costs the nation over $90 billion per year, a figure expected to double in the next decade
  • Boys are four times more likely than girls to have autism
  • Autism is the fastest-growing serious developmental disability in the U.S.
  • More children will be diagnosed with autism this year than with AIDS, diabetes & cancer combined
  • http://www.autismspeaks.org/whatisit/facts.php

14. Etiology

  • There is no real cause of autism.
  • Recent studies suggest a strong genetic basis for autism -- up to 20 sets of genes may play a part in its development.
  • Studies are also looking at possible environment origins and triggers.
  • Movie Clip
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u4uGWiQgRYs
  • http://www.autismspeaks.org/whatisit/faq.php

15. Assessment

  • Most children are diagnosed by observation.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oE9zN1OSKdE

16. IDEA/EBD Qualifications

  • IDEA defines autism as a developmental disability that primarily results in significant deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication and social interactions, generally evidenced before the age of 3 years and adversely affects the childs educational performance.
  • (Dowdy, Patton, Polloway, and Smith, 2006)

17. IDEA/EBD Qualifications (cont.)

  • Fits under IDEA if
    • Adversely effects the students educational performance.
    • An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.
    • Inappropriate types of behavior of feelings under normal circumstances
    • (Kauffman, 2005)

18. Comorbidity Issues

  • anxiety and depression
  • ADHD
  • mental retardation
  • a behavior disorder
  • problems with hearing
  • odd and eccentric behavior
  • (Autism Society of America, 2000)

19. Prevention Strategies

  • There are two types of prevention according to Kauffman:
    • Primary
    • -involves physiological prevention strategies that include genetic counseling and prenatal care
    • 2. Secondary
    • -consists of early identification and intervention
    • -educational programs play an important role in secondary prevention
    • (Kauffman, 2005)

20. Intervention

  • Importance of intensive early intervention for young children across the autism spectrum
  • These children share a common diagnostic label, each has own individual needs.
  • Intervention should address the core deficits that the ASD share
    • communication
    • social problems
    • sensory problems
    • academic difficulties
  • (Autism Society of America, 2000)

21. Intervention (cont.)

  • For effective intervention, parents and professionals should consider the following:
    • 1. A curriculum which addresses deficit areasDeficit areas include: Inability toattend to relevant aspects of theenvironment, to shift attention, and toimitate language and the actions ofothers;
    • 2. Difficulty in social interactions;

22. Intervention (cont.)

  • 3. Difficulty with language comprehension and use, and functional communication
  • 4. Programs that focus on routines, schedules, and predictability
  • 5. Coordinated transitions between early intervention/preschool programs, and kindergarten environments

23. Intervention (cont.)

  • 6. Family involvement, including coordination between home and involved professionals, an in-home training component, and family training and support
  • (Autism Society of America, 2000)

24. Treatment Options

  • There is no one symptom or behavior that identifies individuals with ASD which leads to having no single treatment that will be effective for all people on the spectrum
  • Treatment must begin as early as possible and be tailored to the child's unique strengths, weaknesses and needs.
  • Treatments may be obtained through either the medical or educational community, depending on the nature of the treatment

25. Medical Treatment

  • There are no drugs, vitamins or special diets that can correct underlying neurological problems associated with autism
  • Changes to diet and the addition of certain vitamins or minerals may also help with behavioral issues that occur with Autism
  • Stimulants, such as Ritalin, Adderall and Dexedrine, used to treat hyperactivity in children with ADHD have also been prescribed for children with ASD due to the behavior problems that are common in children with ADHD
  • (Autism Society of America, 2000)

26. Aspergers Syndrome 27. Aspergers Syndrome

  • Children with Asperger syndrome do not show clinically significant general delay in language, nor do they show significant delay in cognitive development