Feb 25, 2016
Unit 5- States of Consciousness
Psychoactive Drugs, Hypnosis, & MeditationArtificial States of Consciousness
Essential QuestionsWhat is hypnosis?What are the techniques used in hypnosis?What is meditation?
HypnosisHypnosissocial interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occura relaxed state
HypnosisState of awarenessHighly focused attentionIncreased responsiveness to suggestionVivid imageryWillingness to accept distortions of logicAlteration of sensation and perceptionTechniquesEye fixationProgressive relaxation and imageryClick on http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9CxM7a6CbyIComponents of HypnosisHypnotic Suggestibility related to subjects openness to suggestionability to focus attention inwardlyability to become imaginatively absorbed
Posthypnotic Amnesiasupposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosisinduced by the hypnotists suggestion
Posthypnotic Suggestionsuggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotizedused by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors
HypermnesiaThe supposed enhancement of a persons memory for past events through a hypnotic suggestion
Possible effects of hypnosis?Recall forgotten events?Age regression therapy (the ability to re-live childhood memories)effective?Alleviate pain?Dissociation = split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
Possible effects of hypnosis?Reduce pain Reduce stressImprove concentration and motivationModify behavior in eating disordersSuppress the gag reflex (dentist)Eliminate recurring nightmares.much more!
Do you think you can be hypnotized?Lets answer the questionnaire can you be hypnotized Do you think you can be hypnotized?Imagine you are holding in your hand a lemon. A bright yellow lemon with shiny, puckered skin. Now imagine bring the lemon up to your mouth and bite right down into it, sucking in all the juices.
Hypnosis? Can you be hypnotized against your will?Can hypnosis force people to act against their will?AwarenessMorals, religion , self-preservationBut keep in mind: an authoritative person in a legitimate context can induce people, hypnotized or not, to perform some unlikely acts
Check for understanding3. How can altering your state of conscious be positive?4. How can it be negative?5. How could meditation or hypnosis be useful in your life? Be specific.Lets watch some fun with hypnosisThis may or may not be for real. It is funny non-the lesshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RDt6G6UlN2UMeditationHow to meditateLets watch a how to video on how to meditatehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F6eFFCi12v8MeditationSustained concentration techniques that focuses attention and heightens awarenessLowered physiological arousalPredominance of alpha brain waves
MeditationAll forms of meditation have the goal of controlling or retraining attentionTwo forms:Concentration techniques:Mantra (focus)Opening-Up/Mindfulness techniques:Quiet awareness of the here and now
Check for understanding1. What are the goals for each of these techniques? Compare and contrast.2. How do these techniques affect our consciousness?Psychoactive DrugsEssential QuestionsHow do psychoactive drugs affect consciousness?How are drugs classified?How does culture and our environment influence drug use?
Drug-Altered ConsciousnessPsychoactive Drugs- change moods and perceptions
Common PropertiesPhysical dependenceToleranceWithdrawal symptomsDrug rebound effectDrug Abuse / Substance Abuse
Recurrent substance use that results in disruption of academic, social or occupational functioning or in legal or psychological problemsAddictionthe state of being enslaved to a habit or practice or to something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming, as narcotics, to such an extent that its cessation causes severe trauma.
Addiction ExamplesDrugs SexGamblingEatingAlcoholTobacco
Psychoactive DrugsCommon Properties:Physical dependenceToleranceWithdrawal symptomsDrug rebound effect
Physical DependenceA condition in which a person has physically adapted to a drug so that he or she must take the drug regularly in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms
ToleranceIncreasing amounts of a physically addictive drug are needed to produce the original, desired effectExamples?
SmallLargeDrug doseLittleeffectBigeffectDrugeffectResponse tofirst exposureAfter repeatedexposure, moredrug is neededto produce same effectWithdrawal Symptoms Unpleasant physical reactions, combined with intense drug cravings
Occur when abstaining from a drug when physically dependent
Rebound EffectsWithdrawal symptoms are opposite to the drugs actionbackfires Examples?
How do we categorize drugs?Depressants - inhibit brain activity, slow body functionOpiates chemically similar to morphine, pain relief and euphoria, mimic the brains endorphinsStimulants - increase brain activity, speed up body function, produce feelings of optimism and boundless energyPsychedelics - distort sensory perceptions
Psychoactive Drugs - SummaryDepressantsinhibit brain activityOpiatespain relief and euphoriaStimulantsincrease brain activityPsychedelicsdistort sensory perceptions
Barbiturates- sedation medsTranquilizers - Valium
drugs that reduce neural activity Slow body function
What they doAlcoholCNS depressantBarbituratesinduce sleepTranquilizersrelieve anxietyAlcohol - DepressantAlcohol- widely used, abuse commonWhy people take initial high followed by relaxation and disinhibitionProblems depression, memory loss, organ damage, impaired reactions
44DiscPsy p.153Video on Alcoholhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xH97OBRwC-AOpiatesChemically similar to morphine and have strong pain-relieving properties
Mimic the brains endorphinsHeroin, methadonePercodan, Demerol
Pain Killers/OpiatesOpiates- mostly illegal, produce euphoria alters the brains reaction to pain
Heroin - OpiatesHeroin most frequently abused opiatesWhy people take Rush of euphoria, relief from painProblems depressed physiology, agonizing withdrawalStimulantsCaffeineNicotineAmphetaminesCocaine
Stimulant induced psychosisStimulantsdrugs that excite neural activity speed up body function
produce feelings of optimism and boundless energy, arouse behavior, and increase mental awareness; stimulates the cerebral cortexCaffeine - StimulantCaffeine- widely used, addictiveWhy people take increased alertness and wakefulnessProblems Anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia in high doses; uncomfortable withdrawal
Nicotine - StimulantNicotine- widely used, addictiveWhy people take arousal and relaxation, sense of well-beingProblems heart disease, cancer, respiratory problemsMethamphetamine - StimulantMeth- addictiveWhy people take Euphoria, alertness, energyProblems irritablity, insomnia, hypertension, seizuresVideo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bVEulrvBwsA&feature=relatedMeth Mouth Constant use leads to this
This good news is your father stopped smoking. The bad news, howeverCocaine - StimulantCocaine- widely used, addictiveWhy people take Rush of Euphoria, confidence, energyProblems cardiovascular stress, suspiciousness, depressive crash
IE. CocaineCocaine blocks the reuptake of dopamine (pleasure), norepinephrine (energy), and serotonin (arousal), so the feelings generated by those neurotransmitters intensifies as they linger in the synapse longerPsychedelicsCreate perceptual distortionsMescalineLSDMarijuanaFlashback reactions and psychotic episodesPsychedelics/Hallucinogenspsychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory inputLSD- psychotic state similarityMarijuana- cannabis plant, THC similar to LSDMescalinePeyote
Marijuana - hallucinogenMarijuana- most abused Why people take enhanced sensation, pain relief, distortion of time, relaxationProblems lowered sex hormones, memory, lung damage from smokeWhy is marijuana considered a hallucinogen?It relaxes, disinhibits, and may cause a euphoric high like alcohol, but it may also amplify sensitivity to colors, sounds, tastes, and smellsClub DrugsEcstasy (MDMA)feelings of euphoria, increased well-beingSide effectsdehydration, hyperthermia, tremor, rapid heartbeatDissociative anestheticsinclude PCP and Ketamine; deaden pain, produce stupor or coma, may induce hallucinations
Drug Type Pleasurable Effects Adverse Effects
Alcohol Depressant Initial high followed by Depression, memory loss, organ relaxation and disinhibition damage, impaired reactions
Heroin Depressant Rush of euphoria, relief from Depressed physiology, pain agonizing withdrawal
Caffeine Stimulant Increased alertness and Anxiety, restlessness, and wakefulness insomnia in high doses; uncomfortable withdrawal
Metham- Stimulant Euphoria, alertness, energy Irritability, insomnia, phetamine hypertension, seizures
Cocaine Stimulant Rush of euphoria, confidence, Cardiovascular stress, energy suspiciousness, depressive crash
Nicotine Stimulant Arousal and relaxation, sense Heart disease, cancer (from of well-being tars)
Marijuana Mild Enhanced sensation, pain relief Lowered sex hormones, hallucinogen distortion of time, relaxation memory, lung damage from smokeDo I Have a Drug Problem?Dependence = exhibiting 3 of the following 7 symptoms over a 12-month period of time:Developing toleranceExperiencing withdrawal symptoms when attempting to stopUsing a substance for a longer period, or in greater quantities, than originally intendedMaking repeated attempts to stop or cut-back on drug usage
Do I have a drug problem?Devoting a great deal of time attempting to obtain or use a substanceGiving up or reducing social, occupational, or recreational activities as a result of drug useContinuing to use a substance even after negative physical or psychological effects have occurred, or will continue to occur with usage
Before drug useAfter drug use
Before drug useAfter drug use
Before drug useAfter drug use
Before drug useAfter drug use