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Articles of Confederation. Many new state constitutions and the Articles of Confederation, reflecting republican fears of both centralized power and excessive

Dec 13, 2015

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Articles of Confederation Slide 2 Many new state constitutions and the Articles of Confederation, reflecting republican fears of both centralized power and excessive popular influence, placed power in the hands of the legislative branch and maintained property qualifications for voting and citizenship Slide 3 Chapter 9 Study Guide, Questions I.5 and I.6 5. What was the noteworthy innovation that Massachusetts contributed? Why was it important? 6. What features did many of the new state constitutions have in common? In what ways were these new constitutions influenced by the struggle with Great Britain? Slide 4 NJ Constitution 1776 Governor, Legislative Council and General Assembly Qualifications for office For Legislative Council- worth one thousand pounds proclamation money, in real and personal estate For Assembly- worth five hundred pounds proclamation money, in real and personal estate Qualifications for voting all inhabitants of this Colony, of full age, who are worth fifty pounds proclamation money Slide 5 No established religion No religious discrimination for holding office as long as Protestant Slide 6 The Articles of Confederation Problems? Ch.9 Study Guide (pp.160-169), questions II.1, II.3 Positive Aspects? Ch.9 Study Guide Slide 7 Approved by the Continental Congress in 1777 Not formally ratified until 1781 Conflicts over western lands delayed ratification Slide 8 Ch.9 Study Guide, Questions II.2 What was the disagreement over western lands? What agreement was reached? What were its long-term benefits to the nation? Slide 9 -six states had no holdings beyond the Allegheny Mountains. Seven had large claims. The six states argued that the others should not have exclusive access to these lands since they had all fought for them. The states with the land would be able to sell it and pay off their war debts. Slide 10 Congress pledged to dispose of the lands for the common benefit. New states would be created and would eventually be admitted to the union as equals. This pledge was fulfilled as the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Slide 11 Preamble Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts-bay Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. Slide 12 Article II Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled. Significance? Slide 13 State Power coined their own money raised armies and navies erected tariff barriers Slide 14 How democratic were the Articles of Confederation? Discuss with partners and look for specific aspects of Articles Slide 15 Weaknesses each state had one vote (making all states equal despite population) all bills dealing with subjects of importance require the support of nine states amendments required unanimous ratification Congress was designed to be weak no power to collect taxes and no power to regulate commerce Slide 16 Shays Rebellion -state governments face difficult fiscal conditions. Were in debt because of the war. -paper money was worth less -Massachusetts raised taxes to pay off war debts -farmers attempted to close the courts to prevent foreclosures -Shays and his men saw themselves as Patriots Slide 17 Quotes Read quotes Place in context Analyze point of view To what larger issues/questions/themes do they relate? Slide 18 Shays Rebellion Slide 19 A More Nuanced View of the Articles The Articles are often viewed as a failure, but is this fair and/or accurate? What were they designed to do? Did they succeed in this task and, if so, to what extent? What were the issues facing the new nation? How well did the Articles address these issues? Slide 20 2003 FRQ -Evaluate the extent to which the Articles of Confederation were effective in solving the problems that confronted the new nation. DBQ - From 1781 to 1789 the Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an effective government. Using the documents and your knowledge of the period, evaluate this statement. Slide 21 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION Slide 22 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFDERATION From 1781 to 1789 the Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an effective government. Using the documents and your knowledge of the period, evaluate this statement. **WHAT IS THE QUESTION ASKING? WHAT IS THE KEY TO WRITING THIS DBQ? Slide 23 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION Essay Prompt: The prompt makes the statement that the Articles provided an effective government from 1781 to 1789. It asks you to evaluate the statement. KEY: What constitutes an effective government? What is an ineffective government? How do we define effective ? Slide 24 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION How do we define effective? For most people it means strong. But if the government was having trouble getting its own way during the 1780s, then it was not effective. IS THERE ANOTHER WAY TO LOOK AT EFFECTIVE? Slide 25 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION This poses another question: Was the central government able to provide the US with the kind of government the people wanted? If we answer yes, then the government under the Articles was effective. Did the Congress intentionally set up a weak government under the Articles? Slide 26 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION Yes, they did! Why? Having learned hard lessons of a strong govt., under the British, the Congress intentionally set up a weak one under the Articles, in hopes that such a government would be less threatening to their rights and liberties. So was it an effective government? Slide 27 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION Effective in this sense means protective of individual rights and liberties, and we need to see at least the possibility that this definition may be compatible with (or even require) a weak national government. If effective means the ability to tax, then no the govt., was ineffective. Any other ways it can be seen as effective or ineffective? Slide 28 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION NEXT STEP: WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE 1780s? War and revolution still going on. A peace treaty needed to be negotiated. Hostile foreign powers to be confronted. Interstate land disputes had to be settled. Trade and business had to be rejuvenated. Native Americans had to be dealt with. The Constitutional Convention Slide 29 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION? Slide 30 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION First written Const. Ratified in 1777. 13 states retained sovereignty. Firm League of Friendship. Poorly written. Central govt. could not levy taxes. Central govt., could negotiate treaties. Unicameral legislature. No executive. 9 of 13 votes needed to pass legislation. 13 votes needed for any changes. Land Ordinances. Shays s Rebellion Slide 31 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION CAN WE WRITE A THESIS STATEMENT FOR ALL THIS INFORMATION? Remember you should write your thesis before reading the documents. THE THESIS IS ALL YOURS! NOW WE CAN READ THE DOCUMENTS. Slide 32 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION DOCUMENT A: Source: Rhode Island Assembly. RI refuses to go along with a protective tariff. Under the Articles the central govt., could not levy taxes. Changing this required all 13 votes. Because RI refused the tariff did not go through. Is this an effective government? Ineffective? Slide 33 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION DOCUMENT B: Source: Chart The chart shows exports to GB between 1770 and 1792 (any significance to this timeframe?). A strong govt., would promote exports. Does the chart show this? Slide 34 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION DOCUMENT B: 1784 exports declined from their pre-war high and rose slightly between 1784 and 1789. What the chart does not show is trade with non-British countries and territories. WHAT CAN WE CONCLUDE? Slide 35 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION DOCUMENT B: Remember the states no longer were confined by the rules of mercantilism. So it is at least possible that foreign trade improved between 1784 and 1789. The first years under the new Constitution do not exactly show a boom in foreign trade (1787-1792). Slide 36 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION DOCUMENT C: Source: Joseph Jones letter to GW (outside info?) Letter warns of the implications of the national govt s failure to pay its troops. Effective government? Slide 37 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION DOCUMENT D: Source: John Jay letter to US Minister in GB (outside info? Is the date 1785 important?) Document should remind you that GB had not vacated its forts on the frontier as required by the Treaty of Paris of 1783. There was a real fear that GB was not willing to accept the verdict of the Treaty as final and were plotting a return, (DID THEY RETURN?) Slide 38 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION DOCUMENT D: Jay deals with this issue as well as the issue of GB s exclusion of American trade from the empire and with British demands that American merchants pay their pre-war debts. EFFECTIVE GOVERNMENT? ANY CONNCECTIONS TO OTHER DOCUMENTS? Slide 39 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION DOCUMENT E: Source: Map of Northwest Ordinance of 1787 At first glance, the map shows a host of internal disputes. Outside info: These disputes were solved peacefully, that a plan for territories to achieve statehood was put into effect, and that slavery was abolished/banned in the territories. EFFECTIVE GOVERNMENT? Slide 40 THE DBQ: THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION DOCUMENT F: Source: John Jay s speech to Congress on negotiations with Spain (Jay s Treaty) Shows Jay giving into foreign pressures and proposing that Congress ratify the treaty and give up navigati

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