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Dec 31, 2015
Articles of Confederation and Constitutional ConventionMac 2008-09
Jay-Gardoqui Treaty, 1786Land Ordinance of 1785Northwest Ordinance, 1787Daniel Shays, 1787Annapolis ConventionThe Constitution of the United StatesArticle IArticle IIArticle IIIBill of RightsRatificationGreat CompromiseThree-fifths CompromiseFederalismSeparation of powers Checks and balancesPopular SovereigntyCivilian Control of MilitaryPreambleImpeachmentElastic clauseWrit of habeas corpusEx post facto law Electoral collegeJudicial reviewAlexander HamiltonFederalist PapersFederalistsFirst Congress- What did they do?RepublicansFundingAssumptionBank of the United States Whiskey Tax, 1791"Report on Manufacturers"James MadisonNeutrality Proclamation, 1793Citizen GenetJay Treaty, 1794Pinckney Treaty, 1795John AdamsFarewell Address, 1796XYZ Affair, 1797Barbary PiratesAlien and Sedition Acts, 1798Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 1798
QuizList things students should know about the Following:Northwest OrdinanceGreat CompromiseIssue of Slavery in the Constitution-One part of the Constitution that directly addresses the Anti-federalist position
History of the Articles2nd Continental CongressAfter Declaration of IndependenceColonies began to operate independentlyNow called StatesWrote ConstitutionsEmbraced Republican forms of Government
Created National government for all the statesWeakDecentralized systemLimited Powers
What is the single most significant factor of a Confederation?Weak Central GovernmentA loose alignment of independent states Voluntary!!!
See George Washington reading168-69Cite three examples of Washingtons criticisms.
Articles of Confederation 1781-1789 Confederation Congress (only institution of National authority)Powers under ConfederationConduct WarForeign relations= treatiesAppropriate, borrow, issue moneyDid not have power:Regulate tradeDraft troopsLevy taxes directly on peopleHad to ask states for taxes and troopsNo separate executives
Measures passed by Congress had to be approved by 9 of the 13 states. Very Difficult to change or amend the Articles= 13 states had to agree
Northwest Ordinances1790 120,000 in OhioEastern states had to relinquish claims to western lands 1785 Ordinance created system for surveying and selling western landsGrid Pattern rectangular townships36 sections, includes public school requirement1787 OrdinanceNorthwest Territory 3-5 states60K entering the unionFreedom of ReligionRights to Trial by JuryProhibited SlaveryOutlaws slavery North of the Ohio River
Northwest TerritoryThe ordinance organized the territory into a grid pattern for townships.
Confederation ProblemsCongress was severely limited in its powers. It could not raise money by collecting taxes; it had no control over foreign commerce; it could pass laws but could not force the states to comply with them. Thus, the government was dependent on the willingness of the various states to carry out its measures, and often the states refused to cooperate. The articles were virtually impossible to amend, so problems could not be corrected.
Many Segments of Society disliked conditions under the ConfederationManufacturers- each state had tariffs and wanted National tariffMerchants- wanted National business regulation vs statesNeeded strong national banking system instead of each state currencyLand speculators- wanted Indians outLarge property owners wanted protection for property
Shays RebellionMassachusetts 1786-87Tax protest turns violentPoor farmers couldnt pay taxesAsked for redressTook up arms and were suppressedshowed problems with the MobLeaders were afraid of Anarchy and more support for revising of Articles of Confederation
Annapolis ConventionPrecursor to the Philadelphia ConventionMadison calls this5 States
Few delegates attend
Philadelphia ConventionMany delegates/leaders gather to revise the Articles of ConfederationWashington, Franklin, Hamilton, MadisonDecide to make the discussions secretImmediately decide to start over the process of organizing a national or central government
Virginia and New Jersey Plans
Questions to be AnsweredWhat about Slaves and taxes/representationand the institution of Slavery?
Great CompromiseHouse of Representatives:Representation determined by population-more people more repsLarge states get more reps/powerSenate-Each state gets 2 SenatorsBenefits small states
Great Compromise and SlaveryVery Divisive issueSouthern States threaten ratification if Slavery is touched.20 year moratorium on addressing Slavery Trade See article I Section 93/5ths Compromise- Slave populations will count for representation-5 slaves=3 people (I 2.3)
Constitutiondoes NOT Address citizenshipAddress political parties
DoesRegulate CommerceControl CurrencyPass all laws Necessary and Proper (Elastic Clause)Have power to coerce statesSeparation of PowersExecutiveJudicialLegislative
Checks and Balances
See Constitution PPT.Thus I consent Sir, to this Constitution, because I expect no better, and because I am not sure it is not the best. B FranklinNot everyone agreed to the Constitution Ratification State conventions were then called and the DEBATE began.Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
Anti-FederalistPatrick Henry, George Mason, Lee, Sam AdamsWere against the ConstitutionDid not want strong Federal GovernmentFeared possibility of dictatorshipWanted to protect individual rights Wanted to protect States Rights
Problems with Constitution:Want Bill of RightsNo Government can be trusted to protect liberties of its citizens.The only way to protect liberties is to enumerate the natural rights of the peopleInsisted on a Bill of Rights
Mercy Otis WarrenWoman Anti-FederalistPlaywright
Ratification BattleEvery state held special ratifying conventionsVirginia and NY were close
NY, VA, and MA ratified based on the approval of a Bill of Rights
The Constitution is RatifiedDecember 7, 1787 Delaware is the first state to ratify the ConstitutionPennsylvania December 12 New Jersey Dec. 18Georgia January 2, 1788Connecticut Jan. 9Massachusetts Feb. 7Maryland April 28South Carolina May 23New Hampshire, June 21 (9th state to ratify Constitution goes into effect)