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ARE History Synopsis

Mar 14, 2016

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architecture history document for the ARE exams

  • Construction materials of ancient world Egypt: Stone, sun dried bricks. Known for the post-and-beam. Greek: marble and timber. Roman: marbles, terra cotta, volcanic stone, Pozzolana cement.

    Identify various parts of classical entablature (Cornice, Frieze, Architrave), Shaft, base, column, pedestal.

    Doric: simple, direct, perfect relation of parts, and most widely used. Ionic: slender, having a volute or scroll capital, and an individual base. Corinthian: acanthus leaves on capital, used sparingly, and later the favorite of the Romans. Note: Columns are measured in a ratio. The ratio is the diameter of the shaft at its base compared to the height of the column. As a result, a column can be described as seven diameters high. Sometimes this is given as seven lower diameters high, in order to make sure which part of the shaft has been measured.

    Parthenon: Athens: Ictinus & Callicrates Example of the Doric order

    Pantheon, Rome-

    The only natural light enters through an unglazed oculus at the center of the dome and through the bronze doors to the portico. The portico consists of three rows of eight columns, of Egyptian granite with Corinthian capitals. They support an entablature facing the square, which bears the famous inscription in Latin, attributing the construction to Agrippa, although the extant temple was rebuilt later by Hadrian.

  • 1546-1590 St. Peter's church Rome Giacomo della Porta St. Peter's, the most magnificent church in Christendom and the fruit of many talents, soars triumphantly above the Vatican Hill. For nearly 150 years, a succession of popes entertained the idea of glorifying the shrine of their patron saint.

    1675- 1710 Saint Paul's Cathedral- London Sir Christopher Wren St. Paul's, the largest cathedral in England, is Wren's masterpiece. With it, he brought a repertoire of new forms (the dome, for example) and architectural combinations into English architecture. The building is something of an encyclopedia of Wren's impressions of the architecture of the continent... Wren fashioned the facade of St. Paul's with two tiers of paired Corinthian columns like those of the Louvre and framed them between towers inspired by those of Borromini's Roman church of S. Agnese. Above the two-story base rises a tremendous peripteral dome that reinterprets Bramante's Tempietto of 1502. Pietro da Cortona's projecting curved porches of Santa Maria della Pace have become St. Paul's transept porches.

    1865-1877 Galleria Vittorio Emanuele (La Galleria) Milan Giuseppe Mengoni Two intersecting streets make a cruciform plan with domed octagon at center. Glass-roofed arcade with shops and cafes - an early formal covered street.

  • 1851 Crystal Palace London Sir Joseph Paxton

    Designed for the great exhibition of 1851, a giant Conservatory, incorporated pre-fabricated components Which facilitated a construction time of only 9 months. It was of the first building made of cast iron, glass panels, And prefabricated components. This building is the Precedent for most high-tech architecture which uses Of-the-shelf pre-manufactured components.

    1880 Galerie des Machines - Paris

    1886 1890 Auditorium Building Chicago Louis H. Sullivan

    The Auditorium was built for a syndicate of businessmen to house a large civic opera house; to provide an economic base it was decided to wrap the auditorium with a hotel and office block. Hence Adler & Sullivan had to plan a complex multiple- use building. Fronting on Michigan Avenue, overlooking the lake, was the hotel (now Roosevelt University) while the offices were placed to the west on Wabash Avenue. The rest of the building is a uniform ten stories, organized in the same way as Richardson's Marshall Field Wholesale Store. The interior embellishment, however, is wholly Sullivan's, and some of the details, because of their continuous curvilinear foliate motifs, are among the nearest equivalents to European Art Nouveau architecture. At ten stories, the structure was load-bearing walls supported by Spread foundation. Its completion coincides with the rise in Popularity of steel frame construction foe tall building.

  • 1906 Unity Temple Illinois Frank Lloyd Wright It was a revolutionary building in more than its treatment of materials: The temple was one of the earliest cast in place concrete buildings in the united states in which the buildings surface is also the building structure, its interior designs based on rectangles, squares and planes coinciding and reacting with each other was of considerable importance to the Dutch 'de Stijl' movement; its servicing systems were among the most advanced in the world, with hot-air heating integrated in the structure.

    1909 Robie Residence Illinois Frank Lloyd Wright The Robie house, Prairie masonry structure, is a national landmark, Sheathed in Roman brick and overhung so perfectly that a midsummer noon sun barely strikes the foot of the long, glass-walled southern exposure of the raised above-ground-level living quarters, it demonstrates Wright's total control and appreciation of microclimatic effects. This is coupled with a high degree of integration of the mechanical and electrical systems designed by Wright into the visual expression of the interior. Long overhangs on low-pitched roofs and horizontally raked brick joints.

  • Perret explored the potential of reinforced Concrete in common building types.

  • 1925 BAUHAUS DESSAU WALTER GROPIUS

    Gropius not only designed Bauhaus, but was the director of the school until 1928. The philosophy of this workshop-based design school was that student should be trained as both artists and craftsmen.

    Fullers example of a mass produced residential architecture

  • 1882-1926 Sagrada Familia Barcelona Antoni Gaudi The neo gothic style made way for Gaud's trademark modernist style, which was based on forms found in nature. When he died in 1926 only one facade (the nativity facade), one tower, the apse and the crypt were finished. Because Gaud was constantly improvising and changing the design while construction was going on, he left few designs and models. And most of these were destroyed during the civil war in 1936.

    1905-1907 Casa Batllo Barcelona Antoni Gaudi Mighty pillars that appear to resemble the feet of some giant elephant are the first thing to meet the eye of the passerby from street level. The roof reminds him of a completely different animal: it is bordered by a jagged line similar to the backbone of a gigantic dinosaur. A faade extends between the two, including a number of small, elegantly curved balconies that seem to stick to the front of the house like birds' nests on the face of the cliff. The facade itself glitters in numerous colours, and small round plates that look like fish scales are let into it. There are no edges or corners here; even the walls are rounded in undulations and have in essence the feel of the smooth skin of a sea serpent about the

  • 1905-1910 Casa Mila Barcelona Antoni Gaudi Expressionistic, fantastic, organic forms in undulating facade and roof line. light court.The wavy facade, with its large pores, reminds one also of an undulating beach of fine sand, formed, for example, by a receding dune. The honeycombs made by industrious bees might also spring to the mind of the observer viewing the snake-like ups-and-downs that run through the whole bulding. In this last secular building which he constructed before devoting all his energies to the Sagrada Familia, Gaudi created a paradox: an artificial but natural building which was simultaneously a summary of all the forms that he has since become famous for. The roof sports an imitation of the bench from Guell Park as well as an ever more impressive series of bizarre chimney stacks.

    1930s Usonian Houses Frank Lloyd Wright In 1936, when the United States was in the depths of an economic depression, American architect Frank Lloyd Wright developed a series of homes he called Usonian. Designed to control costs, Wright's Usonian houses had no attics, no basements, and little ornamentation. The word Usonia is an abbreviation for United States of North America. Frank Lloyd Wright aspired to create a democratic, distinctly American style that was affordable for the "common people."

    Lloyds example of a mass produced residential architecture

  • 1946-1952 Unite d'Habitation Marseilles Le Corbusier

  • This type of structure is called Lamella roof- A framework for Forming domed or arched surfaces, typically roof structures. It consists of two sets of parallel arches that intersects to form A grid in plan. Advantages include: repetition of like elements Joint details, the ability to span great distances, can be made of Wood, steel or concrete.

  • 1949 Johnson House The Glass House New Caanan Philip Johnson

  • Palace of Assembly

    Chandigarh, the capital city of Punjab built in 1953. Planned as a living organism and based on four major functions; living, working, care of the body and spirit, and circulation, the city was built largely of unfinished concrete and exposed brick.

  • 1959-1963 Art and Architecture Building New Haven Paul Rudolph

  • Safdies example of a mass produced residential architecture

  • 1974-1976 Sears Tower Chicago SOM

  • 1977 CENTER POMPIDOU PARIS PIANO & ROGERS

    The Six-level megastructure, called also Place Beaubourg, was created as the result of an international design competition. Perhaps the most sensational example of high technology architecture. In this center for art and culture, the architects created universal spaces wit