Archwire Materials And Archwire Materials And
Application Of Newer Materials Application Of Newer Materials
in Begg Appliance.in Begg Appliance.
IntroductionIntroduction Advancements in orthodontic materials have Advancements in orthodontic materials have
been progressing by leaps and bounds.been progressing by leaps and bounds. Plethora of archwires varying widely – Plethora of archwires varying widely –
material, geometry, configuration, material, geometry, configuration,
manufacturing process and physical properties.manufacturing process and physical properties. Lack of an ideal archwire – clinician – select Lack of an ideal archwire – clinician – select
the best – for the intended usethe best – for the intended use..
Evolution of Archwire MaterialsEvolution of Archwire Materials Availability of archwire materials – determined Availability of archwire materials – determined
mechanotherapy.mechanotherapy. Requirements changes initial stages to finish.Requirements changes initial stages to finish. Variable cross section Orthodontics,Variable cross section Orthodontics,
Prior to 70’s – only gold & SS – availablePrior to 70’s – only gold & SS – available Difft. Requirements met – changing cross section –Difft. Requirements met – changing cross section –
& geometry.& geometry.
Variable Modulus OrthodonticsVariable Modulus Orthodontics.. Varying modulus of elasticity.Varying modulus of elasticity.
TMA , Nitinol etc.TMA , Nitinol etc.
Lower moduli – initial stages and higher – finish.Lower moduli – initial stages and higher – finish.
Varying Transformation Temperature Varying Transformation Temperature
Orthodontics.Orthodontics. NiTi archwires – super elastic & thermodynamic.NiTi archwires – super elastic & thermodynamic.
Cu NiTi & Neosentalloy.Cu NiTi & Neosentalloy.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Desirable Properties of ArchwireDesirable Properties of Archwire
Deflection ( Strain)
Yield StrengthUltimate Tensile Strength
Spring back.( Range of Activation or Working Spring back.( Range of Activation or Working range)range) Measure of how far a material can be deformed Measure of how far a material can be deformed
without exceeding the limits of the material.without exceeding the limits of the material. Related to Related to Y.SY.S EE Higher spring back – large activations – increase Higher spring back – large activations – increase
in working time of appl.in working time of appl.
Stiffness ( Load Deflection Rate ).Stiffness ( Load Deflection Rate ). Measure of resistance to any kind of mechanical Measure of resistance to any kind of mechanical
Proportional to Modulus of ElasticityProportional to Modulus of Elasticity..
Low stiffness or LDR provideLow stiffness or LDR provide Ability to apply lower forcesAbility to apply lower forces
A more constant forceA more constant force
Greater ease & accuracy in applying a given force.Greater ease & accuracy in applying a given force.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Strength. Strength. It is the measure of the max. possible load, the It is the measure of the max. possible load, the
greatest force which the wire or arch arrangement greatest force which the wire or arch arrangement
can sustain or deliver if it is loaded to the limit of can sustain or deliver if it is loaded to the limit of
the material.the material.
Formability.Formability. Ability to bend a wire into desired configurations Ability to bend a wire into desired configurations
without failure.without failure.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Modulus of Resilience or Stored energy.Modulus of Resilience or Stored energy. Work available to move the teeth.Work available to move the teeth. Area – elastic portion of the stress- strain curveArea – elastic portion of the stress- strain curve..
Bio compatibility & Environmental stability.Bio compatibility & Environmental stability. Resistance to corrosion and tissue tolerance to Resistance to corrosion and tissue tolerance to
elements in the wire.elements in the wire. Maintenance of desirable properties for extended Maintenance of desirable properties for extended
periods after manufacture.periods after manufacture.
Poor Biohostability.Poor Biohostability. Neither actively nurture nor passively act as a Neither actively nurture nor passively act as a
substrate for microorganisms.substrate for microorganisms. Cause foul smellCause foul smell Color changes – detract from esthetics.Color changes – detract from esthetics. Remove or build up material – compromise mech propRemove or build up material – compromise mech prop..
Joinability.Joinability. Permit welding and solderingPermit welding and soldering
Friction,Friction, Excessive amountExcessive amount
Loss of anchorageLoss of anchorage
Less tooth movementLess tooth movement..
Esthetics.Esthetics. Color stabilityColor stability
Non Ferromagnetic.Non Ferromagnetic.
Based on material constituent: Based on material constituent: Metal Metal Non metalNon metal Metals.Metals. Gold Alloys.Gold Alloys. Stainless Steel.Stainless Steel. Cobalt – Chromium Alloys.Cobalt – Chromium Alloys. Nickel- Titanium AlloysNickel- Titanium Alloys
NiTinolNiTinol Chinese Ni TiChinese Ni Ti Japanese Ni TiJapanese Ni Ti Niobium TiNiobium Ti Copper NiTiCopper NiTi Cv NiTiCv NiTi
Beta TiBeta Ti
Alpha TiAlpha Ti
Non Metals.Non Metals.
Polymeric materials.Polymeric materials.
Composite / Coated Archwires.Composite / Coated Archwires. Optiflex.Optiflex.
Gold Alloys.Gold Alloys.
Pure gold – too soft for orthodontic purpose.Pure gold – too soft for orthodontic purpose.
Initial round wire, Begg - .020 platinised gold.Initial round wire, Begg - .020 platinised gold.
Hardened – cold working or hardening heat trt.Hardened – cold working or hardening heat trt.
Marginal properties & price – obsolete.Marginal properties & price – obsolete.
Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Developed b/w 1903 & 1921Developed b/w 1903 & 1921 Harry Brearley of Sheffield, F.M. Beckett of the Harry Brearley of Sheffield, F.M. Beckett of the
U.S, Edward Maurer of GermanyU.S, Edward Maurer of Germany.. 1933 – Archie Brusse presented table clinic – 11933 – Archie Brusse presented table clinic – 1stst
Stainless Steel Appliance system.Stainless Steel Appliance system. Displaced Gold alloys.Displaced Gold alloys. SS wires - work horse of the orthodontic SS wires - work horse of the orthodontic
industry for generationsindustry for generationswww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Composition.Composition. Steels – iron based alloys – contains Steels – iron based alloys – contains < 1.2% C< 1.2% C
SS Cr. ( 12 – 30%) + steel.SS Cr. ( 12 – 30%) + steel.
Ferritic.Ferritic. Body Centered Cubic Str.Body Centered Cubic Str. AISI series 400.AISI series 400. Low sth. & not hardenable by heat trt.Low sth. & not hardenable by heat trt.
Martensitic.Martensitic. AISI series 400.AISI series 400. Body Centred Tetragonal Structure.Body Centred Tetragonal Structure. Strength & Hardness Strength & Hardness Corrosion Resistance & Ductility Corrosion Resistance & Ductility
Austenitic.Austenitic. Most corrosion resistantMost corrosion resistant.. AISI 302 basic type.AISI 302 basic type.
18% - Cr., 8% - Ni., 0.15% - 18% - Cr., 8% - Ni., 0.15% - C.C.
AISI 304 – C ltd to 0.08 %AISI 304 – C ltd to 0.08 % 302 & 304 18-8 SS302 & 304 18-8 SS 316 L - 316 L - <0.03 % C – <0.03 % C –
implants.implants. Str. – Face Centered CubicStr. – Face Centered Cubic..
A J Wilcock Archwires.A J Wilcock Archwires. Early 1940’s – acquainted – Mr. Arthur J Early 1940’s – acquainted – Mr. Arthur J
Wilcock.- Metallurgist – Whittlesea, Victoria.Wilcock.- Metallurgist – Whittlesea, Victoria. Years of research – Develop wire – objectives.Years of research – Develop wire – objectives.
Thin tensile wire – distribute force – optimal levelThin tensile wire – distribute force – optimal level Considerable period of time.Considerable period of time. Over long distances.Over long distances. Minimal loss of force intensity.Minimal loss of force intensity.
Initially 0.018 wire produced.Initially 0.018 wire produced. Dia. - progressively decreased to 0.014.Dia. - progressively decreased to 0.014.
Wilcock wires mainstay of Begg Technique.Wilcock wires mainstay of Begg Technique. Grades of wire used initially-Grades of wire used initially-
Special PlusSpecial Plus Extra Special plus – cases resistant to bite opening.Extra Special plus – cases resistant to bite opening.
1984 – A J Wilcock Jr. – request of Dr. 1984 – A J Wilcock Jr. – request of Dr. Mollenhauer of Australia – ultra high tensile Mollenhauer of Australia – ultra high tensile strength – round wirestrength – round wire Supreme gradeSupreme grade 0.010 & 0.0090.010 & 0.009
Pulse Straightening Vs Spinner Straightening.Pulse Straightening Vs Spinner Straightening. Spinner Straightening.Spinner Straightening.
Straightening resistant materials – cold drawn Straightening resistant materials – cold drawn condition.condition.
Wire pulled – rotating bronze rollersWire pulled – rotating bronze rollers Dis Adv.Dis Adv.
Resultant Deformation.Resultant Deformation. Decreased Yield stress valueDecreased Yield stress value.. Strain softened.Strain softened.
Pulse StraighteningPulse Straightening..
Pulsed in a special machine.Pulsed in a special machine.
High tensile wires – straightenedHigh tensile wires – straightened..
Lower dia. wires Lower dia. wires
Yield Strength – not altered.Yield Strength – not altered.
Surface – smoother finish.Surface – smoother finish.
Types of A J Wilcock Archwires.Types of A J Wilcock Archwires. Regular Grade.( Regular Grade.( Pink labelPink label ) )
Dia – 0.012 – 0.024Dia – 0.012 – 0.024 Regular plus (Regular plus (Green labelGreen label ) )
Dia – 0.012 – 0.020Dia – 0.012 – 0.020 Easily formed & excellent for general use & utlility wires.Easily formed & excellent for general use & utlility wires.
Special grade ( Special grade ( Blue labelBlue label ) ) Dia – 0.012 – 0.020.Dia – 0.012 – 0.020. 0.016 inch – initial stages.0.016 inch – initial stages.
Special Plus ( Special Plus ( Yellow labelYellow label ) ) Dia – 0.012 – 0.024Dia – 0.012 – 0.024
Premium ( Premium ( Purple labelPurple label ) ) Dia – 0.012 – 0.020.Dia – 0.012 – 0.020. Ideal for bite opening .Ideal for bite opening . Where high resiliency is requiredWhere high resiliency is required
Premium Plus ( Premium Plus ( GoldGold labellabel ). ). Size – 0.010 – 0.018Size – 0.010 – 0.018 In early trt. – alignment & levelling.In early trt. – alignment & levelling. Mollenhauer recommends – 0.011 wire – high angle Mollenhauer recommends – 0.011 wire – high angle
cases, undue molar extrusion.cases, undue molar extrusion. Supreme ( Supreme ( Biege labelBiege label ). ).
Size 0.008 – 0.011 Size 0.008 – 0.011 Unravelling crowded ant. teeth.Unravelling crowded ant. teeth. Boxed reciprocal torquing aux.Boxed reciprocal torquing aux. Mini uprighting springs.Mini uprighting springs. Aligning 2Aligning 2ndnd molars towards the end of stage II. molars towards the end of stage II.
Substituted Titanium Alloys.Substituted Titanium Alloys.
Ti – used as Structural metal – 1952Ti – used as Structural metal – 1952..
Became available – Orthodontics – 1970’s.Became available – Orthodontics – 1970’s.
Allotropy – Crystallographic change – 885°CAllotropy – Crystallographic change – 885°C.. Below 885°C – HCP or Below 885°C – HCP or αα lattice. lattice.
Above 885Above 885°C – BCC or °C – BCC or ββ lattice. lattice. Addn. of Molybdenum or Columbium stabilize this str. Addn. of Molybdenum or Columbium stabilize this str.
At room temp.At room temp.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Trends in SS Metallurgy.Trends in SS Metallurgy. Eliminate or minimize Nickel content.Eliminate or minimize Nickel content. Nearly Ni free SSNearly Ni free SS Steel Din 1.4456 – one of themSteel Din 1.4456 – one of them Composition:Composition:
15 – 18 % Cr.15 – 18 % Cr.3 – 4 % molybdenum.3 – 4 % molybdenum.10 – 14 % Manganese10 – 14 % Manganese0.9 % nitrogen – compensate for nickel.0.9 % nitrogen – compensate for nickel.
Trade names – Menzanium, Noninium.Trade names – Menzanium, Noninium.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Developed by William F Beuhler – Naval Developed by William F Beuhler – Naval
Ordinance laboratory – 1960.Ordinance laboratory – 1960.
1970 - Dr. George Andreasen recognized the 1970 - Dr. George Andreasen recognized the
potential of this alloy.potential of this alloy. Largely through his efforts and those of the Largely through his efforts and those of the
Unitek Company, the first nitinol alloy was Unitek Company, the first nitinol alloy was
marketed to orthodontists as Nitinol™. marketed to orthodontists as Nitinol™.
Nickel – Titanium alloysNickel – Titanium alloys
Andreasen – 2 types.Andreasen – 2 types. Elastic Nitinol.Elastic Nitinol. Thermal Nitinol.Thermal Nitinol.
Thermal Nitinol.Thermal Nitinol. 1:1 atomic ratio of Ni and Ti.1:1 atomic ratio of Ni and Ti. Ni – 55% , Ti – 45% Ni – 55% , Ti – 45% Co – 1.6% - brings TTR - 37°C.Co – 1.6% - brings TTR - 37°C. Unique feature – Shape Memory Phenomenon.Unique feature – Shape Memory Phenomenon.
Capability of a wire to return to a previously manufactured Capability of a wire to return to a previously manufactured shape when it is heated through its TTR.shape when it is heated through its TTR.
Martensitic Grain StructureMartensitic Grain Structurewww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Elastic Nitinol.Elastic Nitinol.
Alloy of Ni & Ti without Co,Alloy of Ni & Ti without Co,
Elasticity , FlexibilityElasticity , Flexibility
Lighter continuous forces.Lighter continuous forces.
Austenitic Grain Structure.Austenitic Grain Structure.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Classification ( Kusy )Classification ( Kusy ) Conventional Nitinol.Conventional Nitinol. Pseudoelastic Nitinol.Pseudoelastic Nitinol. Thermoelastic nitinol.Thermoelastic nitinol.
Conventional – Martensitic stabilized alloyConventional – Martensitic stabilized alloy Passive – SME suppressed – cold working during Passive – SME suppressed – cold working during
wire drawing - wire drawing - >8 – 10%.>8 – 10%. Attractive feature – Low Stiffness.Attractive feature – Low Stiffness. Limitation – lack of formability.Limitation – lack of formability.
Pseudoelastic Nitinol.Pseudoelastic Nitinol. Active.Active. Capable of undergoing anticipated phase Capable of undergoing anticipated phase
transformation.transformation. Undergo some form of SME + Superelastic.Undergo some form of SME + Superelastic. Two typesTwo types – –
Austenitic active alloyAustenitic active alloy Martensitic active alloy.Martensitic active alloy.
Austenitic Active alloy.Austenitic Active alloy. Martensite – low stiffness phase.( E = 31 -35 GPa)Martensite – low stiffness phase.( E = 31 -35 GPa) Austenite – high stiffness phase. ( E = 84 – 98 GPa)Austenite – high stiffness phase. ( E = 84 – 98 GPa)
On loading – Austenitic alloy – Stiffness 3x, On loading – Austenitic alloy – Stiffness 3x, conventional martensitic stabilised alloy.conventional martensitic stabilised alloy.
Plateau like area – Stress induced transformation – Plateau like area – Stress induced transformation – martensitic phase. + ve slope – stiffness martensitic phase. + ve slope – stiffness comparable to martensitic nitinol.comparable to martensitic nitinol.
Deactivation – reverse occurs.Deactivation – reverse occurs. 22ndnd Plateau – Martensite Austenite. Changes Plateau – Martensite Austenite. Changes
shape to maintain force-shape to maintain force- key attribute – Pseudoelasticity.key attribute – Pseudoelasticity.
Thermoelastic Nitinol.Thermoelastic Nitinol. Martensitic active alloy.Martensitic active alloy. Exhibits thermally induced SME.Exhibits thermally induced SME. Transition temp.- ambient oral temperature.Transition temp.- ambient oral temperature. Medical advances – Trt. Of Scliosis.Medical advances – Trt. Of Scliosis.
Desired shape set by heat.Desired shape set by heat. Distortion & insertion into patient’s mouthDistortion & insertion into patient’s mouth Appliance activated – warmth of oral cavity.Appliance activated – warmth of oral cavity. Return to its predetermined shape.Return to its predetermined shape.
Chinese NiTi.Chinese NiTi. Developed by Dr. Tien Hua Cheng & Associates- Developed by Dr. Tien Hua Cheng & Associates-
General research institute of Non – Ferrous Metals, General research institute of Non – Ferrous Metals, Beijing, China.Beijing, China.
Little work hardening , parent phase – austenite mech Little work hardening , parent phase – austenite mech prop. differ from Nitinol.prop. differ from Nitinol.
Burstone, Qin, Morton – compared three prop. with SS Burstone, Qin, Morton – compared three prop. with SS and Nitinol.and Nitinol. SpringbackSpringback Stiffness.Stiffness. Maximum moment.Maximum moment.
Springback.Springback. Diff. b/w deflection of 80Diff. b/w deflection of 80º & residual deformation º & residual deformation
after unloading.after unloading.
Chinese Niti > Nitinol > SSChinese Niti > Nitinol > SS
StiffnessStiffness Steel and Nitinol – average unloading stiffness – same Steel and Nitinol – average unloading stiffness – same
regardless of amount of activation.regardless of amount of activation. Chinese Niti – lower stiffness value – value changes with Chinese Niti – lower stiffness value – value changes with
degree of activation.degree of activation. Maximum moment.Maximum moment.
Niti ( 805 gm-mm at 1Niti ( 805 gm-mm at 1º of permanent deformation)< Nitinol º of permanent deformation)< Nitinol ( 975 gm-mm) < SS( 1400 gm-mm)( 975 gm-mm) < SS( 1400 gm-mm)
Low stiffness & large deflections are needed.Low stiffness & large deflections are needed.
No time dependent deformation in mouth.No time dependent deformation in mouth.
High stiffness at small activations - adequate force High stiffness at small activations - adequate force
Larger cross sections – larger moments – root Larger cross sections – larger moments – root
movement and transalation.movement and transalation.
Japanese NitiJapanese Niti 1978 – Furukawa electric company.1978 – Furukawa electric company. Fujio Miura – studied mech. PropertiesFujio Miura – studied mech. Properties..
Excellent springback & Super elastic properties.Excellent springback & Super elastic properties.
SuperelasticitySuperelasticity – Stress – fairly constant upto a – Stress – fairly constant upto a
certain point of deformation - & during certain point of deformation - & during rebounding. ( Stress induced martensitic rebounding. ( Stress induced martensitic
transformation. transformation. BCC HCPBCC HCP ) )www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Continous force – long period during Continous force – long period during
deactivation of the wire.deactivation of the wire.
Physiologic tooth movement.Physiologic tooth movement.
Possible to modify – force – individualized Possible to modify – force – individualized
segment of the arch wire – applying controlled segment of the arch wire – applying controlled
Introduced in 1994 – Rohit Sachdeva & Suchio Introduced in 1994 – Rohit Sachdeva & Suchio
Miyasaki 1994.Miyasaki 1994. Major advance – Variable transformation Major advance – Variable transformation
temperature orthodontics.temperature orthodontics. Stability of Martensite / Austenite at a given Stability of Martensite / Austenite at a given
temp. – Transformation temp. of the alloy.temp. – Transformation temp. of the alloy. Impt. marker Austenite finish temperature.AImpt. marker Austenite finish temperature.Af.f.
Working temp. ofWorking temp. of orthodontic appliance – > Aorthodontic appliance – > Aff
Compositon.Compositon. Austenitic structure.Austenitic structure.
LDR charecteristics.LDR charecteristics. Low hysteresis.Low hysteresis.
Surface.Surface. Rough & porous – comparable to TMA.Rough & porous – comparable to TMA.
Alloy types.Alloy types. Type I – Type I – AAff = 15 = 15°C.°C. Type II – Af = 27 °C.Type II – Af = 27 °C. Type III – Af = 35 °C.Type III – Af = 35 °C. Type IV – Af = 40°CType IV – Af = 40°C
ElementsElements Wt%Wt%TiTi 42.9942.99NiNi 49.8749.87CrCr 0.50.5CuCu 5.645.64
Type I – high force levels – not used clinically.Type I – high force levels – not used clinically. Type II – Highest force & best used.Type II – Highest force & best used.
Average or higher pain threshold.Average or higher pain threshold. Normal periodontal health.Normal periodontal health. Rapid tooth movement required.Rapid tooth movement required.
Type III wire-Type III wire- Low to normal threshold.Low to normal threshold. Slightly compromised periodontium.Slightly compromised periodontium. Relatively low forces required.Relatively low forces required.
Type IV –Type IV – Sensitive to pain.Sensitive to pain. Compromised periodontal conditions.Compromised periodontal conditions. Tooth movement – deliberately slowed down.Tooth movement – deliberately slowed down. Beneficial – initial rectangular wireBeneficial – initial rectangular wire..
Advantages.Advantages. Low hysteresis – more constant force levels.Low hysteresis – more constant force levels. Difft. Types – match archwire force levels – specific Difft. Types – match archwire force levels – specific
early treatment requirements & goals.early treatment requirements & goals.
CV NiTi.CV NiTi.
Copper free NiTi.Copper free NiTi.
In the same types as CuNiTi.In the same types as CuNiTi.
Similar mechanical properties.Similar mechanical properties.
Slower recovery pattern.Slower recovery pattern.
Beta – Titanium Alloys.Beta – Titanium Alloys. Charles J Burstone – 1980 ( TMA).Charles J Burstone – 1980 ( TMA). Composition.Composition. Titanium- 79%Titanium- 79% Molybdenum – 11%Molybdenum – 11% Zirconium – 6%Zirconium – 6% Tin – 4%Tin – 4% Addition of elements - Addition of elements - molybdenum or molybdenum or
columbium,columbium, a titanium-based alloy can a titanium-based alloy can maintain its beta structure even when cooled to maintain its beta structure even when cooled to room temperature.room temperature.
Advantages.Advantages. Force levels less than half of stainless steel.Force levels less than half of stainless steel. Highly ductile – complicated configurations – Highly ductile – complicated configurations –
formed.formed. Weldable.Weldable. Good spring back.Good spring back.
Disadvantage.Disadvantage. Rough surface – High friction.Rough surface – High friction.
Ion implantation – Burstone – 1995.Ion implantation – Burstone – 1995. Elements or compounds – ionised and accelerated – to a Elements or compounds – ionised and accelerated – to a
target. N & O ions from a plasmatarget. N & O ions from a plasma Ti oxide and nitride formedTi oxide and nitride formed
Alpha Titanium Alloy:Alpha Titanium Alloy: AJ Wilcock Jr. – 1988 – AJ Wilcock Jr. – 1988 – near near αα phasephase Titanium Titanium
alloy – Orthodontic purpose.alloy – Orthodontic purpose. Composition.Composition.
Titanium – 90%.Titanium – 90%.Aluminium – 6%Aluminium – 6%Vanadium – 4%Vanadium – 4%
Crystal structure. – Closely packed hexagonal Crystal structure. – Closely packed hexagonal lattice (HCP).lattice (HCP). Only one active slip plane along its base. Only one active slip plane along its base. BCC – two slip planes ( BCC – two slip planes ( ββ Titanium ). Titanium ). Less ductile than TMALess ductile than TMA
Near Near αα phase Ti alloy – certain amount - phase Ti alloy – certain amount - ββ phase retained at room temp. phase retained at room temp.
Stiffer with passage of timeStiffer with passage of time Absorption of HAbsorption of H+ + ions – surface layer – titanium ions – surface layer – titanium
Weldable Weldable Dimensions available.Dimensions available.
.016 x .022 and .018 x .022..016 x .022 and .018 x .022.
Rectangular finishing wires.Rectangular finishing wires.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Non metallic archwires.Non metallic archwires. Esthetic arch wires – OptiflexEsthetic arch wires – Optiflex Unidirectional Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Unidirectional Fiber Reinforced Polymeric
archwire – ( UFRP ) – Composite Archwires.archwire – ( UFRP ) – Composite Archwires. Manufacture.Manufacture.
PhotopultrusionPhotopultrusion Pultrusion - Pultrusion - The process of manufacturing The process of manufacturing
components having continuous lengths and a components having continuous lengths and a constant cross-sectional shape, such as in constant cross-sectional shape, such as in archwires.archwires.
UFRP compared to NiTi.UFRP compared to NiTi.
Elastic until failure occurs.Elastic until failure occurs.
Resilience and springback are comparable.Resilience and springback are comparable.
Parlene : poly ( chloro – p- xylylene)Parlene : poly ( chloro – p- xylylene) – coating – coating
Risk of glass fiber release during clinical use Risk of glass fiber release during clinical use
Applications of newer materials in Begg Applications of newer materials in Begg technique.technique.
Stage I :-Stage I :- Pulse straightened SS wires and Super elastic NiTi Pulse straightened SS wires and Super elastic NiTi
wires – replaced multi loop archwires.wires – replaced multi loop archwires. 0.010 or 0.011 supreme PS wires – MAA. Better 0.010 or 0.011 supreme PS wires – MAA. Better
root control in early stages of trt.root control in early stages of trt. 0.014 premium plus – in high angle cases to prevent 0.014 premium plus – in high angle cases to prevent
undue molar extrusion.undue molar extrusion. End of stage IIEnd of stage II
0.011 – alignment of 20.011 – alignment of 2ndnd molars molars
Stage III :- Stage III :-
Mini uprighting springs – 0.008 – 0.010 supreme Mini uprighting springs – 0.008 – 0.010 supreme
P.S wires.P.S wires.
Finishing :-Finishing :-
Stiff Rectangular 0.018 x 0.022 Stiff Rectangular 0.018 x 0.022 αα Titanium wires Titanium wires
Recent advances in material science and Recent advances in material science and technology has resulted in an array of newer technology has resulted in an array of newer archwire materials, opening new vistas in archwire materials, opening new vistas in Orthodontic treatment. Materials with widely Orthodontic treatment. Materials with widely diverging properties are on the market today diverging properties are on the market today and their usage has profound implications on and their usage has profound implications on the appliance mechanics. the appliance mechanics.
As Kusy points out, composites will increasingly As Kusy points out, composites will increasingly encroach the use of metals, ceramics and encroach the use of metals, ceramics and polymers as functional and esthetically polymers as functional and esthetically pleasing appliances become popular. The pleasing appliances become popular. The orthodontist therefore has to clearly outline orthodontist therefore has to clearly outline the phases of treatment and select the the phases of treatment and select the archwire most suited for attaining specific archwire most suited for attaining specific goals for treatment.goals for treatment.
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