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DESIGN OF BORED PILES PERFORMANCE-BASED SEISMIC DESIGN TIME MANAGEMENT ACHIEVING THE INEVITABLE The flagship publication of The Institution of Structural Engineers March 2018 Volume 96 | Issue 3 2017 Milne Medallist Roger Ridsdill Smith outlines his Manifesto for Structural Design The Structural Engineer The agship pub blication of The Institution of Structural Engineers March 2018 Engineers March 2018 Volume 96 | Issue 3 The Structural Engineer 2 2 2 2 2 20 0 0 01 1 17 7 7 7 M M M M Mi i i i l l l l n n ne e e M M M M Me e ed d d d da a al l l l l l l l i i i i s s s t t t t t R R R R Ro o g g ge e e er r r R R R R Ri i i d d ds s sd d d di i i l l l l l l S S S Sm m mi i i t t th h h h h o o o ou ut t tl l i i i n n ne es s s h h h hi i i s s s M M M M Ma a an n ni i i f f f e e es s t t to o o o o f f f f f o o or r r S S S S St t t tr r ru u uc c ct t tu u r r r a a al l l D D D De e e s s si i i i g g g n n n n 2017 Milne Medallist Roger Ridsdill Smith outlines his Manifesto for Structural Design D DE DE DESI SI SIGN GN GN O O O OF F F F B BO BO BORE RE RED D D PI PI PI P LE L LE ES S S S P PE PE PERF RF RFOR OR OR RMA MA MA M NC NC NC N E- E- E- E BA BA BASE SE SED D D D S SE SE SEIS IS IS SMI MI M MIC C C C DE DE DE D SI SI SIGN GN N GN T TI TI I T ME ME ME M M M M MAN AN ANAG AG AGEM EM EM MEN EN EN E T T T T DESIGN OF BORED PILES PERFORMANCE-BASED SEISMIC DESIGN TIME MANAGEMENT
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The fl agship publication of The Institution of Structural Engineers
March 2018 Volume 96 | Issue 3
2017 Milne Medallist Roger Ridsdill Smith outlines his Manifesto for Structural Design
TheStructuralEngineer The fl agship pubblication of The Institution of Structural Engineers
March 2018
TheStructuralEngineer
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2017 Milne Medallist Roger Ridsdill Smith outlines his Manifesto for Structural Design
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thestructuralengineer.org
Roger Ridsdill Smith MA (Cantab), CEng, FIStructE, PE (NY, CA), SE (UT)
Head of Structural Engineering, Foster + Partners, London, UK
Introduction The Structural Group at Foster + Partners (Figure 1) numbers around 25 and is completely international, with around 90% of the staff from outside the UK. We work on projects solely within the practice; with the architects, the environmental engineers
A Manifesto for Structural Design
Synopsis
Roger Ridsdill Smith leads the Structural Group at Foster + Partners. In this paper, he proposes a Manifesto for Structural Design, in which he sets out the four points that he considers to be essential to the design process of the group. These four points are illustrated through projects that the group has designed and delivered over the seven years since its inception.
The paper is based on Roger’s 2017 Milne Medal lecture and a presentation on creativity and collaboration that he delivered at the Bath IABSE Conference in April 2017.
Having started seven years ago, we now have projects that are complete, under construction or being designed around the world. Through this period, we have developed a particular approach to the way we work.
Inevitable design Our design goal is to achieve a design that seems inevitable, that has integrity, that looks like nothing can be removed. Figure 2 shows two paths in Kensington Gardens in London. The path on the left is muddy and uneven, and a fence has been installed to discourage its use. Nevertheless, it has become a route, simply because it is the most direct connection between two nodes across the park. It is the inevitable route.
and the other specialists within Foster + Partners, and then with collaborators from all over the world.
Figure 2 ‘Inevitable
Figure 1 Foster + Partners structural engineering team
''OUR DESIGN GOAL IS TO ACHIEVE A DESIGN THAT SEEMS INEVITABLE, THAT HAS INTEGRITY, THAT LOOKS LIKE NOTHING CAN BE REMOVED''
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Four points to make a manifesto The following points are the fundamental drivers of our approach to engineering. Each point is supported with projects that we have delivered at Foster + Partners over the last seven years.
1) Commitment
In addition to being the basis upon which all the further points are built, I consider that commitment is essential to creativity. The more attention devoted to a design, the more potential there is for it to improve.
Commitment is not necessarily the same as time – it is not enough simply to work long hours and expect a good solution to emerge. The distinction is in the intensity of the process, the appraisal of diff erent options, and the genuine questioning of a solution.
I have become interested in recent literature that reappraised the notion of creativity. There is a school of thought that considers creativity as a mystical process, a gift, that is bestowed on some and not others. In 1815, Germany’s General Music
Journal published a letter purporting to be from Mozart in which he describes his creative process. Here is an extract:
‘Provided I am not disturbed, my subject
enlarges itself, and the whole stands almost
fi nished and complete in my mind, so that I
can survey it, like a fi ne picture or a beautiful
statue, at a glance. When I proceed to write
down my ideas, I take out of the bag of my
memory. For this reason, the committing to
paper is done quickly enough, for everything
is already fi nished; and it rarely diff ers on
paper from what it was in my imagination’.
This is a description of the classic notion of creativity in which a piece of music comes to Mozart as a whole, and all that he needs
to do is to write it down. It has been cited by many writers in subsequent literature1.
However, there is a problem with this piece of accepted wisdom about the creative process – the letter has been shown to be a forgery. Mozart did not write by magic. He worked at his compositions, revising them and adjusting them until he was satisfi ed. There was no single uninterrupted stream of imagination that resulted in a fully formed opera.
Canopy at Marseille
The new canopy at Marseille, France (Figure 3), is an example of a project that went through many diff erent manifestations until the fi nal solution was reached. The structure forms part of the masterplan for the regeneration of the quayside of the Old Port, a competition that was won by landscape architect Michel Desvigne with Foster + Partners. During the project’s conception, options were studied in a range of diff erent materials, with geometries that suited the structural and environmental implications of each design. It was only as the fi nal concept evolved that the material and structure were settled on.
The canopy measures 46m × 22m and is supported on eight columns, with 12m spans between columns and 5m cantilevers around the perimeter. The project is a single, simple idea, designed and detailed uncompromisingly. It consists of a blade of polished, mirrored steel, intended to refl ect the surrounding port activities while
becoming almost invisible from a distance. To achieve this, the steel roof structure
tapers from a maximum of 600mm across the mid-span to a point around the perimeter. There is no gutter – water drains into the columns – and no edge beam – all structure is orthogonal to the perimeter.
The wind loads are signifi cant in Marseille, but the structure presents only minimal resistance to the wind fl ow. Lateral stability is provided through portal action of the primary beams, which node with the columns, which are rigidly connected to a grid of ground beams to provide additional stiff ness to the frame.
The canopy won the Eiff age structural steel award in 2015.
Château Margaux
Château Margaux is a Premier Cru vineyard in the Bordeaux region of France. Foster + Partners was appointed to design the fi rst new construction on the site for 200 years, which included a new winery adjacent to the existing buildings.
The building is a 28m × 66m single-storey structure with a partial mezzanine level (Figure 4). The functional challenge of the building was to create a fl exible central area
"I CONSIDER THAT COMMITMENT IS ESSENTIAL TO CREATIVITY. THE MORE ATTENTION DEVOTED TO A DESIGN, THE MORE POTENTIAL THERE IS FOR IT TO IMPROVE"
Figure 3 Marseille
HAVE YOUR SAY
Eemail Verulam at [email protected]
Milne Medal 2017
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for the wine-making process, to be free of spanning structure for maximum accessibility.
The historic location imposed height constraints on the roof, as well as requiring that the pitch matched the surrounding buildings.
The shallow roof structural solution that was required as a result is achieved by using the pitch of the roof with the ‘tree’ columns (Figure 5), which resist lateral as well as vertical loads. As a result, the axial loads generated by the roof pitch are resisted by the columns, which also provide support to the outside roof edge.
The eff ective span, and consequently the bending moment that each roof beam has to resist, is reduced both at the supports, as well as at the apex.
A layer of 120mm thick cross-laminated timber panels provide the roof surface, and brace the diagrid steel beams against lateral torsional buckling.
The perimeter ‘tree’ columns resolve the transition from the inclined geometry of the roof plane to the horizontal geometry of the ground. The evolution of these elements (Figure 6) was the result of an intense and committed process of physical and virtual modelling. The fi nal geometry is constructed from single curved steel plates. Foster + Partners generated the three-dimensional geometry for these elements which was used directly for fabrication by the contractor.
"THE PERIMETER 'TREE' COLUMNS RESOLVE THE TRANSITION FROM THE INCLINED GEOMETRY OF THE ROOF PLANE TO THE HORIZONTAL GEOMETRY OF THE GROUND"
Figure 4 Château Margaux,
S Figure 5 ‘Tree’ prototype
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2) Technical knowledge
There is no substitute in engineering for technical expertise, based on an understanding of structures from fi rst principles.
The ideas put forward by engineers resonate if the engineers have an understanding of how they will be able to deliver them. This is not the same as being immediately aware of the fi nal design from the fi rst moment of conception – innovation requires research and development time.
The structural team at Foster + Partners has grown with a particular focus on technical excellence, and with specialist knowledge in seismic and dynamic design, as well as the design of tall buildings. This knowledge is complemented by partnerships with fi rms around the world which bring other technical strengths and experience.
Tocumen Airport terminal
The new terminal at Tocumen Airport, Panama (Figures 7 and 8), is the result of a competition won by Foster + Partners in 2012. The roof solution would not have been possible without the development of an innovative structural solution during the fast- track construction process.
The structural intention was to create an exposed internal roof structure that gently varied in curvature along its length. The primary structure is located above the ceiling, and the columns do not node on the secondary beams. This creates the eff ect of a roofscape that appears to fl oat above the internal buildings.
Lateral stability of the roof is achieved
in the longitudinal direction through portal action with the primary beams, which node on the columns below (Figure 9). However, since the secondary beams do not node on the columns in the transverse direction, stability is instead provided through the torsional capacity of the hollow circular steel primary beams in combination with the cantilever action of the reinforced concrete
W Figure 7 Tocumen Airport,
Panama – under construction
concrete column incorporating ductile fuse
''THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE IN ENGINEERING FOR TECHNICAL EXPERTISE, BASED ON AN UNDERSTANDING OF STRUCTURES FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES''
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columns. This system does not fi t within a prescriptive code-based design approach. As a result, we evolved a ductile fuse detail at the top of the reinforced concrete columns in order to limit the maximum seismic demand that can be transferred to the steel roof (Figures 10 and 11). This is achieved by reducing the diameter of the reinforcement in the ‘hinge’ zone. In this way, the steel roof structure remains essentially elastic under the seismic loading of the maximum considered seismic event.
The analysis and calculations were reviewed and approved by two independent international peer-review teams. The project was presented at the American Concrete Institute (ACI) convention in October 2017 and will be published in an ACI special publication on performance- based seismic design in 2018.
Ocean Towers, Mumbai
A further example of the use of technical knowledge to evolve a project design is the proposed new Ocean Towers in Mumbai, India (Figure 12). The plan arrangement of the towers arose through the client’s strong preference for the living rooms
of all apartments to have the same view – facing towards the sea. This gave a single orientation to the buildings, with the aim being to keep all service rooms and circulation to the rear. It became clear that two separate cores would better serve this arrangement, allowing for up to four apartments to be arranged along the front. These cores are deep enough to provide the lateral stability in their strong axis.
The initial stability system across the building was to be a moment frame in combination with the cores (Figure 13). In order to create a more fl exible and open internal fl oorplate, we evolved the current system – replacement of the moment frame with three sets of outrigger trusses over the height of the building (Figures 14 and 15). In this way, all of the intermediate columns are removed, to leave 15m × 11m column-free spaces in each of the four sections of the building.
425 Park Avenue, New York
Another project where technical knowledge contributed to the original project concept was the 425 Park Avenue Tower competition that Foster + Partners won in 2012 (Figure 16). The tower concept arose initially through the detailed analysis of the prescriptive volumetric requirements of the New York planning laws. A single line of vertical structure on the front of the tower, coupled with the cores at the rear, provides both vertical and horizontal support. The bifurcation of these columns at the two intermediate levels transfers shear between the front and the rear. The structural philosophy is a direct manifestation of the forces that need to be resisted (Figure 17).
The project is currently under construction, and the Structural Engineer of Record for the tower is WSP Cantor Seinuk.
Figure 16 425
core and moment frame N Figure 14
Revised fl oorplan – core with outrigger
Figure 12 Ocean Towers,
and axial loads in corner columns
Figure 17 Overturning moments due to wind load on x and y axes
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3) Collaboration
In the fi rst of my four points, I associated creativity with commitment. In the same way, I consider that innovation is strongly associated with collaboration. It is through collaboration that technology and knowledge can be transferred, be it inside the Structural Group, across the diff erent disciplines within the practice, or with other partners.
What is important in collaboration is a genuine appraisal from a diff erent view of the same question – and it is this that can lead to innovation.
Maggie’s Cancer Centre, Manchester
The structure of the new Maggie’s Cancer Centre in Manchester (Figure 18) is on a domestic scale – small spans for a single- storey building. The innovation is in the detailing of the timber in order to minimise the size and visual intrusion of the nodes. This arose both through internal discussions and research, and through close working with the specialist timber contractor Blumer-Lehmann.
The project evolved through consideration of the spaces that would create an inviting open atmosphere for visitors to the building. Timber was chosen as the primary building material for its aesthetic and structural properties, as well as for cost and carbon effi ciency.
The intention was to minimise the use of material so that it is only present where needed, and to avoid the heavy steel detailing that is sometimes required to connect timber frames. The laminated veneer
lumber trusses provide both lateral stability across the building, and vertical support to the roof (Figure 19). The form and density of the trusses are optimised to the forces that they resist; any part of the structure that is superfl uous has been removed.
A key point of the structure is the triangular node, where vertical loads from the roof are transferred to the columns below (Figure 20). This node also acts as a portal frame haunch to provide the rigidity required for the horizontal stability of the building across its width.
The project won both the Arnold Laver Gold Award and the Structural Award at the 2016 Wood Awards.
Musée de la Romanité, France
Another example of collaboration is the Musée de la Romanité, a new 20 000m2 museum for the local archaeology around the Narbonne region in the south of France (Figure 21). The result of an international competition won by Foster + Partners, the
"I CONSIDER THAT INNOVATION IS STRONGLY ASSOCIATED WITH COLLABORATION. IT IS THROUGH COLLABORATION THAT TECHNOLOGY AND KNOWLEDGE CAN BE TRANSFERRED"
Figure 18 Maggie’s Cancer
Centre, Manchester
Milne Medal 2017
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project is currently under construction and due for completion in 2019.
The project budget is extremely tight for this public building, and the exposed structure formed part of the original competition concept, to unify the diff erent functions of the building into a single volume.
The entire roof is exposed along its soffi t (Figures 22 and 23). The idea of the prefabricated ‘double tee’ concrete roof emerged as a cost-eff ective structure that would defi ne the architectural spaces, while providing thermal mass to contribute to the environmental cooling strategy. These roof sections span onto prestressed concrete beams, which are in turn supported by a grid of columns and shear walls. The vertical structure is constructed in cementitious rammed layers using local aggregates, the result of research across the industry, and in particular working with experts Terra Firma.
Apple Union Square Store, San Francisco
Foster + Partners have delivered Apple Stores all over the world as an integrated
team of architects, structural, environmental and specialist engineers, and working with international partners for each location. Each store carries project- specifi c challenges – be it the seismicity of the region, connection to an existing building, or redesign of the stability system of the tower in which the store is located. In each instance, the fi nal store retains the same design philosophy, and the same family of details.
The recently completed Apple Union Square Store in San Francisco (Figure 24) involved major alterations to the existing building structure. In particular, the new store volume, measuring 32m × 25m in plan, is supported by a giant steel truss structure that spans over the ballroom located in the basement underneath the store. The internal space contains a 10m cantilevered
mezzanine fl oor (Figure 25), which tapers to less than 30cm at its tip, through which the lighting, air and sprinkler requirements of the space below are integrated, along with tuned mass dampers to control the response of the fl oor. Special concentrically braced frames comprise the seismic lateral force-resisting system in both directions.
This design was achieved through teamwork between the diff erent disciplines and coordination with the other partners involved in the delivery process, notably our close partnership with the Structural Engineer of Record, Simpson Gumpertz and Heger.
The store has won the SEAONC (Structural Engineers Association of Northern California) Excellence in Structural Engineering Award of Merit in the category of Landmark Structures.
Figure 21 Musée de la Romanité,
Narbonne – visualisation
Figure 24 Apple Store Union
Square, San Francisco
Milne Medal 2017
4) Curiosity
The fi nal point, curiosity, is one that should, in my view, permeate all aspects of the way we approach our profession. It stretches from the requirement to constantly review projects through all stages of their design and construction, to the need to look further, into other industries, or unrelated fi elds.
At Foster + Partners, we question our designs continuously in various formats. There are formal design reviews by the Practice Design Board, as well as pure structural reviews within the group. We hold talks where any of the team can present a subject which interests them, as well as inviting guests and holding webinars. Just as importantly, there is a constant exchange around the studio, a complete mixing of the diff erent professions and specialisms.
Research and development is carried out at varying scales at Foster + Partners. Two examples of research projects are set out here. As the effi ciency of buildings improves and their energy in use reduces as a consequence, the relative importance of the embodied energy of the materials used in construction will increase. Both these studies consider the effi cient use of materials.
Effi cient fl oor beam design
Floor beams are designed for two structural criteria: strength and serviceability. Strength design represents the minimum acceptable threshold; the beam must be designed to resist the factored loads that are applied to it. However, in practice, beams are often defi ned by serviceability criteria: either defl ection or, increasingly, vibration. Material has to be added beyond the minimum required to satisfy the strength criteria. This is an ineffi ciency in material use, and we were interested to investigate whether strength or serviceability governed the beam design over a range of fl oor spans from shorter than is usual, 7m, to longer than is generally regarded as economic, 25m.
A composite steel grid was used as a simple common fl oor typology and analysis carried out for an assumed 9m primary span, with secondary beams at 3m centres.
The study found that for a given set of boundary conditions, a range of fl oor spans could be found where the fl oor beam that is designed to achieve the strength criteria also fulfi ls the vibration criteria without any additional material or depth (Figure 26). The span in this range is long enough to provide adequate modal mass, while not so long that the fi rst fl oor frequency is excited by the fi rst footfall harmonic. Designing fl oors in this span range should result in an effi cient use of
material. A more detailed paper on the beam design study will be published in due course.
Comparison of embodied energy versus cost
of materials
The building structure is one of the major contributors to the building’s embodied energy. This study arose through a desire to examine whether there was any relationship between the cost of materials and their embodied energy of production.
Figure 27 shows a plot of the cost of materials against their embodied energy of construction, on logarithmic scales. The graph supports the theory that there is, in general, a close relationship between the two variables. In other words, the cost of bulk material is closely related to the cost of the energy required to produce it. High-temperature processes, such as the production of steel or other metals, require large amounts of energy and are costly. Materials such as aggregate or timber require lower quantities of energy and are less costly.
The conclusion that can be postulated from this is that if we can minimise the total cost of the materials in a building, then we should have a reasonable fi rst approximation for minimising the embodied energy of its construction. In this way, material cost can be used as a proxy for embodied energy.
Milne Medal 2017
E1) Ashton K. (2015) How to Fly a Horse: The
Secret History of Creation, Invention, and
Discovery, London: Doubleday
"DESIGN IS NOT MAKING BEAUTY, BEAUTY EMERGES FROM SELECTION, AFFINITIES, INTEGRATION, LOVE"
Louis Kahn
Figure 28 Structural models
E Figure 26 Plot of fl oor response vs fl oor
span for composite fl oor designed to satisfy minimum strength criteria
Figure 27 Cost of materials per kg vs
embodied energy of materials per kg
Embodied energy, primaryrr production (MJ/kgkk )
10.1 1 010 0100 01000
P ri ce (G B P /k g)
110.01
110.1
1
0010
00100
Elastomers
Glass
Concrrete, stone and brick
Foams, faff bbrics and fibers
Low modal mass leads to increased fl oor response Low fl oor response
Floor frequency aff ected by fi rst footfall harmonic leads to increased fl oor response
Floor response gradually decreases as modal mass increases
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PDF/X is an ISO standard for graphic content exchange. For more information on creating PDF/X-1a compliant PDF documents, please refer to the Acrobat User Guide. The PDF documents can be opened with Acrobat and Reader 4.0 and later.) >> >> setdistillerparams << /HWResolution [2400 2400] /PageSize [612.000 792.000] >> setpagedevice
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/ENU (Use these settings to report on PDF/X-1a compliance and produce PDF documents only if compliant. PDF/X is an ISO standard for graphic content exchange. For more information on creating PDF/X-1a compliant PDF documents, please refer to the Acrobat User Guide. The PDF documents can be opened with Acrobat and Reader 4.0 and later.) >> >> setdistillerparams << /HWResolution [2400 2400] /PageSize [612.000 792.000] >> setpagedevice
<< /ASCII85EncodePages false /AllowTransparency false /AutoPositionEPSFiles true /AutoRotatePages /None /Binding /Left /CalGrayProfile (Gray Gamma 2.2) /CalRGBProfile (sRGB IEC61966-2.1) /CalCMYKProfile (U.S. Web Coated \050SWOP\051 v2) /sRGBProfile (sRGB IEC61966-2.1) /CannotEmbedFontPolicy /Error /CompatibilityLevel 1.3 /CompressObjects /Off /CompressPages true /ConvertImagesToIndexed true /PassThroughJPEGImages true /CreateJobTicket false /DefaultRenderingIntent /Default /DetectBlends true /DetectCurves 0.1000 /ColorConversionStrategy /LeaveColorUnchanged /DoThumbnails false /EmbedAllFonts true /EmbedOpenType false /ParseICCProfilesInComments true /EmbedJobOptions true /DSCReportingLevel 0 /EmitDSCWarnings false /EndPage -1 /ImageMemory 1048576 /LockDistillerParams true /MaxSubsetPct 100 /Optimize false /OPM 1 /ParseDSCComments true /ParseDSCCommentsForDocInfo true /PreserveCopyPage false /PreserveDICMYKValues true /PreserveEPSInfo true /PreserveFlatness true /PreserveHalftoneInfo 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PDF/X is an ISO standard for graphic content exchange. For more information on creating PDF/X-1a compliant PDF documents, please refer to the Acrobat User Guide. The PDF documents can be opened with Acrobat and Reader 4.0 and later.) >> >> setdistillerparams << /HWResolution [2400 2400] /PageSize [612.000 792.000] >> setpagedevice
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