Top Banner

Click here to load reader

of 73

Appel PSY 150 403 Chapter 1 Slides

Nov 30, 2014





  • 1. Chapter 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science

2. Topics and Questions The history and growth of psychology The big question: Nature vs. Nurture Biopsychosocial levels of analysis Psychologys subfields Avoiding three common sense thinking errors How do I explain dreams? Anxiety? The abilities and funny behavior of babies? The Scientific Attitude: Curiosity, Skepticism, Humility The Scientific Method Description, Correlation, and Experimentation Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology Applying psychology to learning the text: SQ3R 3. From speculation to science: The Birth of Modern Psychology Aristotle (4th century BCE) had ideas about how the body and mind work. His method: making guesses. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) added two key elements to help make psychology a science: 1. carefully measured observations 2. experiments 4. Push a button when a ball dropped (based on when they heard the ball hit a platform): 1/10th of a second. Push a button when consciously aware of hearing the ball hit the platform: 2/10ths of a second. Wilhelm Wundts 1879 experiment measured the time it took for people to: Why were the times different? 5. Structuralism Edward Titchener, like his teacher Wundt, used data from introspection, reporting on sensations and other elements of experience. Structuralism: Using these introspective reports to build a view of the minds structure 6. Functionalism: The school of thought that Psychological processes have a function: helping us survive as individuals, adapt as a species The developer of functionalism, William James (1842-1910), asked: How did the human style of thinking and behavior enable our ancestors to live long enough to reproduce? James mentored another pioneer William James 7. Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) became a memory researcher and the first female president of the APA. She studied with William James but was denied a Harvard PhD. Why? Because of her gender. Psychology Pioneers Mary Whiton Calkins 8. Psychology Pioneers Margaret Floy Washburn, PhD Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939): The first female to earn a Psychology PhD The second female APA president Author of The Animal Mind. 9. Shifting definitions of psychology Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, around 1900: The science of mental life. John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, behaviorists, 1920s: The scientific study of observable behavior. Cognitive psychologists, 1960s, studied internal mental processes, helped by neuroscience. Now we combine these definitions: The science of behavior and mental processes. 10. Behaviorists study and experiment with observable behavior. Watson experimented with conditioned responses. Skinner studied the way consequences shape behavior. Like other behaviorists, he saw little value in introspection. Trends in Psychological Science: Behaviorism John B. Watson B. F. Skinner 11. Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis: He studied and helped people with a variety of mental disorders. More about Freud when we study personality and therapy Sigmund Freud Trends in Psychology: Freudian/Psychoanalytic Psychology 12. Humanists: Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers (1960s): studied people who were thriving rather than those who had psychological problems. developed theories and treatments to help people to feel accepted and to reach their full potential. Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow Trends in Psychology: Humanism 13. The Growth of Psychology Psychologys pioneers have come from many fields: physiology, philosophy, medicine, and biology. Advances in psychology also have been made in many countries Psychology has spread rapidly; there are 71 member nations in the IUPS. The subjects studied in psychology have multiplied too as we shall see in this course. 14. The Big Issue in Psychology: N-N To what extent are our traits already set in place at birth (our Nature)? And to what extent do our traits develop in response to our environment/ experience (our Nurture)? The Nature- Nurture Question: 15. vs.Nature Nurture Plato: Ideas such as the good and beauty are inborn. Descartes: Some ideas are innate. Charles Darwin: Some traits become part of our nature through natural selection: they help us survive long enough to pass the traits to the next generation. Aristotle: All knowledge comes through the senses. John Locke: The mind is a blank slate (blank chalkboard or screen) written on by experience. 16. Nature Nurture We have differences that are shaped by our environment. We share a common origin that gives us an inborn human nature in common. + 17. Nurture works on what Nature endows. The Roles of Nature and Nurture: 18. Biology Plus Environment.. are part of psychologys three biopsychosocial levels of analysis. The deep level, Biology: genes, brain, neuro- transmitters, survival, reflexes, sensation The outer level, Environment: social Influences, culture, education, relationships In the middle, Psychology: thoughts, emotions, moods, choices, behaviors, traits, motivations, knowledge, perceptions 19. The three levels as influences on some psychological phenomenon Example: DepressionExample: IntelligenceExample: Enjoying SoccerExample: Shyness 20. Cognitive perspective Social-cultural Behavioral genetics Neuroscience Psychodynamic Behaviorist Evolutionary There are many perspectives for describing psychological phenomena: From different angles, you ask different questions: How reliable is memory? How can we improve our thinking? Could our behavior, skills, and attitudes be downloads from our culture? Could our behavior, skills, and attitudes be genetically programmed instincts? What role do our bodies and brains play in emotions? How is pain inhibited? Can we trust our senses? Do inner childhood conflicts still plague me and affect my behavior? How are our problematic behaviors reinforced? How do our fears become conditioned? What can we do to change these fears and behaviors? Why are humans prone to panic, anger, and making irrational judgments? 21. Different perspectives on a single issue: Six Blind Men and an Elephant 22. Lets play: Whats my perspective? Obsessive- compulsive disorder is a problem in the orbital cortex. No, its a sign of unresolved childhood issues.No, OCD is an inherited condition. Compulsions start as habits and are rewarded by the anxiety relief they bring. OCD comes from our natural instinct to control our environment. OCD thinking and behavior is a reaction to our fast-paced, out- of-control lifestyles. No, OCD is a matter of mental habits and errors that can be corrected. 23. Psychologys Subfields Applied Clinical Psychology Counseling Psychology Educational Psychology Industrial-Organizational Community Psychology Clinical Psychology Basic research Biological Developmental Cognitive Personality Social Positive Psychology 24. Psychologys Subfields Research Examples Type of research Biological Developmental Cognitive Personality Social Positive Psychology Study how the stages of cognitive and emotional development vary in autism Explore the structural problems in the brain that may be part of autism Clarify the difficulties autistic children have with understanding sarcasm Decide whether traits like neuroticism need to be measured differently in autism Find how autistic children can learn social skills as procedures if not by intuition Explore what motivates people and contributes to life satisfaction 25. Applied Clinical Psychology Counseling Psychology Educational Psychology Industrial-Organizational Community Psychology Clinical Psychology Psychologys Subfields Applied Help someone achieve career goals despite family conflict and self-doubt Use exposure therapy to decrease phobic reactions in a traumatized client Evaluate aptitudes and achievement to plan for a student with learning problems Figure out how a factory can improve coordination of tasks, roles, and personalities Help coordinate a citys efforts to understand and prevent elder abuse Use exposure therapy to decrease phobic reactions in a traumatized client 26. Psychology in context with other professions Psychiatrists are physicians, M.D.s or D.O.s. They can prescribe medication. In addition to psychologists, professionals in social work, counseling, and marriage and family therapy may be trained to do psychotherapy. 27. The Need for Psychological Science: Overview Typical errors in hindsight, overconfidence, and coincidence The scientific attitude and critical thinking The scientific method: theories and hypotheses Gathering psychological data: description, correlation, and experimentation/causation Describing data: significant differences Issues in psychology: laboratory vs. life, culture and gender, values and ethics 28. When our natural thinking style fails: Hindsight bias: I knew it all along. Overconfidence error: I am sure I am correct.The coincidence error, or mistakenly perceiving order in random events: The dice must be fixed because you rolled three sixes in a row. 29. Hindsight bias is like a crystal ball that we use to predict the past. I knew this would happen You were accepted into this college/university Classic example: after watching a competition (sports, cooking), if you dont make a prediction ahead of time, you might make a postdiction: I figured that team/person would win because When you see most results of psychological research, you might say, that was obvious Hindsight Bias 30. These sayings all seem to make sense, in hindsight, after we read them. Out of sight, out of mind S/He who hesitates is lost No [wo]man is an island Actions speak louder than words Youre never too old to learn Curiosity killed the cat Opposites attract Theres no place like home Absence makes the heart grow fonder Look before you leap Good fences make good neighbors The pen is mightier than the sword You cant teach an old dog new tricks The grass is always greener on the other s