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Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders

Jan 11, 2016

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Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety and Anxiety DisordersAnxiety motivates a person to take action, to solve a problem or to resolve a crisisConcepts Of Anxiety2. Is considered normal when it is appropriate to the situation.3. Anxiety becomes a disorder when it is excessive and shows unusual behaviors. Panic without reason.Uncontrollable repetitive actions.Unexplainable or overwhelming worry.Irrational fear of objects.Re-experiencing a traumatic events.

Examples of unusual behaviorMild ModerateSeverePanic Perception IncreasedSelective inattention Distorted perception If prolong, may experience presence of hallucinations and delusions - Disorganized Mild ModerateSevere Panic PhysiologicMild physiologic changes Perspiration Moderate muscle tensionIncreased heart & respiratory rateGastric distressHeadacheDry mouthFrequent urination High pitch voiceSevere headacheNauseaDiarrheaTrembling VertigoPaleTachycardiaChest painIncreased BP,RR,PRDilated pupilMay bolt and runTotally immobile and muteDilated pupilsIncreased Bp and Pulse RateFlight/fight or freezeMild ModerateSeverePanic BehavioralAlertEnergeticConfidentEnhance learningDifficulty in concentratingEasily distractedDecreased span of attentionIncreased rate in speechPacingDifficulty focusing even with assistanceIneffective reasoning and problem solvingDisorientation Loud and rapid speechConfused communicationCryingInability to think abstractly

ImmobilizationOut of contact in the realityHysterical or muteDisorganized or irrational reasoningDesperation and may result to suicideFeeling overwhelmed and out of controlCoping Nursing intervention Helps client focus attention to learn and solve problemMotivate client to make changes or engage in goal directed activityRedirect the person to topics because he/she has difficulty concentratingSpeak in short, simple and easy to understand sentence Decrease the persons anxiety level.Stay with the person because anxiety is likely to worsen if he/ she is left alone.Talk in low, calm and soothing voiceWalk with the person while talking if he/ she cant sit still Provide safety because the person cannot perceive potential harm.Continuously talk with the person in a comforting manner even though the client cannot process what you are saying.5. Relaxation technique such as deep breathing exercise.6. Use touch carefully7. Administer medication for escalating anxiety3. Provide non- stimulating environment to decrease anxiety.4. Remain with the person until panic subsides (panic can last from 5-30 minutes) Anxiety disorders is diagnosed when anxiety becomes chronic and impairs individuals major functions resulting to maladaptive behavior and emotional disability.

Anxiety disordersPhobic disorderPanic attackTypes of anxiety disorders Characterized by persistent, irrational fear attached to an object or situation that objectively does not pose a significant fearA-specific irrational fear

Phobic disorderAgoraphobia- fear of open spaceSocial phobia- fear of being humiliated or embarrassed so they avoid social situations.Specific phobia- persistent irrational fear other than the above.Types of phobic disorderZoophobia animalsGenophobia dirtAndrophobia manAcrophobia heightPyrophobia fireAilurophobia catsBelonophobia needlesHemathophobia bloodXenophobia fear of strangersMysophobia contamination or germsAstraphobia storms, thunder, & lightningOther examples of phobiasGradually expose client to the feared object through SYSTEMIC DESENSITIZATION.FLOODING abrupt exposure to the feared object Nursing interventions 3. Help client to describe her feelings prior to a response for a phobic object.4. Help the client identify alternative coping strategies.Example: reframing

Nursing interventions 5. Practice relaxation technique with the client.6. Teach client about medications as part of the treatment plan.Nursing interventionsB. Panic attackOccur in a certain situation such as driving a carAtleast 1 of the attacks has been followed by 1 month of the ff. symptoms 1. persistent concern of having additional attacks2. worry about consequences Example: going crazy, losing control, having heart attack3. significant changes in behavior A: recurrent, unpredictable and intense

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