ANNEX 14: ANNEX 14: AERODROMES AERODROMES Part II Part II Aviation Management Aviation Management College College Airport Management Airport Management Ms. Zuliana Ismail Ms. Zuliana Ismail 1
Feb 08, 2016
ANNEX 14:AERODROMESPart II
Aviation Management College Airport Management Ms. Zuliana Ismail*
ANNEX 14Chapter 4Obstacle Limitation Surfaces*
Obstacle Limitation Surfaces (OLS)Defined by ICAOObstacle Limitation Surfaces (OLS) also known as imaginary surfaces.
WHY ??To ensure the safety of operations in the airspace around aerodromes (area must free of obstacle, prevent the growth of obstacles) *
HOW ??ICAO define the maximum allowable height of any structures that can be placed in the area surrounding the runway.height of buildings, antennas, trees
OLS defined by ICAOInner horizontal surfaceConical surface Approach surfaceTransitional surface Takeoff climb surface
OLS defined by ICAO (Top View)(Side View)
1. Inner horizontal surfaceA surface located above an aerodrome and its surrounding area.Normally be in circle. Radius depends on the type of runway. The height is 45m.The purpose is to protect airspace for visual circling prior to landing.
2. Conical surfaceA surface sloping upwards from the outer edge of the inner horizontal surface.*3. Approach surfaceApproach surface: Protects the approach to the runway from obstructions. Inner approach surface: Protects the part of the approach closest to the runway threshold.
4. Transitional surfacesLocated on either side of the runway.Protect the area near the runway.*5. Takeoff climb surfaceTo prevent obstructions to the paths of departing aircraft near a runway.
Dimensions of OLS-Approach Runways
ANNEX 14- Chapter 5-7Visual Aids for Navigation*
Annex 14- Visual AidsAirport MarkingsAirport Lighting: Runway & TaxiwayAirport Signs
ObjectivesBe familiar with airport lighting, signage and markings.Describe the various navigational aids that exist on aerodromes.
Importance of Airport markings To provide information that is useful to a pilot during takeoff, landing, and taxiing.To enhance safety and improve efficiency: Same airport markings for all airports make pilots became familiar.
*Non-Instrument Runway (NI)Non-Precision Runway (NP) Precision Runway (P) ThresholdTouchdown zoneAiming pointDesignators
Runway MarkingsRunway Designators: Magnetic azimuth of the centerline of the runwayRunway Centerline Marking: Provides alignment guidance during takeoff and landings.Runway Aiming Point Marking: Serves as a visual aiming point for a landing aircraft.Runway Touchdown Zone Markers: Identify the touchdown zone for landing operations Runway Threshold: Helps identify the beginning of the runway that is available for landing.*
Taxiway Markings All taxiways should have centerline markings. Aircraft should be kept centered during taxi to guarantee wingtip clearance with other aircraft or other objects Taxiway Centerline : single continuous yellow line*Taxiway Centerline
Taxiway Markings Surface Painted Signs: to assist pilot in confirming the designation of the taxiway (location or direction)Surface Painted Signs
Taxiway Markings Geographic Position Markings: to identify the location of taxiing aircraft during low visibility operations.
Importance of the SignsTo show mandatory instructions, information on a specific location or destination in the aerodrome.Characteristics of signs:ClearRectangularDifferent colours for each categoryIlluminated (light up)
Airport Signs*Direction signs: To indicate the intersection for aircraft turning.Destination signs: To show direction to the specific destinations (cargo areas, military areas, international areas, etc.)Mandatory signs:To indicate that aircraft ARE NOT ALLOWED to enter (runway entrance & critical areas)Location signs:To identify aircraft location.Runway distance remaining signs: Landing distance remaining
Airport Signs1. Mandatory signs 2. Location signs*
3. Direction signs4. Destination signs*5. Runway distance remaining signsSign Indicating 3,000 feet of Runway RemainingAirport Signs
Importance of Lighting*Lighting systems from the cockpit window during bad weather. Poor visibility is mainly due to heavy snowfallLighting systems are important for a/c landing during night time.
Runway Lighting Summary
Airport Beacon*Function: to guide pilot flying to airport at night.
*1. Sequence LightTo guide the pilots eyes toward the runway centerlineThresholds LightAppear green for a/c landing and red a/c take-off3. Approach LightWarning light, which a/c should not land yet2. Cross Bar LightIndicate a/c wings statusRunway Edge LightingRunway Center line LightRunway Touch Down Zone LightGive depth view of the runwayApproach Lighting System (ALS)
Runway Lighting*Lighting systems from the cockpit window Runway Edge Lighting: WhiteTurn Yellow in last 610mRunway Center line Light System :WhiteAlternate white and red in last 610 mRed in last 310mWhy the lighting colour change?The pilot thus knows about how much runway is left for used.
Taxiway LightingTaxiway edge lights: blueTaxiway centre line: green
Visual Approach Slope Indicators (VASI)Visible from 3-5 miles during the day and up to 20 miles or more at night.
Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)*Function: To assist pilot with visual guidance during an aircraft landingby indicate the pilots angle of approach.
To prevent aircraft accidents.To avoid flight delay or cancellations.
Types of Bad WeatherPoor visibility due to haze & smoke Wind shear :- sudden change in the wind speed & direction Icing: Heavy SnowThunderstorms
Airport Weather StationsAutomated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS)Every 20 minutesObserves temperature, wind speed & direction, visibility, cloud coverage.Cant observe sudden weather change.Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS)Every 1 hourObserve weather conditions change rapidly.Current weather, icing, lightning,, air pressure.Automated Sensor
Wind IndicatorsWind SockTo Indicate wind direction & speed.The stronger the wind, the straighter the wind sock.Move back and forth when the wind is gusty (angin ribut)
To Indicate wind direction only.To suggest the pilot the runway to be usedWind TeeGuiding pilot to determine the correct runway to use for landing and take off
Navigational Aid Systems
Navigational Aid SystemsCivilian AirportsDoppler VHF Omni directional Range Station (VOR)Distance measuring equipment (DME)Instrument Landing System:Glide slope/ Glide PathLocalizerMarker Beacon
Military PurposeLong Range Navigation (LORAN)Short Range Navigation (SHORAN)Tactical Air Navigation Systems (TACAN)
DVOR / DMEVOR and DME are usually collocated, providing pilot with bearing and distance.DVOR: bearing of aircraft (in degrees) DME: distance from aircraft (in miles or km)Doppler VHF Omnidirectional Range Station (VOR)Slant range= Distance, D, is the actual distance from the aircraft to the VOR
ILS Components*Localizer: horizontal guidanceGlide Path: vertical guidanceNeedle indicates direction of runway.Centered Needle = Correct AlignmentMarker Beacons: how far the aircraft
Microwave Landing Systems (MLS)Introduced in 1970s to replace ILS, but discontinued in 1995.
*GPS Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS)To take advantage of the GPS system.Quick data transferring among LAAS, Aircraft and GPS satellites
GPS: Global Positioning System24 satellites4 satellites in each 6 orbits.Provide location and time info.Control by U.S military
GPS Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS)The GPS sensor unit (GPSSU) calculates aircraft position (latitude, longitude, and altitude) and exact time.LAAS
*****The Importance of Weather Information
To avoid flight delays, cancellations & other problems
To prevent accidents during take-off and landing
Weather is a factor in approximately 30% of aviation accidents and contributes directly or indirectly to nearly 80 % of fatal general aviation accidents. -NASA Research
Weather is one of the most influential factors in flight delays, cancellations, and other problems.
To prevent any aviation accidents.To avoid flight delay or cancellations.To make management of the air routes more efficientTo improve the safety of the aircraft in the air.
*How do you avoid weather you cant really see?
Wind Shear (a sudden change in the wind speed & direction that can cause aircraft lose in control) Wind shear is a violent downdraft of the wind that can occur around the edges of thunderstorms. A few decades ago, it was thought to have caused a number of serious accidents. During the 1980s and 1990s, NASA led a large research effort to identify how wind shear happens end to test technologies like Doppler radar that can predict wind shear & warn pilots. Today aircraft are equipped with these forward-looking sensors that alert pilots to wind-shear hazards.
Cross-wind landing Cross-wind landing is when you have some amount of wind coming from the left or right. That is, when it's not directly down the runway. Airplanes like to land into the wind but it's not always possible.
Virtually all landings are cross-wind landings. It's unusual to have the wind coming right down the runway, though runways are usually built so they point into the predominant wind direction.
Rain Snow/ice landingWet and icy runways are the leading cause of landing accidents worldwide
Thunderstormstorm with thunder and lightning and typically also heavy rain or hail.
Notes & DefinitionCeiling: The maximum height above sea level in STANDARD AIR attainable by an aircraft under given conditions*Weather observations at the airport
In the US and Canada, the vast majority of airports, large and small, have some form of automated airport weather station, whether an AWOS, ASOS. Most larger airports also have human observers to provide additional observations to supplement the automated station. These weather observations are available over the radio, through Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) or via the ATC.
Planes take-off and land into the wind in order to achieve maximum performance. Because pilots need instantaneous information during landing, a wind indicators is also kept in view of the runway.*WIND DIRECTION INDICATORS
It is important for a pilot to know the direction of the wind. At facilities with an operating control tower, this information is provided by ATC. Information may also be provided by FSS personnel located at a particular airport or by requesting information on a common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF) at air-ports that have the capacity to receive and broadcast on this frequency.
When none of these services is available, it is possible to determine wind direction and runway in use by visual wind indicators. A pilot should check these wind indicators even when information is provided on the CTAF at a given airport because there is no assurance that the information provided is accurate.
Wind direction indicators include a wind sock, wind tee, or tetrahedron. *The wind sock is a good source of information since it not only indicates wind direction, but allows the pilot to estimate the wind velocity and gusts or factor. The wind sock extends out straighter in strong winds and will tend to move back and forth when the wind is gusty.
Wind tees can swing freely, and will align themselves with the wind direction. It can also be manually set to align with the runway in use; therefore, a pilot should also look at the wind sock, if available.
The function of tetrahedron is similar with wind tee
LocationWind Indicators are usually located in a central location near the runway and may be placed in the center of a segmented circle, which will identify the traffic pattern direction, if it is other than the standard left-hand pattern. [Figures 12-11 and 12-12]
* Various types of air navigation aids are in use today, each serving a special purpose.
*Navigational Aid Systems
Early pilots looked out of their open cockpits for roads, rail lines, and airports to find their way in daytime flight. Pilots watched the horizon to make sure they were flying with the aircraft's nose and wings in the proper position relative to the ground, called attitude. As airmail pilots began flying at night and in all kinds of weather in the early 1920s, new equipment was developed to help pilots navigate and maintain aircraft attitude when they could not see the ground. NAVAIDS were developed for use inside the aircraft and also to guide the pilots from the ground. There are various types of air NAVAIDS in use today, each serving a special purpose
Doppler VHF Omni directional Range (DVOR)Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)Instrument Landing System (ILS) which comprised a localizer system, a glide path system and marker beacons.There are few others that is less common or being used for military purpose such as:
Long Range Navigation (LORAN)Short Range Navigation (SHORAN)Tactical Air Navigation Systems (TACAN)
*The distance measuring equipment (DME) system gives the pilots distance to a DME ground station.The pilot can tune one DME station with the navigation control panel.The DME-distance shows on the navigation displays unit
*ILS (instrument landing system)
Primarily consists of three instruments:Marker beacons are used to measure how far aircraft until landingGlideslope or GlidePath for vertical guidanceLocalizer for lateral guidance All of these systems transmitt signals at different frequencies that are translated by electronics to determine the position of the aircraft
*The Instrument Landing System (ILS)
To give precision approach guidance on instrument approaches. The ILS gives position of the aircraft to the glide path and runway centerlineThe ILS receiver calculates up and down glidepath deviation using the signal it receives from the glideslope antenna. It calculates left and right deviation from the signal it receives from the localizer antennas.ILS deviation shows on the Navigation Instrument Display Panel
*MLS (Microwave landing system)
Microwave landing system are all weather landing systems that are similar to ILS. Fewer transmitter stations needed for MLS (usually a single box)Approach Azimuth station, Elevation station, and Range Station
Microwave Landing System developed by FAA NASA and the Department of Defense-designed to provide precision navigation guidance for exact alignment and descent of aircraft on approach to a runway- provides azimuth (The angle of rotation (horizontal) that a ground based parabolic antenna ), elevation and distance- supplements ILS has both vertical and horizontal guidance systems- MLS use suspended by FAA in 1994 in support of then new WAAS technology
The global positioning system (GPS) is a satellite radio aid for navigationGPS uses navigation satellites to give accurate airplane position to the flight crew and flight management system FMSThe GPS sensor unit (GPSSU) calculates aircraft position (latitude, longitude, and altitude) and exact time.
*Represented in the US by Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS)
augmentation n. the action or process of augmenting.augmentmake greater by addition; increase.
Advantages of LAASOne LAAS covers multiple runway endsLAAS eliminates ILS critical areasSupports offset landing thresholds and flexible glide-path to mitigate wake turbulenceContributing technology for high precision terminal area navigation servicesClosely Spaced Parallel ApproachSimultaneous Independent Approach Precise positioning for terminal area navigation RNAV and RNP
LAAS is a precision approach and landing system that relies on the Global Positioning System (GPS) to broadcast highly accurate information to aircraft on the final phases of a flight. LAAS is being developed specifically to augment GPS satellites to support precision approaches and landing capability to aircraft operating within a 20- to 30-mile radius of the airport. LAAS approaches will be designed to avoid obstacles, restricted airspace, noise-sensitive areas, or congested airspace.http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d0511.pdf
The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) will augment the Global Positioning System to provide an all-weather approach, landing, and surface navigation capability. LAAS focuses its service on a local area (approximately a 20-30 mile radius), such as an airport, and broadcasts its correction message via a very high frequency (VHF) radio data link from a ground-based transmitter.http://gps.faa.gov/Library/laas-f-text.htm