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Ancient Greece. The Geography of Greece Geography Peninsula- Mediterranean / Aegean SeasPeninsula- Mediterranean / Aegean Seas Sea = trade, ideasSea

Dec 17, 2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Ancient Greece
  • Slide 2
  • The Geography of Greece
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  • Geography Peninsula- Mediterranean / Aegean SeasPeninsula- Mediterranean / Aegean Seas Sea = trade, ideasSea = trade, ideas Mountain Valleys divide into city-statesMountain Valleys divide into city-states Rocky Islands limit fertile landRocky Islands limit fertile land
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  • Agriculture Good climate but bad terrain (very mountainous)Good climate but bad terrain (very mountainous) Hilly ground: grapes Rocky soil: olives Good soil: corn and wheat Sea was very importantSea was very important Homer describes various fishing methods using hooks, nets, and harpoon in both the Iliad and the Odyssey
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  • Bronze Age Greece
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  • Crete: Minoan Civilization (Palace at Knossos)
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  • Knossos: Minoan Civilization Early Greeks on Crete
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  • The Mycenaean Civilization *1 st Greek speakers *Seatraders *Influenced by Egypt *Trojan War- economic Rivalry W/ Troy
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  • Trojan War About 1200 B.C., the Mycenaeans fought the Trojan War with the city of Troy in AnatoliaAbout 1200 B.C., the Mycenaeans fought the Trojan War with the city of Troy in Anatolia At the same time, foreigners invaded the Mycenaean homelandAt the same time, foreigners invaded the Mycenaean homeland From 1100 to 800 B.C., chaos reigned throughout the eastern MediterraneanFrom 1100 to 800 B.C., chaos reigned throughout the eastern Mediterranean In the absence of a centralized state or empire, local institutions took the lead in restoring political order to GreeceIn the absence of a centralized state or empire, local institutions took the lead in restoring political order to Greece City-states The Trojan Horse
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  • GREEK GODS Polytheists- gods live on Mt OlympusPolytheists- gods live on Mt Olympus Common Greek culture formsCommon Greek culture forms ZEUS = god, humansZEUS = god, humans HERA= marriageHERA= marriage POSEIDON = seaPOSEIDON = sea APHRODITE = loveAPHRODITE = love ARES = warARES = war ATHENA = wisdomATHENA = wisdom
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  • Homer: The Heroic Age *Wandering blind poet *Wrote Iliad and Odyssey Every man make up his mind to fight and move on his enemyIts hard for me to face so many men and with all at once.. And yet I will - Achilles (the Iliad)
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  • Vocabulary Polis = city-state Acropolis = High city within polis Monarchy = King with central power Aristocracy = Rule by landholding elite Oligarchy = Small, powerful elite business class rule Phalanx= formation of heavily armed soldiers
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  • ATHENS: Yesterday & Today Most powerful Greek city - state
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  • Piraeus: Athens Port City
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  • Early Athens Monarchy Aristocracy - People begin to resent nobles, wants rights - Democracy = Govt by the people
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  • Sparta City-State in southCity-State in south Many captured slaves = strict societyMany captured slaves = strict society Govt = 2 kings & councilGovt = 2 kings & council Military society- boys age 7 -30= live in barracks, trainMilitary society- boys age 7 -30= live in barracks, train Isolated, frowned on trade, wealth = no new ideas, art, etcIsolated, frowned on trade, wealth = no new ideas, art, etc Becomes rival of Athens- compete for power, influence in Greek worldBecomes rival of Athens- compete for power, influence in Greek world
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  • Athenian democracy Males can voteMales can vote 500 man legislature500 man legislature Slaves, women no rightsSlaves, women no rights Boys are educatedBoys are educated
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  • Persian Wars: 499 BCE 480 BCE Athens & Sparta vs. Persia Victories @ Marathon & Thermopylae = Greeks win Believe gods protect superior form of govt
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  • Persian Wars: Famous Battles Marathon (490 BCE) 26 miles from Athens Thermopylae (480 BCE) 300 Spartans at the Mountain pass Salamis (480 BCE) Athenian navy victorious
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  • Golden Age of Pericles : 460 BCE 429 BCE Direct Democracy- all males, regardless of wealth / class Salaries paid to elected officials (poor can serve) Assembly meets often- 6,000 + needed to vote power is in the hands, not of a minority, but the whole people- Pericles
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  • Great Athenian Philosophers Philospher Lover of Wisdom Believe events not caused by whim of gods Observe / reason to find real cause Examples SocratesAristotle Plato
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  • Great Athenian Philosophers Socrates Questions everything Controversial? Executed at age 70 for corrupting youth and disrespecting gods
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  • Great Athenian Philosophers Plato *Ideal state not democracy -Workers produce -Soldiers defend -Philosophers rule -Wisest = Leader
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  • Great Athenian Philosophers AristotleAristotle Favors govt led by single virtuous leader Democracy = mob rule
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  • Athens: The Arts & Sciences DRAMA (tragedians): Aeschylus Sophocles Euripides THE SCIENCES: Pythagoras Democritus all matter made up of small atoms. Hippocrates Father of Medicine
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  • Phidias Acropolis
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  • The Acropolis Today
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  • The Parthenon *Built on the acropolis during the reign of Pericles * Symbol of democracy, classic Greek Architecture
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  • Influence of Greek Architecture The ParthenonThe Lincoln Memorial
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  • The Classical Greek Ideal
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  • The Ancient Olympics: Athletes & Trainers Great runner, four times victor at the Games, But for a war you would have known no fame. Though exiled from the bubbling springs of home, Your swift pace made a new land's fields your own. - Pindar, Olympian Ode 12, 460BC
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  • Olympia: Temple to Hera
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  • The 2004 Olympics
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  • SPARTA
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  • Forms Peloponnesian League to counter Athens Delian League
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  • Peloponnesian Wars Sparta defeats Athens Geography Disease Persia
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  • Macedonia Under Philip II
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  • Alexander the Great Forms vast empire Cultures blend- Greek ideas spread Alexandria=Egypt. City between 3 continents Stoicism=philosoph y of life- avoid desires & disappointments by accepting life calmly
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  • Alexander the Great s Empire
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  • Alexander the Great in Persia
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  • The Hellenization of Asia
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  • Pergamum: A Hellenistic City
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  • The Economy of the Hellenistic World
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  • Hellenistic Philosophers Cynics Diogenes ignore social conventions & avoid luxuries. citizens of the world. live a humble, simple life. Epicurians Epicurus avoid pain & seek pleasure. all excess leads to pain! politics should be avoided.
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  • Hellenistic Philosophers Stoics Zeno nature is the expansion of divine will. concept of natural law. get involved in politics, not for personal gain, but to perform virtuous acts for the good of all. true happiness is found in great achievements.
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  • Hellenism: The Arts & Sciences Scientists / Mathematicians: Aristarchus heliocentric theory. Euclid geometry Archimedes pulley Hellenistic Art: More realistic; less ideal than Hellenic art. Showed individual emotions, wrinkles, and age!
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  • The Breakup of Alexander s Empire
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