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ANALOG IC DESIGN INTRODUCTION. What is Analog IC Design? Analog IC design is the successful implementation of analog circuits and systems using integrated

Dec 24, 2015

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  • Slide 1
  • ANALOG IC DESIGN INTRODUCTION
  • Slide 2
  • What is Analog IC Design? Analog IC design is the successful implementation of analog circuits and systems using integrated circuit technology. Circuits process signals continuous in time and continuous in amplitude
  • Slide 3
  • The (electronic) world is going Digital, why Analog?
  • Slide 4
  • NEED While many applications have replaced much analog circuitry with their digital counterparts, the need for analog circuit design is actually growing. REASON------- Consumer-focused electronics have become the driving force of industry, But, consumer electronics has become all-digital, networked, sophisticated, and almost independent of time, place, physical embodiment, and content. Users expect their tailored audio and video content when, where, and how they want it, to their own schedule and convenience.
  • Slide 5
  • Ans.---As the digital demands have increased, they have increased the demands on analog as well, which is good for R&D and production investment. Ironically, new requirements for features in digital cell phones are dictating the needs for new analog functions. And in turn, the increased analog capability has enabled more the desired digital functionality and performance, as well. So we have one of the few cases where a positive feedback loop is for good Example---Electronic application in demand CELL PHONE
  • Slide 6
  • Basic Digital Handset The key components of a basic handset are the radio, the power management, and the analog and digital baseband processing.
  • Slide 7
  • Analog in digital handset. Interesting fact: There's more analog in a digital handset than in an analog model
  • Slide 8
  • In a digital handset, --convert the voice signal to a digital stream (with an "analog" ADC). ---But before conversion, need to filter it (using an analog filter). --What comes out to your ear must be converted from digital to analog.(DAC) --And there's an analog filter there to clean up that signal. Getting the signal up onto the RF carrier, ---power amplifier (PA), --analog circuitry is needed to control the PA to ramp it up and down, and to control the power,
  • Slide 9
  • Putting the signal up on the air waves generally requires turning bits into a modulated carrier, which requires DACs and some filters (more analog parts). On the receive side, what comes down from the RF carrier is a modulated signal that needs ADCs to decompose the signal into quadrature components.
  • Slide 10
  • The battery and power management CIRCUIT that's needed to handle all the new digital "stuff that's being packed into the newer models, like things to manage a color display, and the backlighting for it, high-performance audio, and so on.
  • Slide 11
  • Modern Handset
  • Slide 12
  • Higher resolution camera--- analog image processing required to interface a multi-megapixel camera sensor to the digital processor, Music-player phones with iPod-like capabilities---- high-quality playback digital-to-analog converters (DACs) and headphone driver amplifiers for audio playback. TV reception is a new feature emerging in cell phones---- keeping the display brightly lit to watch a video clip without consuming too much power requires power management. power-management and battery-monitoring/charging functions needed to maximize battery life while powering all the new features. An emerging TV-related feature is the ability to play back recorded still photos and short video clips from the phone to a TV set. This requires creating an analog video signal from the digitally-stored photo or video clip. Games--- improved graphics capability, user interfaces, and even sound effects.
  • Slide 13
  • Other reasons--- Also, as the clock speed of digital circuitry approaches 1 GHz, analog effects in these digital circuits are playing an important role in the circuit behavior.
  • Slide 14
  • If not for the multitude of analog and mixed-signal components that vendors have developed in the past decades, the digital media river would slow to a trickle. It takes countless A/D and D/A convertersaudio, video, RFto make it possible. It also takes basic small-signal amplifiers, audio through RF power amplifiers, disk-drive read/write circuitry, motor controls, line drivers and receivers, power-supply components, touch-screen interfaces, display drivers, thermal sensors and fan controls, and much more, to make the digital world possible. Which Analog circuits?
  • Slide 15
  • Background Basic knowledge about single stage amplifiers Ac. Dc. Analysis techniques Frequency response Negative feedback
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Unique Features of Analog IC Design Geometry is an important part of the design Electrical Design Physical Design Test Design Usually implemented in a mixed analog-digital circuit Analog is 20% and digital 80% of the chip area Analog requires 80% of the design time Analog is designed at the circuit level Passes for success: 2-3 for analog, 1 for digital
  • Slide 18
  • The Analog IC Design Flow
  • Slide 19
  • Analog IC Design - Continued Electrical Aspects-Topology, W/L values, and dc currents
  • Slide 20
  • Analog IC Design - Continued Physical Aspects-(Layout) -Implementation of the physical design including: - Transistors and passive components - Connections between the above - Busses for power and clock distribution -External connections Testing Aspects -Design and implementation for the experimental verification of the circuit after fabrication
  • Slide 21
  • Comparison of Analog and Digital Circuits
  • Slide 22
  • Skills Required for Analog IC Design In general, analog circuits are more complex than digital Requires an ability to grasp multiple concepts simultaneously Must be able to make appropriate simplifications and assumptions Requires a good grasp of both modeling and technology Have a wide range of skills - breadth (analog only is rare) Be able to learn from failure Be able to use simulation correctly Simulation truths:---(Usage of a simulator) x (Common sense) = Constant Simulators are only as good as the models and the knowledge of those models by the designer Simulators are only good if you already know the answers
  • Slide 23
  • Complexity and Design IQ as a Function of the Number of Transistors
  • Slide 24
  • TECHNOLOGY IMPACT ON ANALOG IC DESIGN
  • Slide 25
  • Trends in CMOS Technology Moores law: The minimum feature size tends to decrease by a factor of 1/ 2 every three years. Semiconductor Industry Association roadmap for CMOS
  • Slide 26
  • Slide 27
  • Threshold voltages and power supply:
  • Slide 28
  • Trends in IC Technology Technology Speed: Figure of Merit vs. Time:
  • Slide 29
  • Estimated Frequency Performance based on Scaling:
  • Slide 30
  • Innovation in Analog IC Design
  • Slide 31
  • Technology-Driven versus Application-Driven Innovation
  • Slide 32
  • Application driven circuit innovation:
  • Slide 33
  • IC Design Development Time A steeper ramp for the IC design development is required for every new generation of technology.
  • Slide 34
  • Results: Scramble to develop new tools Complexity is increasing with each new scaling generation Need more trained and skilled circuit designers
  • Slide 35
  • Technology impact on IC Design The good: Smaller geometries Smaller parasitics Higher transconductance Higher bandwidths The bad: Reduced voltages Smaller channel resistances (lower gain) More nonlinearity Deviation from square-law behavior The ugly: Increased substrate noise in mixed signal applications Increased 1/f noise below 0.25m CMOS Threshold voltages are not scaling with power supply Suitable models for analog design not available
  • Slide 36
  • ANALOG SIGNAL PROCESSING Signal Bandwidths versus Application
  • Slide 37
  • Signal Bandwidths versus Technology
  • Slide 38
  • Consequently: Analog finds applications where speed, area, or power have advantages over a digital approach.
  • Slide 39
  • Eggshell Analogy of Analog IC Design (Paul Gray)
  • Slide 40
  • Analog Signal Processing versus Digital Signal Processing in VLSI Key issues: Analog/Digital mix is application dependent Not scaling driven Driven by system requirements for programmability/adaptability/testability/des ignability
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Application Areas of Analog IC Design There are two major areas of analog IC design: Restituitive - performance oriented (speed, accuracy, power, area) Classical analog circuit and systems design Cognitive - function oriented (adaptable, massively parallel) A newly growing area inspired by biological systems
  • Slide 43
  • What is the Future of Analog IC Design? Technology will require more creative circuit solutions in order to achieve desired performance Analog circuits will continue to be a part of large VLSI digital systems Interference and noi