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Al Qasim Translation

Apr 14, 2018

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    1) AlloftheNarclaimthatGod{PraisebetoHim}isthreeuniquepersonsandthatallofthosethreepersonsareonesingle,harmoniousnature.Theysaid:Thosethree,in

    theperceptionofthecertaintyofthesoul,areFather,Son,andHolySpirit.Theysaid:the

    Fatherisnotonewhowasgenerated,theSonisason[ibn]andageneratedson[waladmald],andtheHolySpiritisneitheraprogenitornorgenerated.Eachoneofthethree,

    accordingtowhatwehavesaid,isanexistentbeing.Theysaid:Thesethreepersonshave

    notceasedbeingunitedtogether.Oneofthemdidnotprecedeanotherinexistencein

    spiteofwhatwementionedconcerningtheFatherandtheHolySpiritandthegenerated

    one[walad]eachoneofthemdidnotceaseinregardtodivinityandkingship.Therewas

    nodifferencebetweenallthreeoftheminregardtodivinity,orinregardtoeternitypast,

    orinregardtopower,orinregardtokingship,orinregardtowill.Allthreeofthemare

    oneintermsofnature[abah].This[beingthatis]oneintermsofnatureisthreein

    termsofseparatepersons,andthat,likethesun,inregardtowhatisperceivedofitbythe

    senses;whichisasinglesuninitsperfectionanditsessence[dht]andisthreedifferentthingsinitsstate[l]anditsattributes.Eachoneofthemisnottheotherinregardtoits

    personanditsattributeevenifitwasidenticalinitsessenceanditsnature.Fromthat,

    theyclaimthatthesuninregardtoitsidentity[an]isliketheFatheranditslightinitisliketheSonanditsheatfromitisliketheSpirit.Thenitremainsasunwithnodoubt

    concerningitbeingonething,evenifithasthismultiplicity,becausethesun,ifitslight

    isseparatedfromit,isnotcalledasun.Likewise,ifitsheatisseparatedfromitisalsonot

    calledasun.Thesunisonlycalledandnamedasunwheneachofthesethingsisinit

    collectively.Thehumanislikewisealthoughheisasoneinregardtohumanity,wesee

    himandyouseehimasagreatnumberofthingsamongwhicharehissoul,hisbody,

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    hislife,andhisspeech.Hisbodyisnothissoulality[nafsniyyatihi],andhisspeechis

    nothislife,becausenooneisabletoclaimthatlifeisspeech,northattheyareboth

    togetheroneharmoniousthingbecausetherearemany(amongthe)livingbeingsthatdo

    nottalkanddonotspeak.Theysaid,deceivingus:Bymaniq,wedonotmeanwordsthatareheardaudibly.Rather,wemeanthethoughtwhichGodcreatedinthehuman,an

    instinctandanatureandanaturaldisposition[fira]particulartoman,notinanimals

    otherthanhimlikethelifewhichGodcreatedinbeastsandotherwiseamongtheplants

    oftheearthanditstrees.Ifthelifewerethespeech,thenalllivingthingswouldspeak.

    AllofthebeastswouldspeakjustasthesonsofAdamspeak.

    2) Theysaid:Sincethematterisnotlikethat,itdemonstrateswhatwesaidaboutittheFatherandtheSon[ibn]andtheHolySpiritwhethertheirperceptionisbyreasonor

    sensetheybecameinessenceandnatureasonesingularityandconcerningthehypostases,whicharethepersons,asthreeinnumber.Natureunitesthemandforms

    themintoone,whilethehypostasesseparatesthemandmakesthemnumericallydiverse.

    TheFatherisnottheSon,andtheSonisnottheSpirit.Whatwesaidofitinthisregardis

    evident,andhasbeensetforth[above].Allofthemareoneinregardtonatureand

    essenceandtheyareinthreehypostases:Spirit,Son,andprogenitorFather[bwlid].

    TheFatherisaprogenitor,notonewhowasgenerated;theSonisonewhowas

    generated,notaprogenitor;andtheSpiritisathirdexistentbeing,neitheraprogenitor

    noronewhowasgenerated.

    3) Theysaid,then,thatthesethreehypostasesdidnotceasebeingtogetherasthreeinnumber.Theydidnotprecedeoneanotherinexistence,beginningoreternity.Oneof

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    them,theSon,wassentdownfromthemtotheearthtotheVirginMary1asamercytohumansandmankind,withoutbeingseparatedfromtheFatherandtheHolySpirit.He

    tookaveilandacoveringfromherandbecameincarnatefromherinabody,completein

    totalhumanity.Hebecamemanifestinitandappearedinittotheeyesofobserversas

    theylookedathim.Heatejustashumanseat,andhedrank,andhetraveledaroundonhistwolegsandheperseveredandhebecameweary.Asamercyandcompassionfor

    humankind,hesubmittedhimselftothecrossandtothatwhichcametohimintermsofilltreatmentandhardshiponaccountofhisgenerosityandmagnanimity.

    4) Thereafter,theNardifferedinwhattheyclaimconcerningtheson[ibn]andgeneratedone[walad],andconcerningthatwhichwasfromhisincarnation,concerning

    thebody.TheRmsaidconcerninghimandtheirteachingiswell-knownthatthe

    divinehypostasis,whodidnotceaseasanexistentbeing,andwasbegottenbythefather

    beforetheages,wassentdowntotheVirginMary.Hetookfromheranaturewithouta

    hypostasis.Hewas,[inaddition]tohernature,ahypostasis.Throughthenaturehetook

    fromher,hedideverythingthatwaswell-knowninhernature.Hesleptjustassheslept

    hersleep.Eventhoughhishypostasiswasnotherhypostasis,hedidtheactionsofher

    naturealthoughhisoriginwasnotherorigininregardtohumanity.Theysaid:Heacted

    accordingtohernature,thusal-Mas wasacompletehumanwithtwonatures,although

    hewasonehypostasis,nottwo.Al-Mas,thus,wastheeternallybegottenSon[ibn]of

    Godandthetwonaturesthatwereexistentinhimactedtogether.Theysaid:Whenhe

    rejoicedorhewept,orlaughedorcomplainedallofthemconfessanddonotdoubtthat

    hewasweepingandlaughing.Thatwhichconsistedofallofthatandthingssimilartoit,

    1Allpersonalnameswithawell-knownEnglishequivalentarerenderedthus.

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    whichisrelatedtothenatureofthehuman,wasdonebythehumannature,andthatwhichconsistedofhisresurrectingthedeadandhishealingtheblindandtheleperandthingssimilartoitwasdonebythedivinenature.

    5) TheJacobitessaidthattheSon,whodidnotceasetoexist,leftfromtheheavenstotheearth.Hedescendedasamercyandincompassionforhumanityandoutofkindness

    fromhimtowardmanwithbeneficence.HetookabodyfromtheVirginMary,and

    becameincarnateinit.Hebecametogetherwithit[thebody].Theysaid:Doyounotsee

    thatmanis[composed]ofspiritandbody,buttheniscalledamanbymeansofone

    word?Youseebothofthem,althoughheiscalledaman.Isitnotsaidtobothofthem

    thattheyaretwoinregardtohumanity,butitissaidthatheisoneman,whileheis,as

    youknow,aspiritandabody.Theysaid:Likewise,al-Mas,whoistheassociationof

    divinityandhumanity,iscalledaMessiahwhoistheSon[ibn]ofGodwhodoesnot

    ceasetoexist.Doyounotseethatthisteaching,concerningwhatwementionedandwe

    reflecteduponisevidentlytrue?

    6) TheNestorianssaidthattheson,whodoesnotceasetoexist,inhislove,descendedoutofmercyandkindness.HebecameincarnatefromMaryduringhisdescentina

    perfectandcompletebodywithanatureandahypostasisfromhumanity[insnyawa-

    damya].Al-Maswastwocompletenaturesandtwocompletehypostasesafterhis

    incarnationinthebody.Theysaid:Whenweseehimeatinganddrinking,comingand

    goingonearth,andgettingtired,suffering,laughing,andcrying;weconsiderallofthat

    andwhatwesawconcerningitandthingssimilartoittobefromhumanity.Whenwesee

    himrevivingthedeadandhealingthesickandwalkingonthewater,weconsiderthat[to

    be]onaccountofdivinity.

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    7) EverysectoftheNarsaid,despitetheirdifferencesandthedivergenceoftheirteachings,thatthereasonofthedescentofthedivineSon,whodescendedfromheaven,

    wasasamercytohumankindandtocomplywiththemessengersandprophets.Theysaid

    thatthishappenedbecauseofthetransgressionofAdamthatis,whenhesinnedandate

    fromthetreewhichGodhadforbiddenhedisobeyedandGodtheBlessedandExalted

    freedhimselffromresponsibilityofhimandsubmittedhimtoSatanthroughfollowinghim.Theysaid:HebecameinthedomainofSatanandtherealmofhisauthority.

    Likewise,theyclaimedthatallofhisdescendantsweretogetherwithhiminit,Satan

    governingthemjustashelikedtorule.Theysaid:AmongthoseoverwhomSatanruled,

    i.e.,Adamandhisdescendants,weremanysoulsoftheprophetsofGodandhis

    messengers.AmongthemwerethesoulsofNoahandAbrahamandothersfromamong

    themessengersandtheprophets.Theysaid:TheSonusedsubtlemeansandstratagems

    inordertoextractthosesoulsfromthehandofSatan.Onaccountofthatandforthat

    reasonheclothedhimselfinahuman[damyan]bodyinorderthathewouldbe,while

    hewasclothedwithit,hiddenfromSatan.Withthat,theSondisguisedhimselffromhim

    inorderthatSatanwouldnotbeonguardforhimoruncoverhisdeception.

    8) Theysaid:Whensinovercamethepeopleandafflictionresidedwiththem,theyclaimitbecameevidenttoAdamwhatinfluenceSatanhadonhimandhistrickeryand

    deceptionofhim.Atthattime,theSondeceivedSatanbyhiscunning.Heattainedwhat

    hewantedinregardtothematterheextractedAdamandallhisoffspringfromthepower

    andhandofSatan.Theysaid:Allofthat,itwasonlytheSonsacrificinghimselfonthe

    crossandduetothehardshipheencounteredbeforeitasabenevolentactionfromthe

    Sontowardus,andoutofgenerosityandkindnessandmercyfromtheSontous.They

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    said:TheSonpurchasedmankindfromhisFather,throughthesufferingandcrossthatcametohim.Which,theyclaim,meansthatitwasnotinaccordancewiththewisdom

    andjusticeofhisFatherthathetakeunjustlyfromSatanwhathehadconcededtohim,i.e.,Adamandhisdescendants,andthathadcometoobeySatanandhiscommand,

    becauseaccordingtotheirdoctrines,theyclaimhesaidtoSatan,Allthosewhofollow

    youbelongtoyou.Theysaid:Forthatreason,theSonpurchasedusjustlyfromhis

    Fatherandbymeansofcunning,hewrestedfromSatanthatwhichwasinhishand,i.e.,

    us.

    9) WhenheextractedAdamandthesoulsofthemessengersandprophetsafterhecompletedhistreatmentofSatan,heascendedtoheavenafteraperiodoffortydayshadpassedfromhiscrucifixion.Theysaid:Hesatattherighthandofhisfather,completein

    hisentirebeingandbody,andallofthatwhichwasinhiminregardtodivinityand

    humanity,andalltheattributes thatwereinbothofthemandbelongedtobothofthem.

    Theysa

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