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Ajit Ranade

Dec 28, 2016

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Indian Economy salient featuresA Geographic Idea of India
All generalisations about India are false, including this one! This slide is mainly for our friends from abroad.
1747.bin
Strengths
sustained growth at 6.4 for over a decade (but recent slowdown)
strong export potential, current a/c deficit low
healthy forex reserves
low external debt
low inflation regime
Weaknesses
fiscal situation of states worse
inadequate infrastructure, huge funding need
unsatisfactory investment climate
dependence on oil imports, monsoons
slowing of reforms, coalition compulsions
social indicators below world average
This is a quick snapshot, non-quantitative summary. Important to contrast with Latin Americal, East Asian and E. European countries.
TUG2002 September 2002
PPP GDP about US $2 trillion, fourth highest in the world
TUG2002 September 2002
2000-01
53.3
24.8
21.9
1990-91
Services
43.7
Agriculture
30.9
Industry
25.4
Leapfrogging directly to information age? Shrinking industrial sector is a worry
TUG2002 September 2002
accounts for about 2% of India’s GDP.
In FY01, its share was 1.5% of the global market ($387 bn).
In FY02, the size of the industry was Rs. 485 bn of which exports accounted for 76% and domestic software 24%.
India exports software to 102 countries.
An unexpected bonus of highly subsidised tech education?
Indian Software Industry
Mr. Narayanmurthy of Infosys wants to get to 10% of GDP. “Islands of competitiveness” theory. Nyt story from 1994 of growing exports from India.
TUG2002 September 2002
FY02 (in Rs. Bn):
Dom. Market 18%
40% of all income tax to be paid by software professionals!
Chart1
FY95
FY95
FY96
FY96
FY97
FY97
FY98
FY98
FY99
FY99
FY00
FY00
FY01
FY01
Exports
Domestic
Total
FY95
15.35
9.36
24.71
FY96
25.2
16.66
41.86
69.4050991501
FY97
39
26.28
65.28
55.9483994267
FY98
65.3
46.47
111.77
71.2162990196
FY99
109.4
61.82
171.22
53.1895857565
FY00
171.5
71.38
242.88
41.8525873146
FY01
283.5
98.91
382.41
57.4481225296
38.5682263939
Exports (in Rs.bn)
FY95
15.35
1.9
0
FY96
25.2
2.4
64.1693811075
FY97
39
3.3
54.7619047619
FY98
65.3
5
67.4358974359
FY99
109.4
7.8
67.5344563553
FY00
171.5
10.8
56.7641681901
FY01
283.5
14
65.306122449
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&A
Sheet2
in Rs.bn
Top 25 IT software and services exporters from India
Top Ten Software Companies NASSCOM's Rating as per Exporters from India for FY02 (in Rs.bn)
Rank
Company
7.64
6
764
6
In FY02, showed 70% growth (Rs. 70 bn)
Employs over 1,00,000 people
Will account for 40% of all venture capital investment by end of 2002
TUG2002 September 2002
13-15
8-11
21-24
28-30
TeX would fit into ITES. Window wide open, unlike CAD work. Right now high billing (maybe) but low volumes.
TUG2002 September 2002
TeX in India
Possibly the biggest TUG (?)
All 13 Indic scripts can be typeset in TeX (but only 10 of 5000 fonts free)
an estimated 8000 people work diectly on TeX for their livelihood
Research and font development work almost totally done outside India in the past
only one widely used TeX package done in India (pdfscreen)
TUG2002 September 2002
Elsevier share about 40%
total exports from Indian vendors for publishing as a whole is US$ 100m, doubled in 3 years
Scientific publishing much smaller part
Training is a main bottleneck
TeX may be loosing to newer technologies
TUG2002 September 2002
Universities, research institutes
TechBooks
180 m readers, Kerala 70%, Bihar 15%
average exposure only 16 minutes to media
Dainik Bhasker, Jagran now largest dailies
readership of dailies growth faster than literacy growth during 1999-2002
48% readership in 6 lakh villages
TUG2002 September 2002
Outlook for Readership
growing literacy, edu institutions, and purchasing power
248 m adults are literate but do not read any publication.
FY03 may see a 20-25% sales growth in publishing
TUG2002 September 2002
Increasing marketshare in publishing, higher billing rates and volumes
Catering to domestic publishing demand
technical documents in Indian languages
standardised encoding for all Indic scripts
Prof. Vidysagars’s vision - right-click on a ps file to transliterate in any Indian font
Open Type fonts for all Indic scripts
TeX development from India
Marriage of Unix/Linux localisation with TeX, also merge into Indic-computing effort
same language subtitling
e-books, simputer, text-to-speech
leveraging open-source (a la sunshine and solar devices)
TeX in India: Looking Ahead (contd)
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50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
FY95FY96FY97FY98FY99FY00FY01
WPI - Inflation