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Aims, goals and objectives

Jan 13, 2017

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Education

Aims, Goals and Objectives

Educational Aims, Goals and Objectives

OutlineIntroductionTerminological IssuesAimsGoalsObjectivesFormulating Instructional Objectives Blooms Taxonomy of Educational ObjectivesSmart ObjectivesConclusionBibliography

AimsGeneral statements that provide a sense of direction and serve as guiding principles for educational policy; Aims are the translations of the general philosophy and needs of the country; Aims are designed at the national/state level by policy making groups;Aims can be based on the constitution of the country;

Ornstein (1990, p. 84)

We use the term Aims to refer to broad statments about the intent of education. They are value-laden statments, written by panels, commissions, or policy-making groups, that express a philosophy of education and concepts of the social role of schools and the needs of schools and youth. In short, they are broad guides for translating the needs of society into educational policy

Ennaji (1994, p. 158)

Educational theorists distinguish three types of ELT aims: the goverments aims, the educational administrators aims, and the teachers aims. The first type is termed ends, the second goals and the third objectives

Examples of aimsTo prepare students for democratic citizenship;To develop a moral character and personal descipline;To strenghten ethical and spiritual values;To teach the rights and duties of citizenship;To encourage creative and critical thinking.

GoalsDerived from aims;Aims become goals when they become more specific and refer to a particular school or school system and to a specific subject area of the curriculum;Goals translate aims into statements that will describe what schools are expected to accomplish;Goals are more specific and definite than aims, but they are still nonbehavioral and therefore nonobservable and non-measureable.

Wilson (2005, p. 46)

Goals are the statements of educational intention which are more specific than aims but less specific than objectives

Examples of GoalsThe development of reading skills; The appreciation of arts;The understanding of scientific and mathematical concepts.

ObjectivesPhilosophy ----Aims--- Goals -----ObjectivesObjectives are stated in observable and measurable terms (outcomes, proficiencies or competences);Objectives are behavioral in nature and more precise than goals;Objectives state what students should know at the end of the course and what is expected from them;

Examples of ObjectivesTo identify the main idea of the author;To be able to express advice, apology, complaint, etc.;To be able to locate the topic sentence and the supporting details;To be aware of the differences between the present simple and present perfect.

Why use learning objectives? (Gronlund, 2000)To provide a focus for instruction;To provide guidelines for learning;To provide targets for assessment;To communicate expectations to learners;To convey instructional intent to others;To provide for evaluation of instruction.

Types of Educational Objectives(Orenstein, 1990)Program Objectives:Address subjects at particular grade levelsCourse Objectives:Relate to particular courses within grade levelsClassroom Objectives:Divided into unit objectives and lesson plan objectives

Blooms Taxonomy (1956)Cognitive Domain;Affective Domain;Psychomotor Domain;

Cognitive DomainBlooms TaxonomyKnowledge;Comprehension;Application;Analysis;Synthesis;Evaluation;

Affective DomainKrathwohls TaxonomyReceiving;Responding;Valuing;Organization;Characterization;

Psycho-motor DomainHarrows TaxonomyReflex Movements;Fundamental Movements;Perceptual Abilities;Physical Abilities;Skilled Movements;Nondiscursive Communication.

Smart ObjectivesS--------- Specific;M---------Mesurable;A----------Achievable;R----------Result-based;T-----------Time-bound.

ConclusionIn sum, an objective is a specific, measurable and observable behviour of less than a days duration. A goal is the outcome of successfully completed objectives measured over a series of days. An aim is the product of a long term endevour measured over a course of one or more years.

BibliographyAnderson, L.W. and Krathwohl(Eds.) 2001 A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.New York, Longman.Ennaji, M. & Sadiqi, F? (1994). Applications of Modern Linguistics. Afrique Orient.Grunlund, N. (1990). Mesurement and Evaluation in Teaching. New York: MacGraw-Hill.Orenstien, A. (1990). Strategies for Effective Teaching. Loyla University of Chicago.

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