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Publication Mo.ICAR/ED|AJ/Pub. 15/5-2OO1














NEW DELHI -110012


Publication No. ICAR/Ed.(A)Pub.15/5-2001





Published by Shri Arvind Ohakravarty, Director, Directorate of Information and Publications ofAgriculture, Krishi Anusai han Br avan, Pusa, New Delhi, Laser typeset at M/s. HD ComputerCraft, EA-1/75, Inderpuri Main Market, New Delhi 110,012 and Printed at M/s. Vinayak Press, B-177/1, Phase-l, Okhla Industrial Area, New Delhi-20



Agricultural education in the broad sense covers all human endeavorsin the acquisition, transmission and absorption of knowledge for thebetter means and understanding of the processes which lead to thescientific farming. Though the present educational system producesgraduates with the best knowledge of sciences, the desired emphasis islacking for the development of skills, attitude, which needs strengthening.Quality manpower alone would compete in the international market.Therefore, it is imperative that our education should be skill as well ascommercial oriented, and satisfying the current market demands.

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research, the apex body for theagricultural education is very keen in improving the agriculturaleducation. It has taken several initiatives in improving the agriculturaleducation under the leadership of Dr S.L. Mehta, Deputy Director General(Education) with full support and guidance from Dr R.S. Paroda, DirectorGeneral, ICAR, New Delhi. As part of the activity, Accreditation Boardwas constituted to improve and sustain the quality of education in SAUs.National level Third Deans' Committee constituted for reviewing theagricultural education, had recommended constitution of committeesfor restructuring of PG Programs in Agricultural Sciences. Accordingly,the ICAR constituted 16 Broad Subject Matter Committees (BSMCs) forvarious subjects, one being in Basic Sciences. Dr S. Kannaiyan, V.C.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore was nominated asCoordinator for BSMC in Basic Sciences covering AgriculturalMicrobiology, Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Biochemistry,and Plant Physiology. Other members of BSMC were Dr R.P. Sharma,Dr M.L. Lodha, Dr K.V.B.R. Tilak, Dr B.S. Parmar and Dr N. Sethunathan,all from IARI, New Delhi; Dr Udai Kumar, Dr D.J. Bagyaraj, UAS,Bangalore and Dr Randhir Singh, HAU, Hisar.

Dr S. Kannaiyan, Dr R.P.. Sharma, Dr M.L. Lodha and Dr Udai Kumarwere identified as leaders to prepare draft syllabi looking to the presentsyllabi of some of the leading universities in India and abroad inAgricultural Microbiology, Plant Biotechnology, Bio-chemistry and CropPhysiology, respectively.

The identified leaders went through the existing syllabi and restructuredthe same as per the common academic regulations. The draft syllabiwere discussed among BSMC members and were given final touchesbefore being sent to the experts in the concerned field for their commentsand suggestions for further improvement. The comments and suggestions


received from the experts on the restructured syllabi were discussed indetail and the final version of the restructured syllabi was prepared.This version was placed in a meeting-cum-workshop which was organizedfor two days at UAS, Bangalore on 5-6th March, 1999 where syllabi ofPlant Biotechnology, Biochemistry and Crop Physiology were finalized.Agricultural Microbiology Syllabus was finalized in another two daysworkshop organized atTNAU, Coimbatore on 25th -6th September, 2000.The modified syllabi includes courses that have been designed to trainpostgraduate students to tackle present problems and prepare them forthe future. The impact of the rapidly accumulating information due torecent technological advances in biological sciences has been realized indesigning the syllabi.

We wish to extend our profound thanks to all the members of the BSMC.Special thanks are due to Dr R.P. Sharma, Project Director, NRC onPlant Biotechnology, Dr M.L. Lodha, Head, Division of Biochemistry,IARI, New Delhi and Dr Udai Kumar, Prof. & Head , Department of CropPhysiology, University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore for theirleadership role in the concerned disciplines. Thanks are also due to DrK. Govindarajan, Prof. & Head, Dr S.P. Sundaram, Prof., Dr K. Kumarand Dr G. Gopalawamy, Associate Professors in the Department ofAgricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,Coimbatore for their active involvement, valuable comments andsuggestions in developing the restructured syllabi in AgriculturalMicrobiology. We specially thank to those who personally participatedin the meeting-cum-workshops organized for the purpose, as withouttheir contribution, this exercise would not have become fruitful.

We would like to place on record our gratitude's to Dr S. Bislaiah, thethen Vice Chancellor, UAS, Bangalore for hosting the first meeting-cum-workshop at Bangalore.

We hope that this document will help in achieving uniformly highstandards of postgraduate education in the concerned disciplines. TheAccreditation Board Secretariat will be happy to receive comments andsuggestions for improving and updating this publication in future.

S. KannaiyanN.L. MauryaG.D. DiwakarS.L. Mehta



Page No.

Preface (ill)

1. Agricultural Microbiology 1

2. Biochemistry 15

3. Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology 27

4. Crop Physiology 40

AnnexuresI. List of participants in the meeting-cum-workshop

in the BSMA of 55 Basic Sciences 59II. List of participants in the meeting-cum-workshop in

the BSMA of 56 Basic Sciences (Microbiology) 61







1. Fundamentals of microbiology 2 + 12. Morphology, cytology and classification of 2 + 1

microorganisms3. Microbial physiology 2 + 14. Microbial genetics 2 + 1

Seminar 0+ 1 credit


1. Microbial ecology 1 + 12. Soil microbiology 1 + 13. Fermentation technology 1 + 14. Biofertilizers 1 + 15. Food microbiology 1 + 16. Microbial management of organic wastes 1 + 17. Microbial control of crop pests and diseases 1 + 1


To be decided by the Students Advisory Committee Total 35 credits


1. Fundamentals of microbiology ( 2 + 1 )

Discoveries in microbiology; concepts of origin of life, abiogenesis andbiogenesis, spontaneous generation theory, contribution of Louis Pasteur,Robert Koch, Alexander Flemming, S. A. Waksman, and others, theirearly discoveries in the development of Microbiology; recent develop-ments in microscopy; importance of microorganisms in natural proc-esses; sterilization principles and methods; study of microorganisms,staining, principles and applications, methods of isolation and identifi-


cation from different sources, and environments; preservation of micro-bial cultures; Protists, eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms, dif-ferentiation; nutrient requirement of microorganisms carbon, nitrogenand mineral metabolism; Autotrophic, heterotrophic andchemolithotrophic microorganisms ; growth of microorganisms, genera-tion time, different phases of growth curve; microbes in extreme envi-ronments; Applications of microorganisms in industry and agriculture,Immunology, serological techniques, antigen, antibody reactions, agglu-tination and precipitation reactions, applications of serology, microbialserotypes; principles of microbial genetics, genetics of prokaryotic andeukaryotic microorganisms, plasmid, types and their importance, ge-netic variability in microorganisms, mutations and recombination tech-niques, mutation techniques.


Preparation of growth media, liquid, solid and semisolid media, selectiveenrichment and common media for the growth of microorganisms; enu-meration of microbes by pour plate, spread and drop plate methods ;determination of carbon, nitrogen and mineral requirements for micro-bial growth ; determination of generation time and growth curve for dif-ferent microorganisms; staining techniques, simple, different and struc-tural staining techniques, metabolic excretions of microorganisms andassay techniques ; antigen antibody reactions, agglutination test.

Suggested Readings

Atlas, R. M. 1995. Microorganisms in our world, Mosby Year Book Inc.Wm C. brown Pub., Oxford,

Atlas, R.M. 1995. Laboratory manual of Experimental Microbiology.Mosby year book Inc. Missouri.

Brock, T. D. and M.T. Madigar, 1991. Biology of Microorganisms 6th Ed.Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Janeway, C. A. 1994. Immunology. Black well Sci. Pub., Oxford.

Pelczar M.J.. E.G. S Chan and N.L.Krieg. 1996. Microbiology. Me Graw -Hill International Edition, New York.

Schlegal. H.G. 1996 General Microbiology, Cambridge university Press,NewYork,

Sullia, S. B. and Santharam. 1998. General Microbiology. Oxford and

1 2 r


IBH Pub., 40, New Delhi.

2. Morphology, cytology and classification of microorganisms ( 2 + 1 )

Existence of microorganisms in nature, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes,protozoa, viruses; morphology of bacteria, morphological variations inbacterial cell wall and cell membrane ; pilli, flagella ; fimbriae, capsuleformation ; endospore formation and structure; morphology of fungi,cell wall structure, the fungal thallus- unicellular fungi , filamentousfungi , large plectenchymatus structures septa in fungi ; morphology ofactinomycetes; morphology of algae, types of vegetative forms,heterocystous and non heterocystous forms, coccolithous in algae; mor-phology of, protozoa, shapes and sizes of, protozoa; mycoplasma anatomyand architecture of viruses , bacteriophages; cytology of bacterial cell,cytoplasmic membranes, structure and transport mechanism,mesosomes, DNA, RNA constituents, ribosomes, cytoplasmic inclu-sions; cytology of fungi, mitochondria, golgi bodies formation, cell inclu-sions; cytology of protozoa, body coverings and skeletons in protozoa,locomotory organelles in protozoa, internal organelles of protozoa; mi-crobial world, systematic position of microorganisms, general principlesof classification, evolution, methods of classification, modern approachesin classification, numerical taxonomy, DNA homology, adenosine methodof classification; classification of bacteria, Sergey's manual; classifica-tion of fungi, lower and higher fungi; classification of actinomycetes -outline classification of algae; protozoa, mycoplasma viruses, natureand properties; classification and nomenclature of viruses; moleculartechniques in classification of microorganisms.


Examination of cell wall, Gram positive / Gram negative, cell membranestructure; endospores; flagellar structure; examination of internal struc-tures of bacteria; fungal types, sclerotia, chlamydospores, sporangialstructures, sporulation and budding in yeast; morphological differentia-tion of actinomycetes; examination of cell wall; observation of differentmorphological structures of algae; protozoa types; internal organellesexamination; phages formation and observation; cultural and biochemi-cal characters of bacterial genera in each order; fungi, systematic stud-ies of different classes of fungi, algal types, protozoan types and DNAhybridization.

Suggested Readings

Albert Belows. 1992. The Procaryotes I-IV. (ed). Springes verlag, NewYork, USA

Alexopoulos, C. J. 1988 Introductory Mycology. Academic Press, NewI 3 I



Aneja, K.R..1993. Experiment in Microbiology, plant pathology and Tis-sue culture. Wishwa Prakasham, New Delhi.

Brock T.D., and M. T. Madigar, 1991. Biology of Microorganism. PrenticeHall, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Jeffery,C. 1989. Biological Nomenculature. Edward Arnold, London.

Pelczar M.J., E. C. S. Chan and N.L. Krieg. 1986. Microbiology, MC GRAW- HILL international Edition 5th Edition, New York, USA.

Schlegel. H. C. 1988. General Microbiology, Cambridge University Press,New York.

Wolfe S. L. 1993. Molecular and Cellular Biology, Words worth Publ. Co.Belmont, California p. 1145.

3. Microbial physiology (2+ 1)

Introduction and scope of microbial physiology; nutritional diversityamong microorganism, mechanisms of nutrient transport in microor-ganisms; physiology of microbial growth environmental influence ongrowth; bioenergetics; function of enzymes,co-enzymes and prostheticgroups, constitutive and adaptive enzymes- enzyme kinetics;pathwaysof hexose break down, Embeden Meyerhoff parana, pathway, pentosephosphate pathway. Entner Doudroff pathway, oxidation of pyruvate,TCA cycle; utilization of reserve material, starch, glycogen and lipids;respiratory chain and electron transport, heterotrophic generation ofATP, auto trophic generation of ATP; electron transport under anaerobicconditions, denitrification, nitrate and nitrite reduction, sulphate andsulphur reductions and H2S formation; fermentation of mixed acids;methane, formation by reduction of COS , other reductions, carbonateto acetate, fumarate to succinate- reduction of iron oxides.aerobicchemolithotrophic bacteria, inorganic hydrogen donors, oxidation ofmolecular hydrogen, oxidation of reduced sulphur, ferrous iron andmanganous. biosynthesis of building blocks and macromolecules, aminoacids and protein synthesis, nucleotides, fatty acids, phospholipids,isoprenoids.phototrophic bacteria and photosynthetic apparatus, theprocess of photosynthesis, oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis,carbon dioxide fixation by calvin cycle;regulation of metabolism, regula-tion of enzyme activity and synthesis, induction and repression, mecha-nisms of regulation.



Growth of microorganisms in various carbon and nitrogen sources; Meas-urement of growth and mathematical expressions; effect of environmen-tal factors such as pH, temperature etc. on growth ; aerobic and anaerobicrespiration with suitable substrates; study of bacterial photosynthesis,nitrate and nitrite reductase assay, estimation of protein assimilationuse of radioactive tracers (32P 34S etc.) in metabolism

Suggested Readings

Caldwell, D. R. 1995. Microbial physiology and Metabolism Wm. C. BrownPublishers, Dubuque, Iowa, USA.

Gottsdchalk, G. 1977. Bacterial Metabolism, Springer verlag Inc., NewYork

Haddock, B. A and W. A. Hamilton, 1977. Microbial energetics, Cam-bridge Univ. Press, London.

Mendelstan J. M., K.M. Quiller, J- an Daues, 1982. Biochemistry ofBacterial growth 3rd Ed. Blackwell Pub., London.

Moat, A. G. and J.W. Foster. 1995. Microbial Physiology, Wiley - LISSInc., New york.

H.W. Seeley, 1995. Microbes in Action. W.H. Freeman & Co., New York.

4. Microbial genetics (2+1)

Discoveries in microbial genetics; early concepts of bacterial variations,adaptation, mutation and selection; the cytological basis of microbialgenetics; genetic components of bacteria and fungi and segregation ofgenetic characters; molecular aspects of genetic components of DNAand RNA, arrangement of nucleotides, replication of DNA and in vitrosynthesis, denaturation and renaturation, of nucleic acids-DNA, RNA assource of information; mutation-evidence for the occurrence of muta-tions in bacteria; newcombe's experiment, fluctuation test, indirect se-lection test etc. back mutation and mutation rates, mutagens and mo-lecular basis of mutagenesis, Biochemical mutants-different types; ge-netic recombination, mechanisms of recombination, intergeneric andintrageneric recombination; transformation, transformation ofpneumococcal capsular types, cellular competence and environmentalconditions required for transformation-linkages; transduction, general,restricted and abortive transductions-fine structure study throughtransduction; conjugation, mating types, recognition of the factor, chro-mosome transfer, interupted mating experiments, chromosome map-ping, zygote induction; sexduction RTF and colicine factor; genetic im-


provement of industrially important microorganisms,plasmid and theircharacters;genetics of fungi, alternation of generation, Neurospora crassaand yeasts induction of mutation in bacteria, cytoplasmic inheritanceand biochemical mutants; genetics of bacteriophage and phage inducedmutation; genetics of viruses.


Observation of genetic variations and inheritance in Neurospora crassaand yeast; induction of mutation in bacteria through physical, chemicaland biological agents and studying the mutation rates; replica plateingtechnique and isolation of auxotrophic mutants; DNA isolation and study-ing the plasmid profile in bacteria; studying the transfer of specific char-acters by conjugation and calculation of the conjugation frequency;interupted mating experiment and chromosome mapping in bacteria-plasmid transfer in bacteria.

Suggested Readings

Freifelder, P. 1987 Microbial gentics. Jones and Bartlett PubL, Boston,USA

Maloy, S.R., J.E. Cronana and D. Friefelder. 1994. Microbial Genetics.Second Edition. Jones and Bartlett Publ. Boston, USA.

Scaife, J., N. Leach and A. Calizz. 1985. Genetics of bacteria. AcademicPress.

Eur, H.M. 1996. Enzymology primer for recombinant DNA technology.Academic Press, California.

Old.R.W. 1994. Principles of Gene Manipulation. Blackwell Sci.Co., UK.

Roberton, T. 1997. Manipulation and Expression of Recombinant DNA.WM.C.Brown communication Inc.

Lewin, B. 1997. Genes VI. Ox ford University Press, London.


1. Microbial ecology (1+1)

Microbial community, ecological hierarchy, inhabitants of thecommunity,habitat and Niche; dispersal, efficiency of dispersal, activedispersal- passive dispersal- air, water, soil, biological vectors-coloniza-tion; barriers to colonization; structure and physiological adaptation;


succession, characteristics of succession climax- community; energysources-pattern of microbial nutrition, degradation and utilization ofinsoluble substances, nutrient effects on distribution and activity,interspecific relationship, neutralism, commensalism, protocooperation,mutualism, parasitism, amensalism, predation, relationship of cell mor-phology and cytology to ecological factors, effect of microbes on animalsand plants; effect of syntropism and cometabolism in microorganisms,determination of specific growth rate of microorganisms; energy flow onecosystems, energy transformation in ecosystem, primary production,secondary production; density and adaptation of microbes in variousecosystems, fresh water, marine, sewage, atmosphere and extreme en-vironments, ecosystem management.


Enumeration of microorganisms in soil, sewage, fresh water and marineecosystems; effect of temperature, moisture, pH stress on microorgan-isms; microbial adaptations; study of microbial succession pattern indifferent ecosystems, microbial utilization of insoluble substances-plantresidues, animal residues; pattern of growth; isolation of microbes pro-ducing antimetabolites; study of interrelationship, amensalism, antibi-otics production, crowded plate technique; predation; study of interrela-tionships between micro and macroorganisms.

Suggested Readings

Alexander, M. 1978.Advances in Microbial Ecology, Plenum Press, NewYork

Allen A. benton and W.E. Werner, 1976. Field biology and Ecology. Tata-McGraw Hill Publ. Co.,

Atlas, R.M. 1998. Microbial Ecology Benjamin / Cummings Sci. Pub.,California

Burns, R.G. and J.H Slater 1982. Experimental Microbial EcologyBlackwell Scientific Publ. Edinburg.

George, L. C. 1954 Elements of Ecology. John Wiley add sona Inc. USA(ed.) Allen A. benton and W. E. Werner, 1976. Field biology and Ecology.Tata McGraw Hill Publ, Co.,ermann Remmert 1990s; Ecology - A textbook. Springer - Verlag, Berlin

Lampbell L.R. 1983. Microbial Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publ. Ox-ford England


2. Soil microbiology (1 + 1)

Discoveries in soil microbiology; distribution of microorganisms in soil,quantitative and qualitative estimation of microorganisms in soil, role ofmicroorganisms in soil fertility; influence of soil and environmental fac-tors on microflora , moisture, pH, temperature, organic matter, agro-nomic practices etc.; distribution of microorganisms, in organic manureand composts; microorganisms in soil processes, carbon cycle, organicmatter decomposition, humus formation, nitrogen cycle, nitrogen fixa-tion, symbiotic, non symbiotic, associative organisms, ammonification,nitrification, denitrification, reactions, organisms involved, factors af-fecting nitrogen transformation; microbial transformation of phospho-rus, iron, sulphur, micronutrients in soil phosphorus solubilization byphosphobacteria and P mobilization by mycorrhizal fungi iron toxicityand iron bacteria, sulphur toxicity and sulphur bacteria; interrelation-ships between plants and microorganisms, rhizosphere concep, quanti-tative and qualitative studies, R: S ratio rhizoplane; spermosphere;phyllosphere microorganisms; their importance in plant growth; pesti-cides and other agrochemicals; recalcitrant molecules; plant growth regu-lators and phytotoxin production by microorganisms; use of soil micro-organisms for pest and disease control; effect of pesticides on soilmicroflora Influence on soil microflora; microbial decomposition of chemi-cals applied to soil- microbial leaching of metal ores.


Enumeration of microbial population in soil; qualitative and quantita-tive distribution; isolation of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria -nonsymbiotic and associative symbiotic bacteria; soil algae ; nitrification ;denitrification ; organic matter decomposition; CO2 evolution; rhizosphere; spermosphere; phyllosphere; frankia isolation; mycorrhizae; isolationand plant infection studies ; associative and antagonistic relationshipsamong soil microorganisms ; isolation of sulphur and iron bacteria; iso-lation and study of phosphobacteria and phosphorus solubility.

Suggested Readings

Martin Alexander 1976. Introduction to soil microbiology Willy EasternLtd. New Delhi.

Robert LTate III. 1995. Soil Microbiology. John Wiley & Sons, New York,pp 398.

Subbarao, N.S. 1977. Soil microorganisms and plant growth, Oxford &IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.


Walker, N. 1975. Soil Microbiology. Butterworths, London.

3. Fermentation technology ( 1 + 1 )

Concept and scope of microbial fermentation technology , inoculum,screening and selection, fermentation medium, fermentation processes,dual and multiple fermentation, continuous fermentation, batch fermen-tation; bioreactors, types, designs and functional characteristics; scaleupof fermentation; strain improvement fermentation economics; fermenta-tion processes, down stream processing and product recovery, produc-tion of organic solvents-ethyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, and acetone; bever-ages; beer and wine; amino acids, lysine and glutamicacid; vitaminsand growth factors; vitamin B2 (ribofiavin), vitamin B12 (cobamide),gibberellins; enzymes-amylase, cellulase, glucose and isomerase, or-ganic acids, citric, lactic, butyric and propionic acids; antibiotics-pencillin, streptomycin, tetracyclines and microbial polysaccharides;principles of immobilisation, kinds of immobilisation techniques andtheir importance; sources of industrially important microorganisms inIndia and abroad.


Screening industrially useful microorganisms and their growth charac-teristics; preparation of inoculum and fermentation media; fermenta-tion of alcohol, organic, acids, amino acids, enzymes and antibiotics;immobilization techniques for increasing the fermentation products; bioassay techniques for antibiotics and vitamins.

Suggested Readings

Bisen, P.S. 1994. Frontiers in Microbial Technology. CBS publishers

Casida.L.E. 1968.Industrial Microbiology. Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi,India.

Mukerji, K.G., V.P. Singh and K.L. Garg, 1987. Frontiers in Applied Micro-biology. Prink House (India)

Peppier, H.J., and D. Perlman. 1979. Microbial Technology. Academicpress, New York

Prescott and Dunn. 1982. Industrial Microbiology. AVI Publishing Co.,West port, Connecticut, U.S. A.

Stainbury, 1995. Principles of fermentation Technology, Pergamon Press,London.


4. Biofertilizers (1+1)

Biofertilizers; development and the concept; contribution of microorgan-isms to soil fertility; groups of biofertilizers, organisms that fix atmos-pheric nitrogen - free-living, aerobic, symbiotic, endophytic bacteria-organisms solubilising and mobilizing mineral phosphates; biochemis-try and genetics of nitrogen fixation, nitrogenase, action of nitrogenase,hydrogenase, assay of nitrogen fixation; physiology of legume root nod-\&t\s,^ZOTas/$2kvsv, •B Jws.'s.vs,, §jKV<3assKv, VacaSisssv,^ aad physi-ology of actinorhizal nodules; nitrogen assimilation; transporting of fixednitrogen in symbiotic systems; mechanism of P solubilization byphosphobacteria and mobilization by mycorrhizal fungi; bacterialbiofertilizers; Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Azorhizobium, Azotobacter,Azospirillum, Acetobacter diazotrophicus - phosphobacteria and Frankia;algal fertilizer, blue green algae; Azolla,. Importance; mycorrhizalbiofertilizers and their importance, mycorrhizae, ectomycorrhizae,endomycorrhizae, role of mycorrhizae, principles of mass production,growth characteristics of different groups of organisms; mass multipli-cation techniques, fermentation media, raw materials, inoculum prepa-ration, carrier material, types and quality, mixing of carrier, broth, popu-lation dynamics in the inoculant during storage, Immobilization ofcyanobacterial inoculant, principle; shelf life; quality control ofbiofertilizers, BIS standards of biofertilizers, of biofertilizers and its eco-nomics; field performance of biofertilizers; method of application, sur-vival in soil; algal multiplication, methods of application etc; mycorrhizae,ectomycorrhizae inoculant , endomycorrhizae, mass production, prob-lems and prospects.


Isolation and testing the efficiency of various biofertilizers like Rhizobium.Azotobacter. Azospirillum, Acetobacter, BGA, phosphobacteria; massmultiplication techniques of Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, BGA,phosphobacteria; fermentor and fermentation requirements- pH, aera-tion; shelf life assessment of the inoculant quality control; storage tech-niques; methods of application; multiplication technique for Azolla inlaboratory and field scale, enumeration of chlamydospores in soil andidentification of different genera of VA Mycorrhizal fungi; multiplicationtechniques of mycorrhizae, field and pot culture testing of biofertilizers.

Suggested Readings

Bergersen, F.J. and J.R. Postgate 1987. A century of Nitrogen FixationResearch Present status and Future prospects. The Royal Soc., London.

Dilworth, M.J. and A.R. Glenn, 1991. Biology and Biochemistry of Nitro-


gen Fixation. Elsevier, Amsterdam P. 438.

Dixon, R. O.D. and C. f. Wheeler, 1986. Nitrogen Fixation in plants.Blackie USA, Chapman and Hall, New York.

Hardy, R.W.F. and A.H. Gibson 1977. A treatise on Dinitrogen FixationSection IV. Agronomy and Ecology John Wiley & Sons, New York. P.638.

Kannaiyan, S. 1999. Bioresources Technology for sustainable agricul-ture. Assoc. Pub. Co., New Delhi.

Motsara, I. M.R., P. Bhattacharyya and Beena Srivastava, 1995Biofertilizer Technology, Marketing and usage - A source Book -cum-glossary - FDCO, New Delhi.

Nutman, P.S. 1976. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in plants, CambridgeUniv. Press, London, P. 584.

Somasegaran, P and H.J.Hoben, 1994. Hand book for Rhizobia; Meth-ods in legume Rhizobium Technology. Springer-Verlag, New York. P. 450.

Subba Rao, N.S. 1982 Advances in Agricultural Microbiology, Oxford andIBH Publn. Co., New Delhi.P. 704.

Subba Rao, N.S. 1993. Biofertilizers in Agriculture and Forestry Oxfordand IBH Publ. Co., New Delhi P.242.

5. Food microbiology (1+1)

Occurrence and role of microorganisms in food industry; primary sourcesof microorganisms found in food; intrinsic and extrinsic parameters offood affecting microbial growth; types of microorganisms in food likemeats, poultry, seafood, vegetables and dairy products; assessing mi-crobial load on food and food products, physical, chemical and immuno-logical methods; microbial spoilage of different types of food; fruits, veg-etable, milk, meat poultry and sea food; principles of food preservation;food preservation using chemical, irradiation, low temperature, high tem-perature and drying processes, aseptic packaging materials; fermenta-tion of food and related products; fermentation of pickles, sauerkraut,bread, idly and curd; fermentation of vinegar and lactic acid Microbiol-ogy of processed canned fords; microorganisms as food; single cell pro-tein; food sanitation, indicator organism, Coliform bacteria, foodbornediseases and food poisoning; botulism, salmonellosis-gestroenteritis-food pathogens, Clostridium perfringens, Vibrio haemolyticus,Campylobacter jejuni; food processing plant sanitation, microbiological


standards and guidelines, quality control and food laws.


Examination of microorganisms on normal and spoiled fruits and veg-etables, cereal products, sugar products, dried fruits and vegetables;use of food preservatives viz. chemicals, irradiation, low and high tem-perature on the control of foodborne microorganisms; microbial spoil-age of canned and bottled food, meat and fish ; diagnosis of spoilage ofvarious food; microbiological survey in utensils and processing plants;fermentation of lactic acid and vinegar; assessing the load of Coliformbacteria and Salmonella, as indicator organisms.

Suggested Readings

Frazier,W.C. 1967.Food Microbiology. Me Graw Hill Company, USA.

Jevy, J.M. 1987. Modern Food Microbiology, CBS publishers and Distri-butions. New York, USA.

King, R. D. and P.S.J, Cheetham, 1986. Food Biotechnology ElsevierApplied Science, New York, USA.

6. Microbial management of organic wastes (1+1)

Organic wastes in the biosphere, tropical ecosystem, organic wastes intemperate and forest ecosystems; composition, source and quantum ofwastes; qualitative nature of wastes; decomposition of the organic mate-rials, processes of decomposition, aerobic and anaerobic degradation,mechanism of degradation, factors influencing degradation- moisture,temperature etc.; degradation of simple carbon compounds,monosaccharides, polysaccharids, complex substances, organisms in-volved; enzymes, byproducts; microbiology of anaerobic digestion,acetogenic and methanogenic microbes, biochemistry of conversion ofcellulose to methane, farm and urban wastes, decomposition, methodsand mechanism of composting, enriched compost; sewage, solid andliquid wastes, quality and quantity , sewage treatments, oxidation ponds,activated sludge etc., trickling filters, recycling of sewage water, organ-isms, pathogens, decomposers involved; agroindustrial wastes, wastesfrom sago factory, paper factory, sugar factory, distillery and tannery;nature and composition of the wastes; microbial conversion and usefulproducts, substrates for microbial biomass and mushroom production;microbial deodorization and decoloration of effluents- organisms involvedin degradation; microbial degradation of pesticides.



Quantitative and qualitative enumeration of microorganisms in organicwastes Degradation of cellulose and other carbon compounds; CO2evolution; methane generation, methanogensis with different farm wastes;isolation and study of methanogens; succession of microorganisms incomposting; microbial load in sewage, BOD and COD determination;sewage and effluent treatment; visit to sewage disposal plant; coir pithdegradation; degradation of industrial wastes; use of wastes for SCPproduction

Suggested Readings

Morris. J.R. and M.H. Richmond 1981. Essay in Applied MicrobiologyJohn, Wiley & Son Ltd.

Grassi G. and H. Zibelta. 1988 (Edn) Energy from Biomass 1 to 4 vol-ume. Elsevier Applied Science, London & P New York.

Roberts, M. 1996. Environmental Microbiology, John Willey & Sons, USA

7. Microbial control of crop pests and diseases (1+1)

Microflora of healthy and diseased insects; relationship between micro-organisms and insects; parasitism and symbiosis, symptomology anddiagnosis of microbial diseases of insects; isolation and identification ofcommon insect pathogensjbacterial pathogens of insects; spore formingand nonspore forming bacteria; occurrence and conditions for spread ofbacterial pathogens; mode of action, endo and ecto-toxins productionby Bacillus thuringiensis. B. popilliae, mode of action of the toxins ininsects; specificity, practical applications; genetic control of toxinproductionjfungal pathogens of insects; isolation and identification ofcommon fungal pathogens Beauveria, Metarrhizium, Cephalosporium,Entomophthora etc. ,occurrence and conditions for the spread; impor-tant fungal diseases of harmful and beneficial insects, mode of entryand action.insect viruses; nuclearpolyhedral viruses, cytoplasmic virusesetc., occurrence, spread, entry and mode of action on insects; other in-sect pathogens-protozoa, rickettsiae, PPLO and nematodesjmicrobialpathogens of plant roots viz. Rhizoctonia solani, Phomopsis scleraoides,Sclerotium Macrophomina Phytopthora and Fusarium shoots viz. Venturiainaegualis, Alternaria alternata, Erwinia amylovora and Ceratosystisparasiticus and their control by competition and antagonism; importanceof Trichoderma viride; T.harzianum; Streptomyces, rhizobacteria,mycorrhiza and Thiobacillus on the control of plant root pathogens; con-trol of aerial pathogens, prophylaxis -preinoculation, and immuniza-tion with avirulent pathogens; role of microorganisms in protecting thewounds of trees; techniques of application of microorganisms for controlof microbial diseases; seed treatment, aerial spray and soil


treatmentjMicrobial insecticides; advantages of microbial insecticides,limitations-Mass production techniques; fermentation, formulation ofinsecticides, carrier materials quality control etc; compatibility of mi-crobial and chemical insecticides; suitable insecticides for major pests;field application of microbial insecticides and its perpetuation.


Isolation and identification of the external microflora of healthy and in-fected; insects study of internal gut microflora of insects; study of sym-biotic microflora of ants and termites; symptoms and diagnosis of dis-eases of insect; microbiological examination of diseased insects andisolation of the insect pathogens; assessing the lethal dose of the patho-gen; demonstration of Koch's postulates; multiplication techniques ofNuclear polyhedral viruses; mass multiplication of insect pathogen; fer-mentation techniques; fermentation of microbial insecticides; microbialControl of root diseases and aerial pathogens; mass production and ap-plication methods.

Suggested Readings

Burges, H.D. 1981. Microbial control of insect pests, mites and plantdiseases Academic, London

Metcalf R.L. and Luckmann, W.H. 1994. Introduction to insect pestmanageent, 3rd edition, John Willey & Sons, Inc.

Jayaraj, S. 1985. Microbial control and pest management

Steinhaus, E. A. 1949. Principles of insect pathology. Me. Graw - HillNew York





1. Basic biochemistry 3 + 12. Techniques in biochemistry 2 + 23. Enzymology 3 + 0

Seminar 0+1 credit


1. Intermediary metabolism 3 + 02. Plant biochemistry 3 + 03. Biochemistry of food grains, fruits and vegetables 2 + 14. Special biochemistry course (region/crop specific) 2 + 15. Inorganic nitrogen metabolism 2 + 16. Biomembranes

2 + 07. Fundamentals of molecular biology 3+28. Biochemistry of biotic and abiotic stresses 3+ 09. Immunochemistry 2 + 010. Special topics in biochemistry 1 + 011. Research methodology 0 + 1


To be decided by the Students Advisory Committee Total 35 credits


1. Basic biochemistry (3+1)

Scope and importance of biochemistry in agriculture; fundamental prin-ciples governing life; structure of water; acid base concept and buffers;pH; hydrogen bonding; hydrophobic, electrostatic and Van der Waalforces; general introduction to physical techniques for determination ofstructure of biopolymers; fundamentals of thermodynamics applicableto biological processes; classification, structures and functions of aminoacids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids; structure andbiological function of vitamins; enzymes; classification and mechanism


of action - regulation, factors affecting enzyme action, concept of oxida-tion-reduction in biological systems; bioenergetics, biomembranes andoxidative phosphorylation; metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohy-drates; photosynthesis and respiration; DNA replication, transcriptionand translation, recombinant DNA technology.


Preparation of buffers, nitrogen estimation by different methods, sepa-ration of amino acids by TLC, Separation of proteins on PAGE, enzymeassay, estimation of reducing and non-reducing sugars, estimation ofoil, iodine value, saponification value and acid value, fatty acid compo-sition by GLC, isolation and quantification of nucleic acids, estimationof ascorbic acid, estimation of riboflavin and thiamine.

Suggested Readings

Conn, E.E., Stumpf, P.K., Bruening, G. and Doi, R.H. 1997. Outlines ofBiochemistry, John. Wiley & Sons Inc., New York and Toranto.

Finar, I.L. 1993. Organic Chemistry, Vol. I, II, 6th edn. Longman,London and New York.

Nelson, D.L. and Cox, M.M. 2000. Lehninger Principles of Biochemisitry,3rd edn. Printed in India by Replika Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi for WorthPublishers, New York.

Stenesh, J. 1998. Biochemistry, Vol. I (Foundation of Biochemistry),Vol. II (Biomolecules), Vol. Ill (Metabolism), Plenum Press, New Yorkand London.

Stryer, L. 1995. Biochemistry, 4th edn. W.H. Freeman and Company,New York.

Voet, D., Voet, J.G. and Pratt, C.W. 1999. Fundamentals of Biochemis-try, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York and Toranto.

Zubay, G.L. 1998. Biochemistry, 4th edn. W.C. Brown Publishers.

2. Techniques in biochemistry (2+2)

pH and buffers; preparation and purification of cell organelles;spectrophotometry (UV, visible, infrared) and spectrofluorometry;ultracentrifugation; chromatographic techniques-basics, ion exchange,gel filtration and affinity chromatography, GLC and HPLC;electrophoretic techniques for protein and nucleic acid separation-PAGE,


SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focussing; ELISA use of radioisotopes in bio-chemistry including autoradiography and safety aspects; massspectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance; X-ray crystallography; neu-tron scattering technique.


pH and preparation of buffers, soluble protein estimation, fractionationof cell organelles, estimation of sugars by colorimetric methods, extrac-tion of lipids and their separation on TLC, estimation of iodine valueand saponification value, separation of amino acids by TLC, analysis ofN-terminal amino acids, separation of proteins and isozyme analysis byPAGE, molecular weight determination by SDS-PAGE, enzyme purifica-tion (Amylase/Peroxidase/Lysozyme) - acetone powder, ammoniumsulfate fractionation, ion exchange/gel chromatography, enzyme kinet-ics, GLC, HPLC, DNA isolation and agarose gel electrophoresis, polysomeisolation by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, flourimetric esti-mation of vitamins, liquid scintillation counting.

Suggested Readings

Nelson, D.L. and Cox, M.M. 2000. Lehninger Principles of Biochemis-try, 3rd edn. Printed in India by Replika Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi forWorth Publishers, New York.

Ornstein, L. 1964. Disc Electrophoresis : Background and Theory. Ann.NYAcad. Sci., 121: 321-340.

Pfummer, D.T. 1998. An Introduction to Practical Biochemistry, 3rdedn. Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi.

Rickwood, D. (Ed..) 1984. Practical Approaches in Biochemistry, 2ndedn., IRL Press Ltd., Washington DC.

Sulkowski, E. 1985. A Preview : Purification of Proteins. In Trends inBiochemistry, 3, 1-17.

Wilson, K. and Goulding, K.H. 1992. A Biologist's Guide to Principlesand Techniques of Practical Biochemistry, 3rd edn. Cambridge Univ.Press, UK.

Wilson, K. and Walker, J. 2000. Principles and Techniques of PracticalBiochemistry, 5th edn. Cambridge Univ. Press, UK.



3. Enzymology (3 +0)

Introduction and historical perspective; classification and nomenclature;isolation and purification of enzymes; cofactors - structures and bio-logical functions; theory of enzymatic catalysis, specificity, concept ofactive site and enzyme substrate complex, active site mapping, covalentand acid base catalysis, factors associated with catalytic efficiency, prox-imity, orientation, distortion and strain, induced fit hypothesis; kinet-ics, chemical kinetics a brief review, enzymatic kinetics; effect of substrateconcentration, derivation of Michaelis-Menten equation, Ks, Km, Vmax,and Kcat and their significance, methods to determine Km and Vmaxwith their merits and demerits; Briggs- Haldane steady state approach,King-Altman patterns, computer simulation of Michaelis-Menten equa-tion; effect of different factors affecting enzyme activities; transition statetheory; Arrhenius equation; determination of energy of activation; opti-mum temperature and thermal stability of enzyme; inhibition of en-zyme catalyzed reaction, irreversible and reversible, competitive, un-competitive, noncompetitive, mixed type, bisubstrate reactionkinetics; random, ordered and Ping-Pong mechanisms; allosteric en-zymes; basic concept; significance, positive and negative effectors,heterotropic and homotropic effects; determination of binding sites, Hillplot, Scatchard plot, sequential and symmetry models; isozymes,multienzyme complexes and systems, bifunctional enzymes. Immobi-lized enzymes; relative practical and economic advantages for industrialuses; effect of partition on kinetics and performance with particularemphasis on charge and hydrophobicity, immobilized enzyme systems;ribozymes.

Suggested Readings

Bergmeyer, H.U. 1983. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Vol. II. VerlagChemie, Weinhem, Academic Press, New York and London.

Dixon, M., Webb, E.G. Thorne, C.J.R. and Tipton, K.F. 1979. Enzymes,3rd edn., Longman, London.

Nelson, D.L. and Cox, M.M. 2000. Lehninger Principles of Biochemis-try, 3rd edn. Printed in India by Replika press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi forWorth Publishers, New York.

Palmer, T. 2001. Enzymes: Biochemistry, Biotechnology and ClinicalChemistry, 5th edn. Horwood Publishing, Chichester, England.

Price, N.C. and Stevens, L. 1999. Fundamentals of Enzymology, 3rdedn. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.

Wilson, K. and Walker, J. (Eds.). 2000. Principles and Techniques offl8l '


Practical Biochemistry, 5th edn. Cambridge Univ. Press.


1. Intermediary metabolism (3 +0)

The living cell : a unique chemical system; experimental approaches tostudy metabolism; transport mechanisms, thermodynamics, kinetics andmechanism, active and passive transport; signal transduction, carbo-hydrate metabolism, glycolysis, Krebs cycle, HMP pathway, glyoxylatepathway, glycogen synthesis, and its regulation, bioenergetics, elec-tron transport, oxidative phosphorylation and its regulation; lipidmetabolism and its regulation; amino acid metabolism; general reac-tions, degradation and biosynthesis, sulphur metabolism; metabolismof nucleic acids; degradation and biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines;regulation and integration of metabolic pathways.

Suggested Readings

Adams, R.L.P., Knewler, J.T. and Leader, D.P. 1992. The Biochemistryof Nucleic Acids, 11th edn. Chapman and Hall, London, New York.

Buchanan, B.B., Gruissem, W. and Jones, R.L. (Eds.). 2000. Biochem-istry and Molecular Biology of Plants. American Society of Plant Physi-ologists, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Metzler, D.E. 2001. Biochemistry, Vol.11 : The Chemical Reactions ofLiving Cells, 2nd edn. Harcourt Academic Press, London and New York.

Stryer, L. 1995. Biochemisitry, 4th edn. W.H. Freeman and Company,New York.

Stumpf, P.K. and Conn, E.E. (Eds.1). The Biochemistry of Plants : AComprehensive Treatise, Vol. I, II, III, IV & V. Academic Press, London.

Voet, D., Voet, J.G. and Pratt, C.W. 1999. Fundamentals of Biochem-istry, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York and Toranto.

2. Plant biochemistry (3+0)

Plant cell organelles and their separation; structure and function of cellorganelles. photo synthetic pigments in relation to their functions; pho-tosynthesis, generation of NADPH and ATP; C3, C4 and CAM pathwayand their regulation; photorespiration, sucrose-starch interconversions,biosynthesis of structural carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biochem-istry of nitrogen fixation and nitrate assimilation; sulphate reduction


and incorporation of sulphur into amino acids; biochemistry of seedgermination and development; biochemistry of fruit ripening,phytohormones and their mode of action; signal transduction; biochem-istry and significance of secondary metabolites - cyanogenic glycosides,glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, alkaloids; plant defencesystem.

Suggested Readings

Buchanan, B.B., Gruissem, W. and Jones, R.L. (Eds.) 2000. Biochem-istry and Molecular Biology of Plants, American Society of PlantPhysiologists, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Dey, P.M. and Harborne, J.B. 1997. Plant Biochemistry, AcademicPress.

Heldt, H.W. 1997. Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, OxfordUniv. Press.

Lea, P.J. and Leegood, R.C. (Eds.) 1999. Plant Biochemistry andMolecular Biology, 2nd edn., John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.

Mehta, S.L., Lodha, M.L. and Sane, P.V. (Eds.) 1993. Recent Advancesin Plant Biochemistry, Publication and Information Division, ICAR, KrishiAnusandhan Bhavan, Pusa, New Delhi.

3. Biochemistry of food grains, fruits and vegetables (2+1)

Fundamentals of human nutrition, concept of balanced diet; biochemi-cal composition and food value of various food grains (including cereals,pulses, oil seeds), fruits and vegetables, biochemistry of food spoilage,role of lipase and lipoxygenase; antinutritional factors, biochemical as-pects of post-harvest technology such as storage and preservation; fun-damentals of food processing; biochemical basis of nutritionalquality-improvement of food grains, vegetables and fruits; factors affect-ing nutritive value of food grains, fruits and vegetables.


Estimation of protein content; estimation of limiting amino acids; esti-mation of starch; estimation of lipids/oil content; estimation of phenolics;phytates and oxalates in leafy vegetables, estimation of carotenoids, es-timation of dietary fibre, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities,estimation of vitamin C in fruits, reducing and non-reducing sugars infruits.


Suggested Readings

Hulme, A.C. (Ed.). 1970. Biochemistry of Fruits and Vegetables andtheir Products- Vol. I and II, Academic Press, London.

Juliano, B.O. 1985. Rice : Chemistry and Technology, The Amer. Assoc.Cereal Chemists, Inc. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Pomaranz, Y. (Ed.) 1971. Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, The Amer.Assoc. Cereal Chemists, Inc. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Ranganna, S. (Ed.). 1986. Handbook of Analysis and Quality for Fruitsand Vegetable Products, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Cor. Ltd., NewDelhi.

Rao, B.S.N., Deosthale, Y.G. and Pant, K.C. (Eds.). 1989. NutritionalValue of Indian Foods, Revised edn. National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR,Hyderabad.

4. Special biochemistry course (2+1)

This course would be region/crop-specific, e.g., biochemistry of tea, bio-chemistry of tuber crops, biochemistry of plantation crops. (Coursecontent is to be decided by the concerned University/Institute).

5. Inorganic nitrogen metabolism (2+1)

Biochemistry of nitrogen cycle; biological nitrogen fixation; structure,function and regulation of nitrogenase; structure, function and regula-tion of nif genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae; biochemical basis of legume-Rhizobium symbiosis; genes involved in symbiosis; different types ofhydrogenases and role of uptake hydrogenase in N2-fixation;chemoautotrophy in rhizobia;! biochemistry of ferredoxin and other non-heme iron proteins; biochemistry of nitrate assimilation and mechanismof its regulation; GS/GOGAT and GDH pathway; ureides and amides asnitrogen transport compounds; biochemistry of denitrification processand phosphorylation in denitrifying bacteria; nitrification process andpath of carbon assimilation in nitrifying bacteria.


Estimation of nitrite content, estimation of protein by Lowry's method,estimation of nitrate content by hydrazine sulphate reduction method,in vivo assay of nitrate reductase activity, in vitro assay of nitrate reductaseactivity, in vitro assay of nitrite reductase activity, in vitro assay ofglutamine synthetase activity, in vitro assay of glutamate synthase and


glutamate dehyrogenase activity, estimation of ureides and amides, as-say of nitrogenase activity by acetylene reduction method, estimation ofhydrogen evolution by legume nodules.

Suggested Readings

Beevers, L. 1979. Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants, Gulab Vazirani forArnold - Heinermann.

Bergersen, F.J. (Ed.). 1980. Methods for Evaluating Biological NitrogenFixation, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York and Toranto.

Bray, C.M. 1983. Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants, Longman, Londonand New York.

Buchanan, B.B., Gruissem, W. and James, R.L. (Eds.). 2000. Biochem-istry and Molecular Biology of Plants, American Society of Plant Physi-ologists, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Mehta, S.L., Lodha, M.L. and Sane, P.V. (Eds.). 1993. Recent Advancesin Plant Biochemistry, Publication and Information Division, ICAR, KrishiAnusandhan Bhavan, Pusa, New Delhi.

6. Biomembranes (2+0)

Concept of biomembranes and their classification based on cellularorganelles; physico-chemical properties of different biological and arti-ficial membranes, cell surface receptors and antigen, membrane bio-genesis and differentiation; membrane components - lipids, their distri-bution and organisation; proteins, intrinsic and extrinsic, their arrange-ment; carbohydrates in membranes and their function, various mem-brane movements; transport across membrane and energy transduction,role of membrane in cellular metabolism, cell recognition and cell-to-cellinteraction; signal transduction, recent trends in membrane researc

Suggested Readings

Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, S.A., Matsudaira, P., Baltimore, D.and Darnell, J. 1999. Molecular Cell Biology, W.H. Freeman andCompany, New York.

Nelson, D.L. and Cox, M.M. 2000. Lehninger Principles of Biochemisitry3rd edn. Printed in India by Replika Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi for WorthPublishers, New York.

Smallwood, M., Knox, J.P. and Bowls, B.J. 1996. Membranes: Special-


ised Functions in Plants, Bros Scientific Publishers.

Stryer, L. 1995. Biochemistry, 4th edn. W.H.Freeman and Company,New York.

7 Fundamentals of molecular biology (3+2)

Historical development of molecular biology; nucleic acids as geneticmaterial, chemistry and structure of DNA and RNA; biosynthesis ofpurine and pyrimidine nucleotides and their regulation; genome organi-sation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; chromatin structure and func-tion. DNA replication, DNA polymerases, topoisomerases, DNA ligase;reverse transcriptase; repetitive and non-repetitive DNA, satellite DNA;transcription process, RNA editing, RNA processing; molecular mecha-nism of regulation of lac operon, attenuation of trp operon; RNA replicase;ribosomes, structure and function, organisation of ribosomal proteinsand RNA genes, genetic code; aminoacyl tRNA synthases; inhibitors ofreplication, transcription and translation; translation and post-transla-tional modifications; nucleases and restriction enzymes, DNA sequencing,recombinant DNA technology, vectors, isolation of genes, recombinantvector, selection of recombinants, PCR; general features of replication,transcription, site directed mutagenesis and translation in eukaryotes.


Estimation of DNA and RNA, isolation of plasmids, Isolation of genomicDNA from crop plants, isolation of total RNA and poly (A)+ RNA,Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA and RNA, restriction analysis of DNA,Radiolabelling of DNA (probe making), Southern blotting and hybridiza-tion, Isolation of ribosomes, rRNA and r-proteins, In vitro translation,PAGE of in vitro translated products, DNA sequencing.

Suggested Readings

Adams, R.L.P., Knowler, J.T. and Leader, D.P. 1992. The Biochemistryof the Nucleic Acids, 11th edn. Chapman & Hall, London and New York.

Alberts, B., Bray, D., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K. andWalter, P. 1998. Essential Cell Biology : An Introduction to the Molecu-lar Biology of the Cell, Garland Publishing, Inc., New York & London.

Ausbel, P.M., Brent, R., Kingston, R.E., Moore, D.D., Seidman, J.G.,Smith, J.A. and Struhl, K. (Eds.). 1999. Short Protocols in MolecularBiology, 4th edn. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York and Toranto.

Blackburn, G.M. and Gait, M.J. 1996. Nucleic Acids in Chemistry and


Biology, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York.

Glick, B.R. and Pasternak, J.J. 1994. Molecular Biology : Principlesand Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology, ASM Press Washing-ton DC.

Lewin, B. 2000. Genes VII, 1st edn. Oxford University Press, NewYork.

Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, S.A., Matsudaira, P., Baltimore, D. an dDarnell, J. 1999. Molecular Cell Biology, W.H. Freeman and Company,New York.

Old, R.W. and Primrose, S.B. 1989. Principles of Gene Manipulation :An Introduction to Genetic Engineering, 4th edn. Blackwell ScientificPublications, London. Paris. Berlin.

Sambrook, J. and Russel, D.W. 2001. Molecular Cloning : A LaboratoryManual, Vol. I, II & III, CSHL Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

8. Biochemistry of biotic and abiotic stresses (3+0)

Plant-pathogen interaction and disease development; molecular mecha-nisms of fungal and bacterial infection in plants; changes in metabo-lism, cell wall composition and vascular transport in diseased plants;plant defence response, antimicrobial molecules; genes for resistance,hypersensitive response and cell death; systemic and acquired resist-ance; plant viruses, host-virus interactions, disease induction, virusmovement, and host range determination; viroids, pathogen-derived re-sistance; biochemical basis of abiotic stresses namely osmotic (drought,salinity), temperature, heavy metals, air and water pollutants, interac-tion between biotic and abiotic stresses; stress adaptation; molecularstrategies for imparting tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses

Suggested Readings

Basra, A.S. 1997. Stress Induced Gene Expression in Plants, Harwood

Academic Publishers.

Chessin. M., DeBorde.D. and Zipf, A. 1995. Antiviral Proteins in HigherPlants, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Crute, I.R., Burden, J.J. and Holub, E.B. (Eds.). 1997. Gene-for-GeneRelationship in Host-Parasite Interactions, Wallingford, U.K.: CAB Int.


Dengl, J. 1995. Bacterial Pathgoenesis of Plants and Animals : Molecu-lar

and Cellular Mechanisms, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg Germany.

Fritig, B. and Legrand, M. 1993. Mechanism of Plant Defence Responses,Dardecht Kluwer Academic Press.

Levitt, J. 1980. Responses of Plants to Environmental Stresses, Aca-demic Press, New York.

Primrose,S.B. 1989. Introduction to Modern Virology, Blackwell Scien-tific Publications, London. Paris. Berlin.

9. Immunochemistry (2 +0)

History and scope of immunology; components of immune system.Immunoglobulins chemistry, structure and functions; antigens, haptensand complement system; biochemistry and interactions of antigens, an-tibody and lymphocytes; molecular organisation of immunoglobulins andclasses of antibodies, antibody diversity; immuno-regulation; vaccines;monoclonal antibodies and their uses; current immunological techniques- ELISA, radioimmunoassay.

Suggested Readings

Abbas,A.K., Lichtman, A.H. and Pober, J.S. 1994. Cellular and Mo-lecular Immunology, 2nd edn. Saunders Company.

Elgert, K.D. 1996. Immunology : Understanding the Immune System,Wiley Liss Inc. Publication.

Harlow and Lane,D. (Eds.) 1988. Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual,Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Kuby, J. 1996. Immunology, 3rd edn. W.H. Freeman and Company,New York

Roitt, I. M. 1994. Essential Immunology, 8th edn. Blackwell ScientificPublications, London. Paris. Berlin.

10. Special topics in biochemistry (1+0)

Presentation/Discussion on current topics in biochemistry.


11. Research methodology (0+1)

Introduction - seminar paper preparation and presentation; how to writedissertation? guidelines for review of literature, materials and methods,results and discussion, presentation, references, Writing research project,setting up of a biochemistry laboratory, infrastructural and working fa-cilities, implementation, project cost, Budget; Bioinformatics, online andoff-line information retrieval, browsing biological databases throughinternet; molecular modelling using IRL software, protein-folding stud-ies and plasmid construction using software; use of software for dele-tion and insertion of DNA fragments in standard plasmids; DNAsequencing, downloading sequence homology from internet, gene bank,EMBL sources and comparing the sequences; Dendrogram constructionusing software using NTSys; mapmarker and UPGMA based analyses;RFLP/RAPD/AFLP data handling; use of software for graphing, slidemaking, poster preparation; scanning gels, photography, X-ray photog-raphy and autoradiography perspectives.

Suggested Readings

Brown, S.M. 2000. A Biologists'Guide to Bio-computing and the Internet,A Biotechniques Books Publication, Eaton Publishing, USA.





1. Moleular genetics 2 + 12. Molecular biology 2 + 13. Cell biology 1 + 14. Genetic engineering'- principles & methods 3 + 1

Seminar 0+1 credit


1. Techniques in molecular biology 0 + 32. Molecular genetics of plasmid and bacteriophage 2 + 03. Plant tissue culture • 2 + 14. Plant molecular biology 2 + 05. Gene regulation 2 + 06. Enzymology 2 + 17. Introduction to industrial biotechnology 2 + 08. Plant genetic engineering 2 + 09. Principles of immunology 1 + 110. Biotechnology and society 1 + 11 1. Biomolecule prospecting 2 + 012. Molecular biology of plant virues 2 + 013. Protein engineering 2 + 0


To be decided by the Students Advisory committee Total 35 credits


1. Molecular genetics (2 + 1)

Model genetic systems- lambda, E.coli, Neurospora, yeast, Drosophila,Arabidopsis and maize; principles of inheritance, qualitative and quan-titative traits, DNA as genetic material; sources of genetic variation,molecular basis of genetic variation, induced mutagenesis, physical,


chemical - and:bibJogfcaJ, site. directed inutageheSis^gerie transfer, inprokaryotes, conjugation, transformation and-transduction, fine struc-ture analysis of gene, complementation arid test of allelism, changingconcept of gene, pro and eukaryotic genomes, genome complexity,repective vs unique DNA sequences, chromatin and chromosome, struc-tures, DNA and chromosome replication, artificial chromosomes, geneticrecombination and repair; chromosome mapping, genetic,-physical andmolecular maps, molecular mapping and tagging of genes, marker as-

.._..,-., ,sjst.ejd .selection; structural organizational of genes in .pro $* eiikaryotes,' operon concept, gene expression and regulation, positive and negative

controls, genetics of antibody diversity, molecular genetics of cell divi-sion and aging, DNA fingerprinting and biodiversity, functional genomics.


{Bacterial and phage tine estimation; growth kinetic studies; characteri-zation on bacterial strains for antibiotic and drug resistance; induced

,...,.. ......rnujtagenesis; chemical, physical, biological and site directed; gene tratis-..--.'•. "fer methods and gene rmij >ping in bacteria; complementation test; analysis

of gene regulation employing E. coli mutants; construction of restrictionmaps; construction of molecular maps, gene mapping and QTL analysis;DNA fingerprinting, estimatiori of genetic diversity and phylogenetic analy-sis.

Suggested Readings

Old, 1997, Principles of gene manipulations, Blackwell Publication, UK

Paterson, A.H. (1996), Genome mapping in plants, Academic Press, USA

Foster and Twell (1997), Plant gene isolation: Principles and Practice.John Wiley, USA, UK.

2. Molecular biology (2+ 1\

Historical development of molecular biology, chemistry & structure of' D'NA ;and :RNA; biosynthesis 6'f purine and pyrirnidine nucletides and

their regulation, genome organization in prokaryotes and eukaryotes,chloroplast and mitochondria! DNA, molecular structure and function,chromatin structure and function, DNA replication, repetitive and non

1 •" ' ' •- 'repetitive D N A , satellite DNA; transcription processes, RNA editing &R N A processing, iibosomes, structure 8s function, organization ofribosomal RNA genes, genetic code, arrnnoacyl tRNA synthetases; trans-lation and post transnational r'nadifications," nucleases and restrictionenzymes, DNA sequencing. :



Preparations of buffers, solutions; isolation of genomic DNA; from cropplants; isolation of total RNA & poly (A)+ RNA; agardse gel electrophoresis

rpf DN.A and RNA; determination of base composition of ON A; measure-ment of reassociatiori kinetics arid,Tm of genomic DNA; restriction analy-sis of genomic DNA; radiolabelling of DNA (probe making);southern blot-ting & hybridizatipn; isolation of ribpsornes, rRNA §&,r- proteins; in vitro

~ translation and PAGE of in vitro translated products; DNA sequencing.

Suggested Readings

Lewin, B. 1994, 1997 Genes V and VI, Oxford University Press, Oxford

'"""'' L^hhiriger, AL., D.L.kelson and M.M^Cqx, 1993 (2nd Edition) Principlesof Biochemistry, CBS Publishers, New Delhi.

Brown, T.A. (1994), Gene cloning, Blackwell Publications

Freifelder, D. 1990 (2nd edition) Molecular Biology, Springer Verlag

Polasa, H. 1991. Microbial Gene Technology, South Asian Publishers

Christopher Wills. The wisdom of the genes. Oxford University Press

Elliot and felliot. 1999. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Oxford Uni-versity press,

Ninfa and Ballon. 1998. Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Fitz geraldScience press,Inc. USA

3. Cell biology (1 + 1)

Evolution and cell theory, general structure and constituents of plantcells; similarities and distinctions between plant and animal cells; cellwall, cell membrane, cell surface related functions; endoplasmicreticulum, nuclear structure, synthesis and function; cyto - skeletal el-

; ements ; structure and function of major organelles; chromosome,chloroplast, mitochondria, ribosomes in relation to cell growth and divi-sion; specialized cells in various tissues; regulation of cell cycle and celldivision, regulation of cellular funcuor; by growth factors and hormones.


Fractionation of tissues and cells; isolation of cellular organelles andmacromolecules; chromatography, ukracentrifugation techniques,


lectrophoresis; microscop preparations, specimen and staining proce-dure.

Suggested Readings

Darnell, J., Harvey Lodish and David Baltimore, 1986. Molecular CellBiology, Scientific American Books Inc.

Gunning, B.E.S. and M.W.Steer, 1996. Plant Cell Biology, Jones andBartlett Publishers. London.

Garret, R.H. and C.M.Grisham. 1995. Molecular aspects of Cell Biology.Part V. Saunders College Publishing, New York

Sheeler, P. and Bianchi, D.E. 1987. Cell and Molecular Biology. JohnWiley & Sons. Inc. New York.

Verma, P.S. and Agarwal, V.K. 1994. Cytology. S.Chand & Co., NewDelhi.

4. Genetic engineering - principles and methods (3 + 1)

Recombinant DNA technology, characteristic of vectors derived frombacterial plasmids and phages and plant and animal viruses; restric-tion enzymes; DNA cloning strategies, preparation and screening ofgenomic and cDNA libraries; Identification and isolation of structuralgenes and regulatory elements, changing genes; site - directedmutagenesis; transfer of cloned DNA and expression of cloned genesinto foreign cells; bacteria plants & animal, cells; problem in gene trans-fer & expression ; potential application of genetic engineering in agricul-ture, medicine and industry; genetic engineering of secondary metabolites,analysis of bio-safety aspects of gene manipulation; antisense RNA;ribozymes; PCR, DNA sequncing; the impact of recombinant DNA tech-nology; biosafety aspects & patents .


Isolation of plasmid DNA and restriction; isolation of plant DNA andrestriction; isolation .of virus DNA and restriction jagarose gelelectrophoresis of restricted DNA samples; cloning in phage and plasmidbased vectors; transduction of E. coliand in vitro packaging; preparationof radio labelled DNA probe; Southern blotting and hybridization; isola-tion and identification of positive clones; cloning and sub cloning; DNAsequencing by Sanger's dideoxy method.


Suggested Readings

Foster and Twell (199-7), Plant gene isolation: Principles and Practice.John Wiley, USA, UK.

Owen, M.R.L. and Pen (1997) Transgenic plants: a production systemfor industrial and pharmaceutical proteins: John Wiley, USA, UK.

Kung, S. and Wu, R. (1993), Transgenic Plants: Vols 1&2 AcademicPress, USA.

Potrykus, F. and Spangenberg (1995) Gene Transfer to Plants, Springarverlag, Germany.

Brown, T.A. 1996. Gene Cloning. Blackwell Publications


1. Techniques in molecular biology (0+3)

Extraction of proteins and nucleic acids, their quantification,electrophoresis of proteins, molecular weight determination, Westernblot analysis, extraction and estimation of DNA, total RNA and mRNAisolation and purification of plasmid DNA, restriction, agarose gelelectrophoresis, elution of fragments from gels, Southern transfer andhybridization, autoradiography, competent cell preparation, RFLP & RAPDanalysis, PCR & DNA sequencing, ELISA & RIA.


Extraction of proteins and quantification; polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis of proteins; isolation of plant DNA, phage DNA andplasmid DNA; isolation and purification of total RNA and mRNA; restric-tion analysis of DNA; radiolabelling of DNA; Southern transfer and South-ern hybridization and autoradiography; PCR and DDRT - PCR;RAPDanalysis; DNA sequencing; deletion mapping; DNAase I foot printing; gelretardation assay; ELISA.

Suggested Readings

Sambrook,E., F.Fritsch andT.Maniatis .(1989). Molecular Cloning. ColdSpring Harbor Press.Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

Old and Primrose (1984).Principles of gene manipulation.Blackwell

Brown.T.A. (1995).Gene Cloning an In t roduct ion . (3rd

131 I


edition).ChapmanHall, 2-6 Bundary Row, U.K.

Ausubel.F.M., R. Brent,R.E..Kingston, D.D.Moore, J.G.Seidman, J.A.Smit.( 1992).Short Protocols in Molecular Biology.

Cold Spring Harbor Press. Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

2. Molecular genetic of plasmids and bacteriophage (2+0)

Plasmids and episomes, their general structure and variation in size;determinants of incompatibility and fertility inhibition; conjugate mobi-lization genes and genes for surface exclusion, integration, excision andamplification; plasmid transformation requirements; structure, organi-zation and functioning of insertion and transformation elements;plasmids as vectors; plasmid carrying genes of economic importance;types of prokaryotic viruses, genome organization and replication of sin-gle stranded RNA and DNA and double stranded DNA phages of bacte-ria, genetic control of gene expression by self and host coded products,phage host interactions, molecular genetics of lysogeny, immunity andphage variation transduction, secondary functions specified by phages.

Suggested Readings

Gardner, E.J., M.J.Simons and D.P.Snustard 1991. Principles ofGenetics.John Willey & Sons Inc. New York.

llartl, D.L. 1994. Genetics. Jones & Bartler Publishers, London

Lewin, B. 1994 Gene V Oxford University Press, Oxford

Snustar, D.P., M.J.Simmons and J.B.Jenkins. 1997. Principles of Ge-netics, John Wiley & Sons, New York

Stickberger, M.W. 1996. Genetics (third edition) Printice-Hall Pvt.Ltd.,New Delhi

Weaver, R.F. and P.W.Hedrich. 1995. Basic Genetics, Brown,Publisher, London

3. Plant tissue culture (2 + 1)

History and scope, totipotency and cell theory; growth and differentia-t i o n of plants ; growth regulat ion of morphogenesis, somaticembryogenesis; application of tissue culture for plant improvement,micropropagation, embryo rescue, anther culture, germplasm conser-vation, production of secondary metabolites, somaclonal variation, eel-


lular mutagenesis, protoplast culture, somatic cell genetics, alien genetransfer; cryopreservatjon.


Preparation of nutrient media; handling and standardization -ofplant material ; isolation, inoculation and subculturing; estimation ofcallus cells suspension culture; protoplast isolation and culture; plantsegmentation; micropropagation; selection of cell lines for various stressconditions; gene transfer experiments, Direct and indirect methods; trans-formation and regeneration of plant protoplasts.

Suggested Readings

Gamborg, O.L. and G.C.Philips. 1995. Plant Cell, Tissue and OrganCulture.

Fundamental Methods, Narosa Publication.

Trevor A. Thorpe, 1995. In vitro embryogenesis in plants. Kluwer Aca-demic Publishers.

4. Plant molecular biology (2+0)

Plants as genetic system; general organization of nuclear, mitochondriaand chloroplast genomes; tissue specific expression of genes; structure,organization and regulation of nuclear genes concerning storage pro-teins, sugar and starch synthesis; genes responding to hormones,phytochrome, abiotic and biotic stresses; plant - microbe interaction;genes involved in photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation; genetic interac-tions between nucleus, chloroplast and mitochondria; mitochondrialcontrol of fertility; selectable markers in plants and their uses; singletransduction, molecular farming.

Suggested Readings

Old, 1997, Principles of gene manipulations, Blackwell Publication, UK

Paterson, A.M. (1996), Genome mapping in plants, Academic Press, USA

Foster and Twell (1997), Plant gene isolation: Principles and Practice.John Wiley, USA, UK.

5. Gene regulation (2+0)

Concept of gene and genome, general control of DNA, RNA and protein


synthesis; gene regulation in prokaryotes; gene clustering and operonconcept; mechanism of positive and negative control of gene expression;translational and transcriptional control of regulatory mechanism of geneexpression in eukaryotes; role of post - transcription and post - transla-tional events in gene regulation; Isolation of represser and characteriza-tion of operator.

Suggested Readings

Lindsey, K. 1998. Transgenic Plant Research. Harwood Academic Pub-lishers. The Netherlands.

Murphy, D.J. 1994.Designer Oil crops. VCH, Weinheim.

Hiatt, A and Mostoc, K. (1993) Transgenic plants : Fundamental andapplications. New York, Marcel Dekkar Inc.

6. Enzymology (2 + 1)

Enzyme nomenclature and classification, assay, isolation, purificationand characterization; structure conformation, specificity, mechanism ofaction, transient and steady state kinetics, active site mapping, regula-tion of enzyme activity, multi enzyme complexes, immobilized enzymes,application of enzyme in chemical and food industry, clinical applica-tions of enzymes.


Isolation of soluble proteins and their characterization; isolation andpurification of enzymes; determination of activity and specific activity ofan enzyme; determination of Km and V max; enzyme kinetics; enzymeinhibitors.

Suggested Readings

Price, N.L. and L.Stevens, 1993. Fundamentals of enzymology, OxfordScientific.

Stryer, L. 1994. Biochemistry. Fourth Edition, W.H.Freeman & Com-pany, New York.

Garrett, R.H. and C.M.Grisham, 1995. Biochemistry. Saunders CollegePublishing

7. Introduction to industrial biotechnology (2+0)

Concept and scope of microbial fermentation technology, inoculum,I 34 I


screening and selection fermentation medium, fermentation process -bioreactor types design, fermentation economic, fermentation of foodand related products, production of organic solvents - beverages - aminoacids, single cell protein, vitamins and growth factors antibiotics andenzymes, genetic engineering and production of human proteins throughmicrobes, commercial application of genetically engineered microbes,biosensor, industrial production of commercially important biofertilizersand biopesticides, microbial degradation of waste products; biominingand metal extraction, phytoremediation.

Suggested Readings

Preschott, L.M. J.P.Harley and D.A.Klein. 1993. Microbiology.Wm.C.Brown Comon.Inc. Dubugue USA.

Cassida. 1996. Industrial Microbiology. Wiley Eastern publishers.

8. Plant genetic engineering (2+0)

Methods of plant breeding in relation to the reproductive system; com-parison of strategies of crop improvement, isolation and characteriza-tion of plant genes and promoters, construction and screening of cosmidbased library using homologous and heterologous probes; constructionof vectors for gene transfer, methods of gene transfer, study of transgeneintegration and expressions, copy number variation, transgene inherit-ance and stability, plant genetic engineering for stress tolerance, malesterility and herbicide tolerance and modification of carbohydrate, pro-tein and oil; post - harvest quality, production of bioplastics, plastibodiesand vaccine; processing of genetically engineered variability for evolvingsuperior genotypes; transgenic plants and environmental issues.

Suggested Readings

Ausubel.F.M., R. Brent, R. E.,Kingston, D.D.Moore, J.G.Seidman, J.A.Smit.(1992).Short Protocols in Molecular Biology.

Brown.T.A. (1995) .Gene Cloning an In t roduc t ion . (3 rd ed i t i on ) .ChapmanHall, 2-6 Bunclary Row, U.K.

Brown.T.A. 1995.Gene Cloning an I n t r o d u c t i o n . ( 3 r d ed i t i on ) .ChapmanHall, 2-6 Bundary Row, U.K.

Cold Spring Harbor Press. Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

Foster and Twell. (1997). Plant gene isolation : Principles and PracticeKung and Wu (1993).Transgenic Plants: Vols 1&2 Old and Primrose


(1984).Principles of gene manipulation.Blackwell

Owen and Pen (1997.Transgenic plants :(a production system for indus-trial and pharmaceutical proteins) Potrykus and Spangenberg 1995.GeneTransfer to Plants

Rissler and Mellon 1996.Ecological risks of transgenic crops

Sambrook,E., F.Fritsch and T.Maniatis .(1989). Molecular Cloning. ColdSpring Harbor Press.Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

9. Principles of immunology ( 1 + 1 )

History and sope of immunology, antigens, adjutants immune system,organs, tissues and cells, immunoglobulins, chemistry and structureand their biological functions, cellular interaction in the immune re-sponse antigen recongnition - T cell receptors, cell mediates immunerepossess, immuno-regulation, immunological tolerance, immunologi-cal application in plant science, monoclonal antibody in plant diseasediagnosis.


Handling, inoculation and bleeding of laboratory animals; preparationof antigen; antibody and antigen reaction; preparation of lymphocytefrom blood; immuno electrophoresis radial transdiffusion; quantitationof immunoglobulins by zinc sulphate.

Suggested Readings

Turner, 1994. Immunology. Wiley Liss. Katte, 1990. practical approach, IRL Press.

lili benjamini, G.Sunshine and S.Leskowitz, 1991. Immunology, a shortcourse. Wiley-Liss, A John Wiley & Sons Inc. Publication, New York

10. Biotechnology and society (1+1)

Nature, diversity and organization of life on plant earth; various mecha-nisms of generation of genetic diversity and their evolutionary implica-tions; synthesis and transplantation; socio-economic aspects of use ofcloned genes in medicine, agriculture, industry and ecology, guidelinesfor research involving genetically modified organisms (GMO), biodiversity,gene banks, intellectural propoerty rights (IPR), GATT, TRIPS, farmersrights, ethical and socio-economic issues.


Suggested Readings

Tzotzos, G.T. 1995. Genetically modified organisms-A guide to biosafety,CAB International, Walling ford, U.K. 213p.

DBT 1998 Back ground document for workshop on biosafety issuesemanating from use of genetically modified organisms(GMOs). Bangalore.September 1998. 289p.

Subbaram, N.R. 1998. Hand book of Indian patent law and practice.S.Visvvanathan (Printers & Publishers) Pvt. Ltd. Chennai 628p.

11. Biomolecule prospecting (2+0)

Important metabolic pathways, secondary metabolites, isolation andpurification, characterization of compounds of agricultural and phar-maceutical importance from microbes and plants, prospecting genes forthese compounds from the germplasm, strategies for large scale produc-tion of important biomolecules, application potentials and scope of com-mercialization.

Suggested Readings

Linclsey, K.1998. Transgenic Plant Research. Harwood Academic Pub-lishers. The Netherlands

Murphy, D.J. 1994.Designer Oil crops. VCH, Weinheim.

Hiatt, A and Mostoc, K. (1993) Transgenic plants : Fundamental andapplications. New York, Marcel Dekkar Inc.

12. Molecular biology of plant viruses (2+0)

Nomenclature and classification of viruses; variation, mutat ion and ori-gin of viruses; virus and methods of their identification; use of monoclonalantibodies in identification of viruses and their strains; composition andstructure of viruses; Molecular biology of viral genome replication, tran-scription, protein synthesis and maturation; viral genome organizationand functions of viral proteins; ultrastructural changes in the host;cross protection; production of genetically engineered resistance plants;genetics of viruses ; viruses as vectors of information transfer; crypticviruses; sub - viral pathogens.

Suggested Reading

Vidhyasekaran.P. 1997. Fundal pathogenesis in plants and crops: Mo-


lecular Biology and host defense mechanism. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Gurr.S.J., McPherson, M.J. and D.J.Bowles. 1992. Molecular Plant Pa-thology, A practical approach, IRL Press, Oxford, England.

Foster, and Twell. 1997. Plant gene isolation. Wiley

Graniti et al. 1989. Phytotoxins and Plant Pathogenesis. Springer Verlag,Berlin.

Day, P.M. 1986. Biotechnology, crop improvement and protection, BSPC,UK

Rolgeson,P. and S.J.Deverall. 1983. Use of tissue culture and protoplastsin Plant pathology, A.P., New York.

Helin, P.A., J.J.Meena and R.H.Hollingworth. 1988. Biotechnology forcrop protection. American Chemical Society.

Lewin,B.1994. Genes V.Oxford University Press, England.

Sambrook.J., E.F.Fritsch and T.Maniatis.1989. Molecular cloning: Alaboratory manual,2nd edition, Cold Spring Harbon Laboratory, N.Y.

Old, R.W. and Primrose, S.B.1989. Principles of gene manipulation. Anintroduction to genetic engineering, 4'h ed, Blackwell Scientific Publica-tions, Oxford, England.

Goodman,R.N., Z.Kiraly and K.R.Wood. 1986. The Biochemistry andPhysiology of Plant Diseases, Univ. of Missouri Press, Columbia, M.O.

13. Protein Engineering (2+0)

Protein structure and functional relationship, sequencing synthesis,structural determination, concept in active site and catalytic mecha-nism, modification in primary structure, site - directed mutagenesis,post - transnational modifications, macro-modifications of proteins -metabolic engineering and gene fusion, fusion protein stability and de-lectability, alternation of biological properties ribozyme technology, im-mobilized enzyme technology.

Suggested Readings

Lindsey, K.1998. Transgenic Plant Research. Harwood Academic Pub-lishers. The Netherlands


Murphy, D.J. 1994.Designer Oil crops. VCH, Weinheim.

Hiatt, A and Mostoc, K.'(1993) Transgenic plants : Fundamental andapplications. New York, Marcel Dekkar Inc.






Principles of plant physiology-I. cell organelles,water relations and mineral nutritionPrinciples of plant physiology-II. metabolicprocesses and growth regulationAbiotic stress responses in plantsMorphogenesis, tissue culture and planttransformation



1. Crop physiology2. Plant growth regulators and plant development3. Physiological, molecular and ecological aspects

of photosynthesis and productivity4. Mineral nutrition; physiological and

molecular aspects5. Seed physiology6. Physiological aspects of crops - I7. Physiological aspects of crops - II8. Climate variability, climate change and its

impact on growth and productivity9. Herbicide physiology10. Physiology of flowering and reproduction11. Physiology of horticultural and plantation

crop species12. Post harvest physiology13. Experimental techniques in plant physiology


2 +1

2 + 1

2 +12 +1

0 + 1 credits





1 + 12+ 02+ 0



To be decided by the Students Advisory Ccrop species


Total 35 credits



1. Principles of plant physiology-I. cell organelles, water relationsand mineralnutrition

Cell organelles and their physiological functions; structure and physi-ological functions of cell wall, cell inclusions; cell membrane structureand functionsjwater and its role in plants; properties and functions ofwater in the cell water relations, cell water terminology, water potentialof plant cells; mechanism of water uptake by roots, transport in roots,movement of water in plants, water loss from plants, energy balance,solar energy input, energy dissipation at crop canopy levfel,evapotranspiration; transpiration, driving force for transpiration, plantfactors influencing transpiration rate, stomata, structure function,mechanism of stomatal movement, antitranspirants; physiology of wa-ter stress in plants: Influence of water stress at cell, organ, plant andcanopy levels; indices for assessment of drought resistance; the role ofmineral nutrients in plant metabolism; essential elements, classifica-tion based on function of elements in plants; uptake of mineral ele-ments in plants, mechanisms of uptake, translocation of minerals inplants; physiological and metabolic functions of mineral elements; criti-cal levels, deficiency symptoms, nutrient deficiency and toxicity; Foliarnutrition.


Measurement of soil water status; theory and principle of pressure plateapparatus, neutron probe; measurement of plant water status; relativewater content, water saturation deficits Chardakov's test; theory andprinciple of pressure bomb, hydraulic jack, psychrometer and osometer;measurement of transpiration rate; measurement of vapour pressuredeficits, theory and principle of porometry, diffusion prometer and steadystate porometer, stomatal physiology, influence of ABA on stomatal clos-ing; mineral nutrients; demonstration of energy requirement for ion up-take; deficiency symptoms of nutrients.

Suggested Readings

Salisbury, F. B. and Ross C. W. (1998); Plant physiology, CBS distribu-tors New Delhi.

Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. (1998); Plant physiology, 2nd edition Sinauerassociation, INC Publishers

Noggle, G. R. and Fritz, G. J., (1986), Introductory Plant Physiology,Prentice Hall, New Delhi.


Devlin, P.M., (1979), Plant Physiology, East West Press Private Ltd., NewDelhi.

Bidwell, R.G.S., (1974), Plant Physiology, Me. Milan Publishing Com-pany, New York.

Wilkins, M.B., (1980), Fundamental Plant Physiology, Tata Me. GrawHill Publishing Company, New Delhi.

Mohar and Schopfer, (1994), Plant Physiology, Springer-Verlag, New Yor

Crop Physiology- Biotechnology by open learning series, Buffer worth-Heinemann publishers, 1994.

2. Principles of plant physiology-II. metabolic processes and growthregulation (2+1)

Photosynthesis, translocation and the respiration as key processes regu-lating carbon metabolism and plant growth;photosynthesis its impor-tance in bioproductivity; photochemical process, chloroplast its struc-ture, photochemical reactions, CO2 reduction in calvin cycle, supple-mentary pathway of C fixation in C4 and CAM plants and its signifi-cance; photorespiration and its relevance; photosynthesis as a diffusiveprocess, effect of environmental factors on photosynthetic rates; syn-thesis of sucrose, starch, oligo and polysaccharides (composition of cellwall); translocation of photosynthates and its importance in sink growth;niiiochondrial respiration, growth and maintenance respiration, cyanideresistant respiration and its significance;nitrogen metabolism; inorganicnitrogen species (N2 ,NO3, NH3) and their reduction to amino acids,protein synthesis and nucleic acids; lipid metabolism, storage, protec-tive and structural lipids, biosynthesis of fattyacids, diacyl and triacylglycerol, fatty acids of storage lipids; secondary metabolites and theirsignificance in plant defence mechanism; growth and differentiation;hormonal concept of growth and differentiation, plant growth hormones(auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ABA, ethylene etc.); biosynthesis ofgrowth hormones, their metabolism and their physiological role syn-thet ic growth regulators, growth retardants, apical dominance, senes-cence, fruit growth, abscission;photo morphogenesis; photo receptors,phytochrome, cryptochrome, physiology of flowering, photoperiodism andvernalisation.


Radiant energy measurements, separation and quantification of chloro-phylls, O2 evolution during photosynthesis; measurement of gas ex-change parameters, conductances, photosynthetic rate, photorespiration,


respiration rates, estimation of reducing sugars, starch; estimation ofNO3, free amino acids in the xylem exudates, quantification of solubleproteins, bioassays for different growth hormones, auxins, gibberellins,cytokinins, ABA and ethylene, demonstration of photoperiodic responseof plants in terms of flowering.

Suggested Readings

Atkinson, D. E., (1977); Cellular energy metabolism and its regulation.Academic press, New York.

Strayer, L., (1995); Biochemistry 4th edition, W. H. Freeman, New York.

Hatch, M.D. and Boardman, N.K., (1987); The biochemistry of plants,Academic press, New York.

Leegood, R.C., Sharkey, T. D., and Von-Caemmerer. S., (2000); Photo-synthesis: Physiology and metabolism, Kluwer Academic Publishers,The Netherlands.

3. Abiotic stress responses in plants (2+1)

Response of plants to abiotic stresses; abiotic stresses affecting plantproductivity; basic principles of a crop improvement programme understress, interactions between biotic and abiotic stresses; drought, char-acteristic features, water potential in the soil, plant air continuum; de-velopment of water deficits, energy balance concept, transpiration andit's regulation, stomatal functions / VPD; physiological processes af-fected by drought; drought resistance mechanisms; escape dehydrationpostponement (drought avoidance), dehydration tolerance, and charac-teristics of resurrection plants; osmotic adjustment osmoprotectants,stress proteins; water use efficiency as a drought resistance trait; mo-lecular responses to water deficit; stress perception, expression of regu-latory and functional genes and significance of gene products; stressand hormones, ABA as a signalling molecule, cytokinin as a negativesignal; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species (ROS); role of scaveng-ing systems (SOD, Catalase etc);high temperature stress; tolerancemechanisms; role of membrane lipids in high temperance tolerance; func-tions of HSP's; chilling stress; effects on physiological processes; crucialrole of membrane lipids, salinity; species variation in salt tolerance; sa-linity effects at ; cellular and whole plant level, tolerance mechanisms;salt tolerance in- glycophytes and halophytes; breeding for salt resist-ance; heavy metal stress; aluminium and cadmium toxicity in acid soils;role of phytochelatins (heavy metal binding proteins).



Measurement of water status of plants, determination of osmotic poten-tial by vapour pressure and freezing point depression; determination ofsoil water potential and content by psychrometry and other systems;stress imposition and quantification; stress, stomatal conductance;canopy temperature as a reflection of transpiration and root activity;water use efficiency, determination at whole plant and single leaf level;root-shoot signals, ABA and cytokinin effect on stomatal behaviour; heattolerance and membrane integrity; sullivans heat tolerance test, chillingtolerance, galactolipase and free fatty acid levels as biochemical mark-ers for chilling damage; cold induced inactivation of O2 evolution ofchloroplasts, as a screening technique for chilling tolerance.

Suggested Readings

Steward, F. C. (1986); Plant Physiology: A treatise, vol. IX, water andsolutes in plants, Academic press , New York.

Kramer, P. J. and Boyer, J. S. (1995); Water relation of plants and soils.Academic press San Diego.

Smith, J. A. C. and Griffith, S. H., (1993); water deficits, plant responsefrom cell to community, BIOS scientific, Oxford.

Turner, N. C. and Kramer, P. J., (1980); Adaptation of plants to waterand high temperature stress, Wiley New York.

Cherry, J. H., (1989); Environmental stress in plants: Biochemical andphysiological mechanisms associated with environmental stress toler-ance (NATO ASI Series G vol. 19) Springer, Berlin.

Levitt, J., (1980); Response of plant to environmental stress vol. 1, 2ndedition, Academic press, New York.

Mussels, H. and Staples, R. C., (1979); Stress physiology in crop plantWiley, New York.

Miinchen, J.J., Lange, O., Wiirzburg, Olson, J. S., Oak Kidge. W. Wieser,Innsbruck., (1974), Methods of Studying Plant water relations: Ecologi-cal Studies, vol. 9, Springer-verlog, New York.

4. Morphogenesis, tissue culture and plant transformation (2+1)

Morphogenesis; the cellular basis of growth and morphogenesis; ana-tomical and ultrastructural aspects of growth;polarity, in tip growing


cells and diffusive growing cells, control of plane of cell division anddifferentiation in selected cell types; photoreceptors, phytochromes, dif-ferent forms, physiological effects and gene regulation; introductory his-tory, morphogenesis and cellular totipotency, physiology and biochem-istry of differentiation, laboratory organisation (asceptic techniques),organ, tissue and cell culture; micropropagation strategies and extravitro establishment, application of tissue culture in agriculture, horti-culture, forestry and industry;plant transformation; transformation vec-tors, concept of selectable and scorable markers; methods of transfor-mation, Agrobacteriutn mediated transformation, binary vectors, biolistics,electroporation, selection of putative transgenic plants, genetic analy-sis, PCR, Southern analysis; evaluation of transgenic plants in contain-ment facilities and field testing.


Photomorphogenesis effects (Red & Far red light) on few plant processes- germination, chlorophyll synthesis, nitrate reductase activity; labora-tory orientation and introduction of aseptic techniques; formulation ofmedia and sterlization; explants, preparation and inoculation; types ofcultures; methods of quantification of growth; induction of organogenesisand clonal propagation; methods to obtain pathogen free plants; accli-matization and extra vitro establishment; plant transformation vectorsand transformation of Agrobacterium strains; tobacco transformationusing leaf discs; visualisation of transiently expressed reporter genes;characterisation of transgenic plants, PCR, Southern, Northern; main-tenance of transgenic plants, under biosafety regulations.

Suggested Readings

George, E. F., (1993); Plant propagation by tissue culture, 2nd edition,Part I and II, Exegetics ltd., London.

De Bergh, P. C. and Zimmerman, R. H., (1991); Micropropagation, tech-nology and application, Kluwer Academic publishers, Dordrecht, Lon-don.

Evans, D.A., Sharp, W. R., Ammirato, P. V. and Yamada, Y., (1983);Hand Book of plant cell culture vol. I., Me. Millan publishing company,New York.

Srivastava, P.S. (1998); Plant Tissue Culture and Molecular Biology:Applications and prospectus, Narosa Publishing house, New Delhi.

Bonga, J. M., Durzan, D.J. (1982); Tissue culture in forestry, Nizhoff /junk, The Hauge.


Vasil, 1. K., Trevor, A and Thorpe, A. (1994); Plant Cell And Tissue Cul-ture, Kluwer Academic Publilshers, Dordrecht.

Withers, L. A. and Alderson, P. G., (1986); Plant Tissue Culture and itsAgricultural application, Butterworths, London.

Fujiwara, (1982); Plant Tissue Culture, Japanese Association of PlantTissue Culture, Tokyo.

Bajaj, Y. P. S., (1991), Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry: Hitech and Micropropagation, Vol. 1, Springer Verlag, Berlin.


1. Crop physiology (1+0)

Role of crop physiology in different branches of agriculture; crop growthand productivity, crop physiological processes influencing crop growthand productivity; crop growth models, describing yield (duncan /passioura); duncan's model; phenology, crop productivity, growth fac-tors related to biomass-concept of crop growth rates, canopy photosyn-thesis (Leaf area and Net assimilation rates as determining factors);lightinterception as a major function of leaf area, LAI, LAD, canopy architec-ture, light extinction coefficient; net assimilation rate, variation in pho-tosynthetic rates within and between the species; passioura's model;interrelation between total transpiration-WUE-plant growth, role of VPD;biomass and yield relations, partitioning of photosynthates at differentgrowth stages of crop, harvest Index, yield and yield structure analysis;concept of source and sink, factors influencing source and sink size andproductivity; environmental factors determining crop growth, light, tem-perature and VPD; effect of photoperiod and thermoperiod on durationof growth stages; idiotype concept, selection indices for improving cropproductivity.

Suggested Readings

Spiertz, J. H. J. and Kramer, T., (1979), Crop Physiology and Cerealbreeding, Pudoc, Wageningen.

Dogget (1988), Sorghum, Longman Scientific, New York.

Mauney, J. R. and Me D. Steward, J., (1986), Cotton Physiology, Cottonfoundation, Memphis, Tamil Nadu.

Crop Physiology- Biotechnology by open learning series, Buffer worth-Heinemann publishers, 1994.


2. Plant growth regulators and plant development (2+1)

Definition and classification of plant growth regulators, hormones, en-dogenous growth substances and synthetic chemicals; endogenousgrowth regulating substances other than hormones; brassinosteroids,triacontanol, phenols, polyamines, jasmonates, concept of death hor-mone; classification, site of synthesis, biosynthetic pathways and me-tabolism and the influence on plant growth and development of indi-vidual group of hormones, auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acidand ethylene; concept of hormone action, hormone receptors and signaltransduction; hormone mutants and transgenic plants in understand-ing role of hormones; hormonal regulation of gene expressions at vari-ous developmental stages of plant, flowering, seed maturity, seed dor-mancy; action of hormones on cellular functions; auxins, cell elonga-tion, retardation of abscission of plant parts; gibberllins, stem elonga-tion, germination of dormant seeds, cytokinins, cell division, retardationof senescence of plant parts, abscisic acid, stomatal closure and induc-tion of drought resistance, ethylene, fruit ripening, acceleration of se-nescence of leaves; interaction of hormones in regulation of plant growthand development processes; rooting of cuttings, flowering, physiologicaland molecular aspects of control of reproductive growth; apical domi-nance, senescence and abscission; fruit growth and development; mo-lecular aspects of controlling ripening processes and improving postharvest life of fruits, induction and breaking dormancy in seeds andbuds; synthetic growth regulators, classification, their effect on plantgrowth and development, practical utility in agriculture and horticul-ture.


Quantification of hormones, principles of bioassays, physico-chemicaltechniques and immunoassayjextraction of hormones from plant tis-sue; auxins, bioassays, auxins effect on abscission, apical dominance;gibberllins, bioassays, GA effect on germination of dormant seeds;cytokinin, bioassays, estimation using immunoassay technique cytokinineffect on apical dominance and senescence; ABA bioassays; estimationusing immunoassay techniques, ABA effect on stomatal movement; eth-ylene, bioassays, estimation using physico-chemical techniques,effecton breaking dormancy in sunflower and groundnut.

Suggested Readings

Davis, P. J., (1995); Plant hormones and their role in plant growth anddevelopment, Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

Weaver, R. J., (1972); Plant growth substances in agriculture W. H. Free-man, San Francisco.

I 47 i


Davis, P. J., (1995); Plant hormones: Physiology, Biochemistry and Mo-lecular Biology, Kluwer, Boston.

Nickell, L. G., (1985); Plant Growth Regulatory Chemicals, CRC PressBoca Raton, FL.

Bopp, M., (1985); Plant Growth Substances, Springs, New York.

Thimann, K. V., (1977); Hormone Action in the whole life of plants, Uni-versity of Massachusetts press.

Wareing, P. F., (1982); Plant Growth Substance. Academic press, Lon-don.

3. Physiological, molecular and ecological aspects of photosynthesisand productivity (2+1)

Photosynthesis, its significance in crop productivity, eco-biomass, gase-ous fluxes in atmosphere; historical summary of the photosyntheticprocesses;Physiological and biochemical aspects; chloroplast structureand development, ultrastructure of thylakoids, photosystems, mecha-nism of light absorption, chloroplast electron transport chain, ATP syn-thesis, quantum yield conceptjphotosynthetic carbon reduction, sup-plementary carbon fixation pathways in C4 and CAM plants, their eco-logical significance, RuBisCO structure assembly and regulation,photorespiration and its significance; carbon fluxes between chloroplastand cytoplasm, Pi recycling, starch and sucrose synthesis and export;carbon fixation as a diffusive process, quantification of relative limita-tions, CO2 response curves, long term CO2 effects; concept of canopyphotosynthesis, influence of environmental factorsjmolecular aspects;chloroplast genome organisation, expression and regulation of plastidgenes; molecular analysis of rate limiting steps in carbon assimilation,antisense and gene expression studies; ecological aspect; productivityof different ecosystems, energy utilization efficiency in crop canopies;stress and high light; photo inhibition, photo oxidation, excitation en-ergy dissipation mechanisms, generation and scavenging of active oxy-gen species, chlorophyll fluo/escence as a diagnostic tool, photosynthe-sis and transpiration interaction, significance of WUE, carbon isotopediscrimination concept; prospects of improving photosynthetic rate andproductivity, potential traits of photosynthesis, biotechnological ap-proaches.


Extraction, separation and estimation of plant pigments; isolation ofchloroplasts, ETC reactions - O2 evolution; determination of RuBisCO


content (Western and ELISA), activity and activation state; enzymaticdetermination of starch and sucrose; determination of photosyntheticrates - gas exchangejA, gs, CI, A/gs, Ci/gs - intrinsic WUE by gas ex-change ratesjlight, CO-2, VPD response curves; determination ofphotorespiration by gas exchange - (TPS - APS); genotypic/species dif-ferences in photosynthetic rates; measurement of radiation, Eu%, lightinterception;

Suggested Readings

Hatch, M. D. and Boardman, N. K. (1987); The biochemistry of plants,vol. 10, photosynthesis, Academic press, San Diego.

Govindjee, (1982); Photosynthesis, Development, Carbon metabolism andplant productivity. Vol. I, II and III., Academic press, New York.

Madore, M. M. and Lucas, W. J., (1995); Carbon Partitioning and SourceSink Relationship in Plants, American Society of Plant Physiologist,Rockville, MD.

Baker, N. R., (1996); Photosynthesis and the Environment, Kluwer,Dordrecht, London.

Lawlor, D.W., (1987); Photosynthesis: Metabolism, Control and Physiol-ogy, Longman Scientific and Technical, London.

Hall, D.O., Scurlock, J.M.O., Bolhar, H.R., Nordenkampf, Leegood, R.C.and Long, S.P., (1993); Photosynthesis and Production in a changingenvironment: A field and laboratory maual Part I and II, Chapman andHall, London.

Hall, D. O. and Rao, R. K., (1987); Photosynthesis, 4th edition, EdwardArnold, London.

Mohammad Yunus, Uday Pahtre, and Prasanna Mohanty, (2000); Prob-ing Photosynthesis: Mechanisms, regulation and adaptation, Taylor andFrancis, New York, USA.

Winter, K. and Smith, J. A. C., (1996); Crassulacean Acid Metabolism:Biochemistry, Ecophysiology and Evolution, Srpinger-Verlag, Berlin.

Baker, N., (1996); Advances in photosynthesis, vol 3., EnvironmentalStress and Photosynthesis, Academic press, Dordrecht.

Briggs, W.R., (1989); Photosynthesis, Alan R Liss, New York.


Murata, N., (1992); Research in Photosynthesis, Vol 4., Kluwer-Aca-demic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Garab, G. (1999); Photosynthesis: Mechanisms and Effects, Kluwer-Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

4. Mineral nutrition: physiological and molecular aspects (1+1)

Historical aspects and importance of mineral nutrition in plantgrowth jclassification and essentiality criteria; general mechanisms, con-cept of apparent free space and nature of bio-membranes; dual mecha-nism and other concepts of ion uptake; short distance transport, path-way from external solution (Apoplasm) to stele across the root corticalcells - factors contributing to xylem loading; long distance transport inxylem and phloem; xylem unloading in leaf cells;uptake and release ofmineral nutrients by foliagejfunction of individual elementsjrhizosphereand root biology, root growth, influence of micro-organism in nutrientacquisition, release and uptake by plant roots;yield and mineral nutri-tion, concept of nutrient use efficiencyjmineral nutrition under adversesoil situations, drought, salinity acidity etcjheavy metal toxicity and con-cept of phytoremediationjmolecular aspects, uptake and transport; roleof transporter genes; genetics of nutrient uptake, identification and trans-fer of genes for tolerance to nutrient deficiencies, etc.


Growing plants in sand culture; preparation of synthetic nutrient solu-tions; raising of representative plants to demonstrate specific nutrientdeficiency, differential uptake of ions, characterising deficiency symp-toms; tissue analysis for nutrients.

Suggested Readings

Mengel, K. and Kirkby, E. A., (1987); Principles of plant nutrition. Inter-national potash institute, Berlin.

Epstein, E., (1972); Mineral Nutrition of plants: Principles and perspec-tives, Wiley, New York.

Luttge, U. and Higginbotham, N., (1979); Transport in plants. Springer,Berlin.

Marschner, H., (1995); Mineral Nutrition of higher plants, 2nd edition.Academic press London.

Robbs, D. A. and Pierpoint, W. S., (19&3); Metals and Micronutrientsuptake and utilization by plants, Academic press, New York.


Truog, E. (1973); Mineral nutrition of plants, Oxford and IBH Publish-ers, New Delhi.

5. Seed physiology (1+1)

Structure of seeds and their storage resources; seed developmental pat-terns and source of assimilates for seed development; pathway of move-ment of assimilates in developing grains of monocots and dicots; chemi-cal composition of seeds; storage of carbohydrates, proteins and fats inseeds; storage chemistry including biosynthesis; hydration of seeds;physiological processes; seed respiration, mitochondrial activity; mobi-lization of stored resource in seeds; chemistry of oxidation of starch,proteins and fats; utilization of breakdown products by embryonic axis;control processes in mobilization of stored resources; role of embryonicaxes; gibberllin and a-amylase and other hydrolytic activity; seed matu-ration phase and desiccation damage; role of LEA proteins; seed viabil-ity; physiology of and means to prolong seed viability; seed dormancy,types and regulation; means to overcome seed dormancy.


Determination of seed storage proteins sink drawing ability of ovules,empty ovule technique; alpha-amylase activity in germinating seeds; roleof GA in inducing amylase activity; role of embryo in GA induced a-amylase activity; protease and lipase activity in germinating seeds; seedviability test and accelerated ageing test; seed hardening/osmotic prim-ing of seeds; estimation of seed respiration rates; seed viability losses,membrane leakage.

Suggested Readings

Bewley, J. D. and Black, M., (1994); Seeds: Physiology of Developmentand Germination 2nd edition, Plenum, New York.

Kigel, J. and Galili, G., (1995); Seed Development and Germination,Marcel Dekker, New York.

Long, G. A., (1996); Plant Dormancy: Physiology, Biochemisty and Mo-lecular Biology, CAB International, UK.

Eliss, R. H., Black, M., Murdoch, A. J. and Hong, T. D., (1995), Basicand applied aspects of seed biology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, TheNetherlands.


6. Physiological aspects of crops - I (2+0) *

Crop physiological aspects of rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, millets andsugarcane *species could be chosen based on local importance.

7. Physiological aspects of crops - II (2+0)*

Crop physiological aspects of pulses, oil seeds, cotton, tobacco and po-tato; crop *species could be chosen based on local importance.

8. Climate variability, climate change and its impact on growth andproductivity (2+0)

Climate - past and present; analytical methods to determine long termchanges in environment-Tree ring, cellulose stable carbon isotope dis-crimination, stable 18O discrimination for hydrological changes; likelychanges in climate in future and its impact on crop and ecosystems; thegreen house gases and global warming; CO2 as an important green-house gas, global carbon deposits, fluxes in the sinks and sources; ap-proaches to contain atmospheric CO2 level; effect of elevated CO2- onplant growth and development; basic processes and long term effect ongrowth; methane as a green house gas-sources, emission rates, chemis-try nitrous oxide and the other green house gases;prediction on globalwarming, GCA models, effect on climate and biota;high temperature andCO2 interaction on plant growth and productivity;Ionising radiation UV-B; chlorinated flurocarbon (CFC), their impact on ozone layer-ozone holeand alteration in UV-B radiation; effect of UV-B radiation on plant eco-system, repair and acclimation to UV-B damage; carotenoids and theirrole in membrane stabilisation;air pollutant, SO2, NO, methane, ozone,peroxy acetyl nitrate and their effect on ecosystem;Industrial and do-mestic effluents-their effect on aquatic ecosystem, plant growth and de-velopment.

Suggested Readings

Schlesinger, W. H., (1991); Biogeochemisty: An analysis of global change,Academic press, San Diego.

Fitter, A. H. and Hay, R. K. M., (1987); Environmental Physiology ofplants 2nd edition, Academic press, London.

Hall, D.O., Scurock, J.M.D., Bolar-Nordenkampf,H.R., Leegood, R.C. andLong, S.P., (1983); Photosynthesis and production in a changing envi-ronment, Chapman and Hall, London.

Loomis, R.S. and Corner, D. J., (1992); Crop Ecology, productivity andmanagement in Agricultural Systems, Cambridge University Press.

I 52 I


Campbell, G. S., (1986), An introduction to Environmental biophysics,Springer-Verlag, New York.

Griffiths, H., (1998); Stable isotopes: Integration of biological, Ecologi-cal and Geochemical processes, BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford.

Nebel, B.J and Wright, R.T. (1998);, Environmental Science ,6th edition,Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Pearcy, R. W., Ehleringer, J., Mooney, H. A. and Rundel, P. W., (1989);Plant Physiological ecology: Field methods and instrumentation,Chapman and Hall, London.

Nobel, P. S. (1991); Physiochemical and Environmental plant physiol-ogy1. Academic press, San Diego.

David M. Gates., (1993), Climate Change and its Biological Consequences,Sinauer associates INC. Massachusetts.

Kimball, B. A., (1990), Impact of Carbon dioxide, Trace gases and Cli-mate change on global agriculture, ASA, spec, publishers, Madison.

9. Herbicide physiology (1+1)

Introduction, classification of herbicides; absorption and translocationof soil and foliar applied herbicides; physiological and biochemical effectof herbicides, effect on membrane structure and functions, on cell divi-sion and cell development; nature of herbicide receptor proteins andtheir role in herbicide tolerance; effect on chloroplast, photosynthesis,respiration, protein synthesis, synthesis of lipids; molecular mechanismsof herbicide resistance in relation to chloroplast gene expression; meth-ods to increase the efficiency of soil and foliar applied herbicide, pHadjuvants, synergists; antidotesjcase studies of different types of herbi-cides, growth regulating types, triazines, subst i tuted ureas,chloroacetamides, substituted uracils; thiocarbamates, nitriles.bipyridylium, unclassified groups, herbicide mixtures; herbicide resist-ance, induction, taxonomic and biological consideration of herbicide re-sistance, nature of resistance to triazine, breeding herbicide tolerantcrop cultivars; herbicide resistance in plant cell cultures, practical sig-nificance.


Bioassay for different herbicides; influence of pH, adjuvants, contactangle, Surface tension on penetration, absorption and translocation ofherbicides; quantification of herbicide potency, relative potency; quanti-


fication of herbicide - herbicide interaction (synergistic, antagonistic andadditive);role of adjuvants on penetration, translocation, contact anglesurface tension etc; effect of herbicide on electron transport in isolatedchloroplast and mitochondria; effect of herbicide on rate of photosyn-thesis in crop and weed plants.

Suggested Readings

Devine, M. D., Duke, O. D. and Fedtke, L., (1993); Physiology of Herbi-cide action, PTR, Prentice-hall Inc., A Simon and Schuster company,New Jersey.

Duke, S. O., (1984); Biochemical and physiological mechanism of herbi-cide action, American society of Plant Physiology.

Hathway, D. E., (1989); Molecular mechanism of herbicide selectivity,Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Le Baron, H. M. and Gressold, J., (1982); Herbicide resistance in plants,Wiley, New York.

Kearnay, P. C. and Kaufman, D. D., (1988); Herbicides: Chemistry, deg-radation and mode of action. Marcel Dekker, New York.

10. Physiology of flowering and reproduction (2+0)

Evolutionary history of flowering plants (angiosperms); semelparous anditeroparous reproduction, monocarpic and perennial life habits etc; flow-ering phenomenon; effect of plant age, juvenility, transition to flowering;flowering nature and classification of plants; photoperiodic responsesand the mechanisms in short and long day plants; theories related to(lowering; endogenous substances and flowering; gene expression in flow-ering; control of flowering, thermoperiodism, photo and thermoperiodinteractions; vernalization, mechanism and practical use of the process;optimization in flowering response, to environmental features (light, tem-perature, stress) etc; plant reproductive physiology; mating strategiesin plants, molecular techniques to understand mating patterns, self-incompatibility responses, physiological processes mediating fertilisa-tion (pollen-stigma interactions), seed and fruit development, seed andfruit abortion and means to overcome it; molecular biology of seed de-velopment, physiological basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertilityrestoration; physiology of heterosis.

Suggested Readings

Fosket, D. E., (1994); Plant growth and development: A molecular ap-proach, Academic press, San Diego.


Kandrick, R. C. and Kronenberg, G. H. M., (1994); Photomorphogenesisin plants 2nd edition, Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Wareing, P. F. and Phillips, I. D. J., (1981); Growth and differentiation inplants, 3rd edition, Pergamen, Oxford.

Subtelney, S. and Green, P. B., (1982); Developmental order: Its originand regulation, Alan, R, Liss, New York.

Street and Helgi Opik, (1975), The Physiology of Flowering Plants: Theirgrowh and development, The English Language Book Society and EdwardArnold, London.

Arthur Cronquist, (1968),The Evolution and classification of floweringplants, Great Britain.

Bernier, Kinet and Sachs, (1981), The Physiology of Flowering- Vol 1 andVol 2, CRC Press, Florida.

Wilkins, M. B., (1980), Physiology of plant growth and development, TataMe Graw Hill Publishing company, New Delhi.

11. Physiology of horticultural and plantation crop species (2+0)

Growth and development of horticultural and plantation crop species;juvenility, shoot growth, types of shoots; patterns of shoot growth, cambialgrowth and its regulation; physiological aspects of pruning and dwarf-ing; growth measurements, water relations of tree species; water uptakeand transport; concepts of transpiration ratio and water use efficiency;sexual and asexual propagation; root stock and scion interactions; physi-ology of f lowering in perennial species, photoperiodism andthermoperiodism; physiological aspects of fruit crops, mango, banana,grapes, citrus, papaya and pineapple, etc;physiological aspect of planta-tion crops; coffee, tea, cardaman, coconut, pepper; NB species could bechosen based on the local importance.

Suggested Readings

Zimmermann, M. H. and Brown, C. L., (1971); Tree-structure and func-tion, Springer-verlag, Berlin.

Raghavendra, A. S., (1987); Physiology of trees, Elsevier Science pub-lishers, Amstredam, The Netherlands.

Kozlowski, T. T. and Kramer, P. J., (1997); Physiology of woody plants,2nd edition, Academic press San Diego, California.


Pallardy, S. G. and Kramer, (1991), Physiology of woody plants, Aca-demic press Inc., New York.

Kramer, P. J. and Pallardy, S. G., (1991), Growth and development intrees, Academic press Inc., New York.

Kozlowski, T. T., Kramer, P. J., and Pallardy, S. G., (1991); The physi-ological ecology of woody plants, Academic press, San Diego.

Cannel, M. G. R. and Last, F. T., (1976); Tree physiology and yield im-provement, Academic press, London.

Sethuraj, M. R. and Raghavendra, A. S., (1987); Tree crop physiology,Elsevier Science publisher, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

12. Post-harvest physiology (1+1)

Senescence and ageing in plants; ethylene, the senescence hormone,leaf senescence, chloroplast degradations, monocarpic plant senescence;biochemistry and molecular biology of flower senescence; gene expres-sion during senescence; concepts of physiological maturity of seeds, postharvest changes in biochemical constituents in field crops, loss of viabil-ity, loss of nutritive value (changes in fat deterioration etc.^environmentalfactors influencing post-harvest deterioration of seeds; post-harvest physi-ological and biochemical changes during fruit ripening and storage; se-nescence and post harvest of life and cut flowers; hormonal and chemi-cal control of post-harvest deterioration of fruits, vegetables and cutflowers and its significance during storage and transport; regulation offruit ripening at molecular level; transgenic technology for improvementof shelf life.


Physiological maturity indices, colour, softness and size of harvestedfruits, mango, banana, sapota, apple, papaya, citrus and guava; changesin chlorophyll, storage protein, amino acids, membrane integrity duringleaf senescence; use of antiethylene agents on petal senescence and vas-cular plugging during flower senescence; demonstration of ethylene andrespiratory climatric in fruits; estimation of chlorophyll, colouring pig-ments, respiration and ethylene evolution during development, matu-rity and ripening stages; quantification of hydrolytic enzymes duringripening of fruits; judging TSS, acidity in fruits, estimation of qualityand weight loss of fruits and vegetables during storage; estimation ofsugars, vitamins, ascorbic acid and total phenolics.


Suggested Readings

Friend, J. and Rhodes, M.J.C., (1981), Recent Advances in Biochemistyof fruits and vegetables, Academic Press, London.

Clijsters, H., M. De proft, Marcelle, R., Van ponche, M, (1989), Biochemicaland physiological aspects of ethylene production in lower and higherplants, Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Tomas-Barberan, F. A. and Robins, R. J., (1997), Phytochemistry of fruitsand vegetables, Oxford University Press, New York.

13. Experimental techniques in plant physiology (0+2)

Determination of energy utilization of crop plants, growth structure analy-t% sis, radiation measurements and interception; photoperiodic responses,

flowering regulation by light duration, quantification of photosensitivenature of a genotype; hydroponics and culture; quantification of hor-mone, immunoassay, physico-chemical methods; WUE; determinationof water use efficiency by gravimetric approach; isotopes, use in physi-ological investigations (potential photosynthesis/proteinsynthesis);purification, quantification of RuBisCO by ELISA usingpolyclonal antibodies; gas exchange technique, measurement of photo-synthetic rates and dark respiration; protein purification and isozymeanalysis; moisture, temperature stress, methods to impose, quantifica-tion of the stress levels; molecular aspects of stress response, stressresponsive proteins, their expression, Western and Northern analysis;stress measurement parameters (membrane integrity, chlorophyll sta-bility index, osmolyte quantification, osmotic adjustment, TTC, etc.);xylemexudates as a measure of root activity and root signals; oxidative stressimposition and quantification; quantification of plant constituents; spe-cific instruments to study different physiological processes, (Eg. Infrared thermometer, 1RGA, pscychometry, neutron probe, atomic absorp-tion spectrophotometer, liquid scintillation system).

Suggested Readings

Moore, T. C., (1981), Research Experiences in Plant Physiology: A Labo-ratory Manual, Springer-verlag, NewYork.

Ross, C. W., (1974), Plant Physiology Laboratory Manual, WordsworthPublishing company, California.

Meidner, H., (1984), Class Experiments in Plant Physiology, George Allenand Unwin, London.


Roberts, J. and Whitehouse, D.G., (1977), Practical Plant Physiology,Longman, New York.

Arditti, J. and Dunn, A., (1969), Experimental Plant Physiology, Holt,Rinchart and Winston Inc., New York.

Witham, F.H., Blaydes, D.F. and Devlin, R. M., (1971), Experiments inPlant Physiology, D. van Nostrand company, New York.

Sadasivam, S. and Manickam, A., (1996), Biochemical methods, 2ndedition, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.

Hall, D.O., Scurlock, J.M.O., Bolhar, H.R., Nordenkampf, Leegood, R.C.and Long, S.P., (1993); Photosynthesis and Production in a changingenvironment: A field and laboratory maual Part 1 and II, Chapman andHall, London.



List of participants in meeting-cum workshop in the BSMA of Basic Sci-ence held on 5-6th March, 1999 at University of Agricultural Sciences,Banglore-560065..

1. Dr. V. L. Chopra,Former DG, ICAR and National professor, IAR1,New Delhi-110012.

2. Dr. S.L. Mehta, DDG(Edn.), ICAR, Krishi Anusandhan Bhawan, Pusa,New Delhi-110012.

3. Professor S.K. Sinha, Former Director, IARI and National Professor,IAR1, New Delhi-110012.

4. Dr. RP. Sharma, Project Director, NRC, PB, IARI, New Delhi-110012.5. Dr. M.L. Lodha, Head, Division of Biochemistry, lARI.New Delhi-

110012.6. Dr M. Udaya Kumar, Professor,& Head, Deptt. of Crop Physiology,

UAS , GKVK, Banglore. -560065.7. Dr. S Sadasiviam, Director, CPMB, Tamil Nadu Agriculture Univer-

sity, Coimbatore-6410038. Dr. G.K. Garg, Dean, College of Basic Sciences, G.B. Pant Uni. Of

Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145.9. Dr. A.C. Kapoor, Dean College of Basic Sciences, HPKW, Palampur-

163o62.10. Dr. G.P. Srivastava, Professor & Head, Deptt.of Agricultural Biochem-

istry, CSA University Of Agricultural and Technology, Kanpur.1 1. Dr. R.C. Bohra, Head, Deptt. of Biochemistry , Assam Agricultural

University, jorhat-785013.12. Dr. Geeta Ramchandra, Head, Deptt. of Biochemistry, University of

Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore-560065.13. Dr. G.C. Srivastava, Professor & Head, Deptt of Plant Physiology,IARI,

New Delhi-110012..14. Dr. Thangaraj, Professor & Head, Crop Physiology, Tamil Nadu Agri-

cultural University, Coimbatore-641003.15. Dr. K. P. Das. Professor & Head, Deptt. of Crop Physiology,Orissa

Agricultural University & Technology ,Orissa.16. Dr. A. Tyagi , Professor& Head, Deptt. of Plant Molecular Biology,

University of Delhi, South Campus, New Delhi.17. Dr. H. S. Nainavattee, Professor, Deptt. Of Biochemistry, CCS Haryana

Agricultural University, Hisar-125004.18. Dr. T.K. S. Gowoda, Deptt. Biotechnology, University of agriculture

Sciences, GKVK, Banglore -560065.19. Dr. K.R. Koundal, Professor, NRC, PB., IARI, New Delhi-110012.20. Dr. B. D. Singh, Professor, School of Biotechnology, B.H. U., Varanasi.21. Dr. Sharma, Professor, Deptt. of Crop Physiology, University of

Udaipur.22. Dr. T. G. Prasad, Professor, Deptt. of Crop Physiology, University of


Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Banglore-560065.23. Dr. V. R. Sashidhar, Associate Professor, , University of Agricultural

Sciences, GKVK, Banglore-560065.24. Dr. 1. S. Aftab Hussain, Associate Professor,Deptt. of Crop Physiol-

ogy, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Banglore-560065.25. Dr. R. Devendra, Professor, Deptt. of Crop Physiology, University of

Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Banglore-560065.26. Dr. Vedpal Singh Malik, Biotechnologist, USDA, USA.



List of participants in meeting-cum workshop in the BSMA of Basic Sci-ence (Microbiology) held on 25-26th Sept., 2000 at Tamil Nadu Agricul-tural University, Coimbatore-641003.

1. Dr. S Kannaiyan, Vice- Chancellor, Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univer-sity, Coimbatore-641003.

2. Dr. D. J. Bagyaraj, Professor & Head, Dept. of Microbiology, Univer-sity of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Banglore-560065.

3. Dr. M.D. Sundaram, Professor & Head, Dept. of microbiology, Fac-ulty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608002.

4. Dr. K. Govindarajan, Dept. of Microbiology, Tamil Nadu AgriculturalUniversity, Coimbatore-641003.

5. Dr. S. P. Sundaram, Professor, Dept. of Microbiology, Tamil NaduAgricultural University, Coimbatore-641003.

6. Dr. K. Kumar, Assocoate Professor, Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univer-sity, Coimbatore-641003.

7. Dr, G, Gopalaswamy, Associate Professor, Dept. of Microbiology, TamilNadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003.