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Agency Photovoltaic Power Systems (IEA-PVPS) and are ... ... Agency Photovoltaic Power Systems (IEA-PVPS) and are ... ... 5 Glossary

Jul 16, 2020

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  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This publication was prepared by IRENA in collaboration with IEA-PVPS Task 12 with valuable input from Dr. Karsten Wambach (bifa Umweltinstitut, consultant).

    This report benefited from contributions and review from a panel of experts: Tabaré A. Currás (WWF International Global Climate & Energy Initiative), Zhang Jia (IEA-PVPS Task 12), Keiichi Komoto (IEA-PVPS Task 12), Dr. Parikhit Sinha (IEA-PVPS Task 12) and Knut Sanders (Ökopol).

    Valuable input was also received from Henning Wuester, Rabia Ferroukhi, Nicolas Fichaux, Asiyah Al Ali, Deger Saygin, Salvatore Vinci and Nicholas Wagner (IRENA).

    IRENA and IEA-PVPS would like to extend their gratitude to the Government of Germany for supporting this publication.

    AUTHORS IRENA: Stephanie Weckend IEA-PVPS: Andreas Wade, Garvin Heath

    DISCLAIMER The designations employed and the presentation of materials featured herein are provided on an “as is” basis, for informational purposes only, without any conditions, warranties or undertakings, either express or implied, from IRENA and IEA-PVPS, its officials and agents, including but not limited to warranties of accuracy, completeness and fitness for a particular purpose or use of such content. The information contained herein does not necessarily represent the views of the Members of IRENA and IEA-PVPS. The mention of specific companies or certain projects, products or services does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by IRENA and IEA-PVPS in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. The designations employed and the presentation of material herein do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of IRENA and IEA-PVPS concerning the legal status of any region, country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers or boundaries.

    Unless otherwise stated, this publication and material featured herein are the property of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power Systems (IEA-PVPS) and are subject to copyright by IRENA and IEA-PVPS. Material in this publication may be freely used, shared, copied, reproduced, printed and/or stored, provided that all such material is clearly attributed to IRENA and IEA-PVPS. Material contained in this publication attributed to third parties may be subject to third- party copyright and separate terms of use and restrictions, including restrictions in relation to any commercial use. This publication should be cited as: IRENA and IEA-PVPS (2016), “End-of-Life Management: Solar Photovoltaic Panels,” International Renewable Energy Agency and International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power Systems.

    © IRENA 2016 AND IEA-PVPS 2016 ISBN 978-92-95111-98-1 (Print, IRENA)

    ISBN 978-92-95111-99-8 (PDF, IRENA)

    ISBN 978-3-906042-36-7 (IEA PVPS)

    IEA-PVPS Report Number: T12-06:2016

    ABOUT IRENA IRENA is an intergovernmental organisation that supports countries in their transition to a sustainable energy future and serves as the principal platform for international co-operation, a centre of excellence and a repository of policy, technology, resource and financial knowledge on renewable energy. IRENA promotes the widespread adoption and sustainable use of all forms of renewable energy, including bioenergy, geothermal, hydropower, ocean, solar and wind energy, in the pursuit of sustainable development, energy access, energy security and low-carbon economic growth and prosperity.

    www.irena.org

    ABOUT IEA-PVPS The IEA, founded in November 1974, is an autonomous body within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that carries out a comprehensive programme of energy co-operation among its member countries. The European Commission also participates in the work of the IEA. The IEA-PVPS is one of the collaborative research and development (R&D) agreements established within the IEA. Since 1993, participants in the PVPS have been conducting a variety of joint projects in the applications of PV conversion of solar energy into electricity.

    www.iea-pvps.org

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    Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    Figures, tables and boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    2. SOLAR PV PANEL WASTE PROJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.1 Global solar PV growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    2.2 PV panel waste model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    2.3 PV panel waste projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

    3. PV PANEL COMPOSITION AND WASTE CLASSIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3.1 Panel composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    3.2 Waste classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

    4. PV PANEL WASTE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 4.1 Waste management principles for PV panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    4.2 Regulatory approach: European Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

    5. NATIONAL APPROACHES TO PV WASTE MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 5.1 Germany: Mature market with EU-directed, PV-specific waste regulations . . . . . . . . . . 59

    5.2 UK: Young market with EU-directed, PV-specific waste regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

    5.3 Japan: Advanced market without PV-specific waste regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

    5.4 US: Established, growing market without PV-specific waste regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

    5.5 China: Leading market without PV-specific waste regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

    5.6 India: Growing market without PV-specific waste regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

    6. VALUE CREATION FROM END-OF-LIFE PV PANELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 6.1 Opportunities to reduce, reuse and recycle PV panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

    6.2 Material supply and socio-economic benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

    7. CONCLUSIONS: THE WAY FORWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94  

    CONTENTS

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    END - OF- LIFE MANAGEMENT: SO L AR PH OTOVO LTAI C PAN EL S

    GLOSSARY

    Amorphous silicon Non-crystalline form of silicon formed using silicon vapour which is quickly cooled.

    Electrical and electronic equipment

    The term electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is defined as equipment designed for use with a voltage rating not exceeding 1,000 Volts (V) for alternating current and 1,500 V for direct current, or equipment dependent on electric currents or electromagnetic fields in order to work properly, or equipment for the generation of such currents, or equipment for the transfer of such currents, or equipment for the measurement of such currents.

    Extended Producer Responsibility

    Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is an environmental policy approach in which a producer’s responsibility for a product is extended to the post-consumer stage of a product’s life cycle. An EPR policy

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