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Adrenal Medulla Gland

Adrenal Medulla Gland

Jan 22, 2016




Adrenal Medulla Gland. Adrenal Glands: Medulla. Adrenal medulla: neuroendocrine organ Secretion: sympathetic nervous system Hormones: nonsteroidal Epinephrine and Norepinephrine secreted in response to emergency (short-term) stress (i.e., fight or flight response). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Adrenal Medulla Gland

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• Adrenal medulla: neuroendocrine organ– Secretion: sympathetic nervous system– Hormones: nonsteroidal

• Epinephrine and Norepinephrine secreted in response to emergency (short-term) stress (i.e., fight or flight response)

Adrenal Glands: Medulla

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Adrenal Gland’s Response to Stress

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• The pancreas is both an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland

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• Structures: pancreatic islets (of Langerhans)

• Hormones: Both protein– Insulin: lowers blood sugar– Glucagon: raises blood sugar

Pancreas: Endocrine Functions

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Roles of Insulin and Glucagon in Regulating Blood Glucose

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Metabolic Effects of Insulin

• Insulin Stores Food– Increases glucose uptake into cells

– Decreases blood glucose

– Increases glycogen & fat synthesis

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Diabetes Mellitus

• Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by an abnormally high level of glucose in the blood

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Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1

• Insulin dependent (juvenile onset)

• Lack of insulin; requires daily injections

• Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease whereby a person’s own immune system attacks the cells of the pancreas responsible for insulin production

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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

• Acute symptoms of severe insulin deficiency– Glucose cannot cross cell membrane – High glucose in blood, and– Low glucose inside cell – Excessive bkdn. of body fat & protein – Increased acids in blood – Mental disorientation – Coma

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Insulin Shock & Hypoglycemia

• Typically induced by overdose of insulin• Blood glucose levels too low • Little glucose available to brain cells• Symptoms:

– Extreme nervousness/trembling– Sweating– Hallucinations– Loss of consciousness– Seizure/Coma Death

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Diabetes Mellitus

• Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by a decreased sensitivity to insulin

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Type 2 Diabetes• Stereotypical patient: middle aged, under-

exercised, Obese (especially visceral obesity)

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Type 2 no longer confined to older Americans

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Cardiovascular Problems in Diabetes

• Hyperlipemia (high serum lipid levels)• High blood cholesterol

• Atherosclerosis coronary artery disease myocardial infarction

• Poor blood circulation

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

• Non-insulin dependent (maturity onset?)

• Cause: Insulin resistance (not lack of insulin)– Cells don’t respond adequately to insulin– Reason for lack of response unclear

• Control: diet, exercise, drugs, insulin

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Hormones That Blood Glucose

• Glucagon – Between meals

• Growth Hormone - Exercise and Growth

• Glucocorticoids – Stress, Starvation

• Epinephrine – Emergency

• Note! Insulin is the only hormone that decreases blood glucose

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People with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus have

A. High blood glucose

B. Low blood glucose

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• Testosterone (steroidal)–Functions:

• Regulates development and normal functioning of:– Sperm production– male reproductive organs– male sex drive

• Development of male secondary sex characteristics (beard growth, etc.)

• Increases muscle and decreases fat


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Anabolic Steroid Abuse

• Synthetic, orally active steroids that are both anabolic and androgenic.

• Taken by athletes in large (often massive) doses.

• Effects– Increase in muscle mass– Shrinkage of gonads (testes and ovaries)– Beard growth, larynx, balding– Behavioral effects

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Anabolic Steroids

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• Hormones (steroidal) and functions:–Estrogen:

• initiates development of secondary sex characteristics

• regulates menstrual cycle

–Progesterone:• regulates menstrual cycle

• maintains pregnancy


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Pineal Gland

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Pineal Gland

• The pineal gland secretes melatonin

• Melatonin secretion inhibited by light entering retina (lower in day than night)

• May regulate sleep and daily rhythms

• Melatonin regulates reproductive cycles in some vertebrates

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