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Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011
22

Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Dec 28, 2015

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Corey Perry
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Page 1: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Active immunization

Immunology and microbiology

2011

Page 2: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Outline of the lesson

Immunization vaccination

Page 3: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

What is an immunization? Any process that develops resistance to a specific

disease. The production of immunity in an individual by

artificial means. the creation of immunity usually against a particular

disease; especially : treatment (as by vaccination) of an

organism for the purpose of making it immune to a particular pathogen

Page 4: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Active immunization (vaccination)

Involves the introduction of, either orally or by injection (inoculation), of specially treated bacteria, viruses or their toxins to stimulate the production of antibodies.

Page 5: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Active immunization……

Active immunization is achieved by injecting( or administering orally) small amount of antigen, called the vaccine into the body of an individual.

The process is called vaccination.

Page 6: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

If the whole organism is used as the vaccine, it is first made safe by being killed or attenuated.

The antigen stimulates the body to manufacture antibodies against the antigen.

Often a second, booster injection is given and this stimulates a much quicker production of antibody which is longer lasting and

which protects the individual from the disease for a considerable time.

Page 7: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Types of vaccines used

1. Toxoids

2. Killed organisms

3. Live vaccines ( attenuated organisms)

Page 8: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Toxoids

Toxins produced by tetanus and diphtheria bacteria are detoxified with formaldehyde, yet their antigen properties remain.

Therefore, vaccination with toxoids will stimulate antibody production without producing symptoms of the disease.

Page 9: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Killed organism.

Some dead viruses and bacteria are able to provoke a normal antibody response and are used for immunization purpose

Example: Flu vaccine which contains dead flu virus.

Page 10: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Live vaccines( attenuated organism) Attenuated organism may be a mutant variety

with the same antigen but lacking the ability to cause disease.

Attenuated vaccine for the bacterial disease tuberculosis (TB), and for measles, mumps, rubella and polio are in general use.

Page 11: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Name of the disease Vaccine

Influenza Killed virus: must be of right strain

Mumps Living attenuated virus

Measles Living attenuated virus

Poliomyelitis Living attenuated virus given orally

Diptheria Toxoids

Tubercuolosis living attenuated bacteria

Whooping cough Killed bacteria

Tetanus Toxoids

Cholera Killed bacteria

Typhoid fever Polysaccharide extract from the bacterial capsule.

Page 12: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

vaccine

BCG- tuberculosis

OPV- Poliomyelitis

DPT- Diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus.

Page 13: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Passive immunization

Is induced by the injection of preformed antibodies.

Page 14: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Antibiotics

Page 15: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

What are antibiotics?

Chemotherapeutic agent usually obtained from living organism.

Metabolic product of one organism that in minute quantity inhibits the growth of other microorganism.

antagonism.

Page 16: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Wakshman 1945, chemical substances of microbial origin which in small amounts exert antimicrobial activity.

In 1929 Alexander Fleming, on agar plate inoculated S. aureus, became contaminated with a mold that mold appeared surrounded by a clear zone, indicating inhibition of bacterial growth or lysis of the bacteria.

Mold was identified as a Penicillium species. Antibiotic as penicillin.

Page 17: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Common antibiotics

includes penicillin, ampicillin, cephalosporin, bacitracin, streptomycin and etc.

Page 18: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

They are used to treat various infections but tend to weaken the body’s natural defense mechanisms and can cause allergies.

Overuse of antibiotics can leads to the development of resistant strains of microorganism.

Page 19: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Characteristics of antibiotics

Broad spectrum Prevent development of resistant form of the

parasites. Should not produce side effects to the host. Should not eliminate the normal flora of the body.

Page 20: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

How does antibiotic work?

Inhibits cell wall formation Disrupts cell membrane Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis. Inhibit protein synthesis. Inhibits specific enzyme system.

Page 21: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

Task

What are the antimicrobial action of different kinds of antibiotics?

Page 22: Active immunization Immunology and microbiology 2011.

End