Jan 04, 2016
Absolutism & Constitutionalism
I. Rise of absolute monarchs.(Weak medieval kings→autocrats)
A. Strengthening of royal power.
1. Wars.2. Rising of middle class.3. Gunpowder.4. Protestant Reformation.5. Nationalism.
B. Divine right of kings.
C. Growth of nation states.
II. Absolutism in France - Louis XIV (1643-1715).
1. “Sun King” or “Grand Monarch”
2. “L ’etat, c’est moi.”
B. Early Years.
1. Regent - Cardinal Mazarin.
2. The Fronde
The Child King - Louis XIV
1. Control of nobility.* Versailles Palace.
2. Domestic. Jean Baptist Colbert.
a. Tax Policy.
b. Tariffs, subsidies.
c. Overseas expansion.
d. Revoked Edict of Nantes.
3. Foreign Affairs. (4 Wars.) Invaded Flanders, Spanish Netherlands.
a. War of League of Augsburg (1688-1697). King William’s War.
1.) France vs. Austria, Spain and Bavaria, Saxony, Palantinate, Sweden, Netherlands, and Britain.
2.) Rhine cities.
3.) Treaty of Ryswick. Status quo ante bellum.
Invaded Holland also.
b. War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714).
Queen Anne’s War.
1.) Death of Charles II.
2.) Legal heir – Phillip of Anjou
3.) Grand Alliance. 4.) Battles. a.) Gibraltar (1704).
b.) Blenheim (1704).
Duke of Marlborough.
5.) Treaty of Utrecht
* Balance of Power - Setting limits.
a.) England - Gibraltar. b.) Austria - Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Naples and Sardinia. c.) Spain - Keeps Philip V.
“Do not imitate me in my taste for building, nor in my love of war. . . . make it your endeavor to ease the burden of the people, which I, unhappily have not been able to do.”
III. Triumph of constitutionalism in England.
Parliament versus the Stuarts.
A. Reasons for Stuart unpopularity.
1. Ruled by “divine right.”
“Kings are called gods because they sit upon God’s throne on earth.”
2. Raised $ without consent of parliament.
3. Roman Catholic sympathies.
4. Discriminated against Puritans.
5. Neglected the middle class business concerns.
6. Imprisoned opponents without due process.
B. Charles I (1625-1649).
1. Need money for wars.
2. Petition of Right (1628).
3. Rules without Parliament (1629-1640).
*Courts of the Star Chamber.
4. Long Parliament (1640-1653).
C. English Civil War (1642-1649).
1. Roundheads v. Cavaliers.
2. Parliament victorious.
a. New Model Army.
b. Battle of Naseby.
3. Charles I executed.
D. Commonwealth/Interregnum (1649-1658).
1. Challenges at home and abroad.
b. “Curse of Cromwell.”
2. Protectorate (1653-1658).
1. Charles II defers to Parliament.
*Habeas Corpus Act (1679).
2. James II antagonizes Parliament.
James II Charles II
F. Glorious Revolution (1688-1689).
1. William of Orange and Mary.
2. Bill of Rights (1689).
3. Toleration Act (1689).
William III of Orange & Mary II