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Abraham Lincoln In His Own Words

Nov 12, 2014



In this book you will find an abbreviated history of
Lincoln’s fascinating life along with over a hundred of
his famous quotes and six of his historic speeches.
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1Table of ContentsIntroduction 2QuoteBank Twenty Famous Quotes 8 Slavery 11 Religion 12 Democracy & Government 14 War & Peace 16 Wisdom & Philosophy 17 Inspirational 19 Constitution & Law 21 Social Issues 23 Personal 24 Obamas Historic speeches House divided speech 29 Copper Union address 31 Lincolns rst Inaugural address 36 The Gettysburg address 41 Lincolns second Inaugural address 45 Letters written by Lincoln A word to teachers 54 To Horace Greeley 56 To Mrs. Lydia Bixby 60 To Joshua Speed 65 This book is licensed under creative commons. In short: you are free to distribute and modify the le as long as you attribute its author(s) or licensor(s).23Abr a ha m Li nc o l n i s c o n s i de r e d by mo s t historians as the greatest President of the United States. This ugly, plain spoken man from Illinois has done more to save the nation by steering it ably through the worst crisis it faced. He was asked to do much and he proved to be the ma n o f t h e mo me n t . He took on a nation a l mo s t t o r n a p a r t b y a gruesome civil war and guided it to an era of hope and a new dawn. To millions of slaves he appeared as a savi or by granting them freedom. His meteoric rise from rags to power is an inspiring tale which aptly proves that everything is possible if there is a strong will, determination and ability. Most Presidents of the US including Barack Obama regard him as a source of inspiration and guidance. Poverty On February 12 1809, a male child was born to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks in a single room log cabin at Sinking Spring Farm, in southeast Hardin County, Kentucky. The child was Abraham Lincoln who would later become the rst President born outside the original thirteen colonies. His father was an illiterate farmer. He bore theAbraham Lincoln - His Life and TimesAbraham LincolnThe 16th President of the United StatesVisit for fresh Barack Obama Quotes.Create your own QuotesBank AccountSave and share your favorite quotes by Barack Obama and others. Create beautiful eCards. Better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to speak out and remove all doubt. Abraham Lincoln 4n a m e o f h i s d e c e a s e d grandfather. Abraham came face to face with tragedy early in his life when he lost his mother. Nancy, then 34 fell a victim to milk sickness. His father soon remarried. Sarah Bush Johnston with whom Abraham was to develop strong bonds of affection became his step mother. As Abraham grew up he grew distant from his father. Young Abraham experienced his rst major change when the family moved to Macon County Illinois and settled on public land owing to economic difculties. In the new land they faced a bitterly hard winter. Abraham received very little formal education. He attended school for a mere 18 months. However he decided to educate himself by pouring over books. Abraham was no bookworm. He was skilful with his axe and delighted in wrestling in which sport he displayed considerable talent. He avoided popular sports like hunting and shing as he detested killing animals. After another year the family shifted its residence to Coles County in the same state. Abraham Lincoln then a 22 year old tall (6feet 4 inches) strapping youth decided to leave home and build his own life. He canoed down the Sangamon River to the village of New Salem in Sangamon County. There he got his rst lucrative job when he was hi r ed by New Sal em businessman Denton Offutt. His job was to carry goods from New Salem to New Orleans via boat. It was in New Orleans that Lincoln witnessed a slave aucti on and i t remai ned imprinted in his memory. He tried his hand at a variety of professions like storekeeper, rail s pl i t t er, pos t mas t er and s ur ve yo r be f o r e na l l y becomi ng a l awyer and venturing into politics.Family LifeAbraham fell in love with and later married May Todd on November 4 1842. She was the daughter of a slave owning family in Kentucky and was educated. The couple was blessed with four sons though only one Robert Todd Lincoln c oul d s ur v i ve t o r e ac h adulthood. The lives of the other three sons were cut short and they passed away in their chi l dhood. Despi t e t hese tragedies that cast a dark cloud on them, their married life was a happy one and Mar y support ed her husbands ambitions. When Lincoln became a successful lawyer he bought a house in the corner of Eighth and Jackson.The rst stepsLincoln took his rst tentative steps towards the world of politics at the age of 23 when he made a bid to enter the Illinois General Assembly as a member of the Whig party. The attempt failed. Undeterred Lincoln tried again. In 1834 success greeted him and he was elected to the state legislature. In the same period he c a m e a c r o s s t h e b o o k Commentaries on the Laws of England, which marked the beginning of a new chapter in his life. Lincoln began to study law in earnest. In 1837 he gained admission to the bar and set up a practice with John T Stuart. He soon gained a reputation of being a formidable lawyer. In politics too he began to climb up the ladder of success He was elected for four consecutive terms to the Illinois House of Representatives. In the year 1837 he voiced his rst protest against slavery in the Illinois House stating that the institution was "founded on both injustice and bad policy."Road to successThe year 1846 was an important period in Lincolns life. In that year he was elected to the House of Representatives. Lincoln was a great fan of his party leader Henry Clay. In those early years Li ncol n di d not make any s ubs t ant i al i mpact on t he congress. However people got a taste of Lincol ns awesome powers of oratory when he opposed the war with Mexico "military glory that attractive rainbow that rises in showers of blood." At the end of his term Li n c o l n wa s o f f e r e d t h e governorship of remote Oregon Territory which he felt would put an end to his nascent political career. He returned to Springeld and devoted all his energies in building up a career at the bar. He met with considerable success as a lawyer. During this period he al so gave one of his most important speeches. Speaking as a private citizen to a crowd in Peoria, Illinois, on October 16, 1854, he fervently spoke against the institution of slavery. The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), which expressly repealed the limits on slavery's extent as determined by the Missouri Compromi se ( 1820) , l ed to Lincoln reentering public life. Senator Stephen A. Douglas, then one of t he most powerf ul members of the Senate advocated popular sovereignty to deal with slavery. He felt that as America was a democracy, the people should decide whether they wanted slavery in their territory.5Lincoln expressed his opposition to the bill in strong words in his famous "Peoria Speech[The Act has a] decl ared indifference, but as I must think, covert real zeal for the spread of slavery, I cannot but hate it. I hate it because of the monstrous injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just inuence in the world enables the enemies of f r e e i ns t i t ut i ons , wi t h pl ausi bi l i ty, to taunt us as hypocritesExtremel y enterpri si ng and blessed with zeal and enthusiasm Lincoln was one of the founders of a new Republican Party. The edging party succeeded in capturing the Illinois seat in the Congress. At the Republican convention in 1856, Lincoln was placed second in the contest to become the party's candidate for Vice-President. In 1858 while accepting his nomination to the s e na t e o n be ha l f o f t he Republ i can Par t y, Li ncol n rendered his famous House Divided speech which would be regarded as one of the best speeches ever made by an American leader. Owing to his superb rhetoric and skilful use of words Lincoln was fast becoming a force to reckon with. Lincoln proved his mettle in the Lincoln Douglas debates in 1858 on the issue of slavery. Such was his growing reputation that New York political leaders invited him to give a speech at Copper Union. The audience was shocked to see the badly dressed rather ugly man. However the moment he opened his mouth he captured their interest and they were carried away by the magnetic effect of his speech. Lincoln had succeeded in establishing himself as the Republican Partys best speaker.Abraham Lincoln President I n t he 1860 el ect i ons Ab r a h a m Li n c o l n wa s nominated by the Republican Party for the post of President. Though Li ncol n di d not campaign in the streets, he succeeded in winning majority of the votes. This was due to tremendous work done by the Republican Party workers and the power of the media in the north. He became the rst Republican Party President and the 16th President of Ame r i c a i n a l ong but fascinating journey of a poor farm boy to the highest ofce in the land. Lincoln got the major chunk of votes from the north. The southern states viewed Lincol ns growing popul a r i t y wi t h a l a r m. Lincolns happiness was short lived as dark clouds threatened to overcome the nation. The south was unhappy as they felt that their power in national politics had nose dived. The southern states decided to leave the Union. The rst to secede was South Carolina which announced its break from the union on December 20, 1860. Six other cotton growing states followed suit. These seven southern states announced the formation of a new nation i.e Confederate States of America. Lincoln then the President elect refused to recognize it. Efforts to reach a compromise ended in failure. At about this time the rst assassination attempt was made on Lincoln. Lincoln a s s u me d t h e o f c e o f President on March 4 1861 amidst unprecedented security. In his rst powerful inaugural address Li ncol n made a mo v i n g a p p e a l t o a l l Americans to stay united I hold that in contemplation of universal law and of the Constitution the Union of these States is perpetual.However Lincoln failed to carry the south with him. Lincoln took all possible measures to avoid war and tried his best to nd a peaceful solution to the problem. He decided not to take any action against the rebel southern states unless the Union was attacked.WarDespite his best efforts what Lincoln feared most came to pass and war nally broke out. In April 1861 the Union troops stationed at Fort Sumter were red upon, igniting the civil war, the ames of which quickly spread through the nation threatening its very existence. In the face of aggression Lincoln ordered6t hat ever y s t at e s houl d contribute 75,000 troops to preserve the Union. Virginia which did not want to wage war with another state seceded followed by North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas. Lincoln however stopped slave owning states of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware from breaking away by negotiating with their state leaders and promising not to i n t e r f e r e wi t h s l a v e r y ourishing in those states. The course of the war was far from smooth and Lincoln did not have to deal with only the war but had to face enormous pressure on all fronts including defeat in battles, squabbles among the cabinet, reluctant Generals and assassination threats. Lincoln rose to the occasion. Rebel leaders in all border areas were arrested. In another milestone in July 1862, the Congress passed the Second Conscati on Act, which freed the slaves of anyone convicted of actively supporting the rebellion. This was one of the rst steps taken by Lincoln to give slaves their f reedom. He al so began di scussi on of a draf t of Emancipation Proclamation with the members of his cabinet. The Emancipation Proclamation came into effect on January 1st 1863. It set slaves free in those areas which were not under the control of the Union. As the Union army advanced deeper into the south, more and more slaves were set free. Speaking about the Proclamation Lincoln said I never, in my life, felt more certain that I was doing right, than I do in signing this pa pe r. " The t hi r t e e nt h amendment to the constitution which aimed at permanently abolishing slavery throughout the nation was passed. Slavery met its death blow with the Union victory.Meanwhile war raged and took a heavy toll on human lives. The battle of Gettysburg which resulted in a Union victory witnessed slaughter on a large scale. Union victory at Vicksburg and Chattanooga followed though the cost was heavy. Complete victory still eluded them as the spring campaigns failed to make any headway. Meanwhile election was around the corner and Ab r a h a m Li n c o l n wa s competing for a second term. Shermans capture of Atlanta brought cheer in the Union camp and put an end to gl oomy predi ct i ons. The election resulted in a massive victory for Lincoln. The war continued. Lincoln took a keen interest in planning military strategi es. In Apri l 1865 Ri c h mo n d c a p i t u l a t e d bringing victory within sight. The long drawn civil war which took such a heavy toll in terms of men and property at last drew to a close when on April 9 1865; Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House in Virginia.The task of rebuildingThe work of rebuilding the bleeding nation began in earnest in the course of the war itself. As more and more territories were captured by the Union army the question that was uppermost in the minds of Lincoln and his associates was how t o r e i nt e g r at e t he s out her n s t at es. Li ncol n announc ed an Amnes t y Proclamation on December 8 1863, offering pardons to those w h o h a d n o t h e l d a Confederate civil ofce, had n o t mi s t r e a t e d Un i o n prisoners, and who were ready to sign an oath of allegiance. Wh e n L i n c o l n v i s i t e d Richmond he was given a heros welcome by the slaves, "I know I am free for I have seen the face of Father Abraham and have felt him." Despite the war, progress was made in the domestic front during Lincolns tenure as President. The Homestead Act of 1862 made millions of acres of government held land in the west available to the public at a low cost. The Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act also signed in 1862, provided government g r a nt s f or a g r i c ul t ur a l universities in each state. The Pacic Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864 gave federal support for the proposed construction of the United States' First Transcontinental Railroad, which was later completed in 1869. The United States Note, the rst paper currency in the country was oated by the Legal Tender Act of 1862. The National Banking Act led to the creation of banks throughout the country.7AssassinationUnfortunately for his country Lincoln did not live long to enjoy the fruits of his victory. An assassins bullet cut short his life. The man who shot dead Lincoln was an actor and a confederate spy who hailed from Maryland named John Wilkes Booth. Initially Booths plan was to kidnap Lincoln and hold him as a hostage to free the confederate prisoners of war. However when he heard a speech from Lincoln in support of giving blacks right to vote he decided to kill him. Booth made extensive preparations and was awaiting the right opportunity to strike. His opportunity came when Lincoln and his wife were attending a concert at the Fords Theater. Lincolns main bodyguard was absent. On 14th April 1865 as Lincoln sat in his box to watch the play Our American Cousin shots rang out. Booth hid in the balcony and during a humorous moment when people were doubling up with laughter shot the President at point blank range on the head. Booth then climbed on the stage and shouted in Latin Sic semper tyrannis, which meant Thus always to tyrants, and then made good his escape. He was ultimately caught and shot after a 12 day long man hunt. Mortally wounded Lincoln was rushed to Petersen House where he remained in coma for 9 hours before capitulating. A team of doctors attended him but in vain. Lincoln became the rst President of US to be assassinated. The remains of Lincoln were carried in a funeral train to Illinois his home state. The train passed through several states before reaching Illinois to enable people to pay their last respects. Lincoln was the rst US President to lie in state. Lincoln lies in a stately tomb which is 177 feet tall.Though Lincoln died many years back his legacy lives on. He is regarded by many as a martyr. Polls reveal that he usually tops the list of the greatest Presidents of US. Even today he is regarded as a symbol of honesty, integrity, freedom and a crusader for minorities. His name is liberally used by many organizations like Lincoln National Corporation. A ballistic missile and submarine bears his name. A city in Illinois has been named after him. Fords Theater and Petersen House, where Lincoln breathed his last are museums. His birthplace and family home are national historic memorials. Lincolns birthday used to be a national holiday but is now celebrated as Presidents day. This February the nation will be celebrating the 200th birthday of this unusual man to whom America owes a debt of gratitude.Twenty Famous QuotesThat this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth Abraham LincolnBetter to remain silent and be thought a fool than to speak out and remove all doubt. Abraham Lincoln.You may deceive all the people part of the time, and part of the people all the time, but not all the people all the time. Abraham LincolnFondly do we hope--fervently do we pray--that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Abraham Lincoln"With malice toward none, with charity for all, with rmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to nish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and his orphan - to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations." Abraham LincolnAm I not destroying my enemies when I make friends of them? Abraham Lincoln"Common looking people are the best in the world: that is the reason the Lord makes so many of them Abraham LincolnIt is the duty of nations as well as of men to own their dependence upon the overruling power of God, and to confess their sins and transgressions in humble sorrow, yet with assured hope that genuine repentance will lead to mercy and pardon, and to recognize the sublime truth, announced in Holy Scripture, and proven by all history, that those nations only are blessed whose God is the Lord. Abraham Lincoln"If all do not join now to save the good old ship of the Union this voyage nobody will have a chance to pilot her on another voyage." Abraham LincolnWe have forgotten the gracious hand which has preserved us in peace and multiplied and enriched and strengthened us, and have vainly imagined in the deceitfulness of our hearts that all these blessings were produced by some superior wisdom and virtue of our own. Intoxicated with unbroken success, we have become too self sufcient to feel the necessity of redeeming and preserving Grace, too proud to pray to the God that made us. Abraham Lincoln8My dream is of a place and a time where America will once again be seen as the last best hope of earth Abraham Lincoln"Die when I may, I want it said by those who knew me best that I always plucked a thistle and planted a ower where I thought a ower would grow." - Abraham Lincoln A house divided against itself cannot stand. Abraham LincolnLet reverence for the laws be breathed by every American mother to the lisping babe that prattles on her lap. Let it be taught in schools, in seminaries, and in colleges. Let it be written in primers, spelling books, and in almanacs. Let it be preached from the pulpit, proclaimed in legislative halls, and enforced in the courts of justice. And, in short, let it become the political religion of the nation. Abraham LincolnAll the armies of Europe, Asia and Africa combined, with all the treasure of the earth in their military chest; with a Bonaparte for a commander, could not by force take a drink from the Ohio or make a track on the Blue Ridge in a trial of a thousand years. Abraham LincolnMilitary glory --the attractive rainbow that rises in showers of blood. Abraham LincolnThe mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battleeld and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature. Abraham LincolnFourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal Abraham LincolnTowering genius disdains a beaten path Abraham LincolnThe ery trials through which we pass will light us down in honor or dishonor to the latest generation Abraham Lincoln9SlaveryLincoln has been widely regarded as the man most responsible for bringing freedom and hope to millions of people who lived in bondage. He was hailed by most slaves as their savior. Lincoln opposed the institution of slavery much before he entered politics. He despised the fact that human beings were forced to live in shackles and denied basic rights. However once he was sucked into the whirlpool of politics he was forced to tone down his views. Though he felt that slavery was wrong he initially wanted to prevent its further expansion into other U S territories but not disturb it as it existed in the southern states. He did not favor giving blacks equal rights. When he became President, Lincolns foremost priority was to preserve the Union at all costs. As Civil War broke out with no hope of a cease re, Lincoln granted slaves their much coveted freedom through the Emancipation Proclamation which held a special place in his heart. It was Lincoln who brought about the thirteenth amendment to the constitution which made slavery illegal.As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy Abraham LincolnThose who deny freedom to others, deserve it not for themselves Abraham LincolnWhenever I hear anyone arguing for slavery, I feel a strong impulse to see it tried on him personally. Abraham LincolnSlavery is founded on the selshness of man's nature -- opposition to it on his love of justice. These principles are in eternal antagonism; and when brought into collision so ercely as slavery extension brings them, shocks and throes and convulsions must ceaselessly follow. Abraham LincolnIn giving freedom to the slave, we assure freedom to the free -- honorable alike in what we give and what we preserve. Abraham LincolnI do not understand that because I do not want a Negro woman for a slave I must necessarily want her for a wife. My understanding is that I can just let her alone. Abraham LincolnI know there is a God, and that He hates injustice and slavery. I see the storm coming, and I know that His hand is in it. If he has a place and work for me and I think He has I believe I am ready. Abraham Lincoln10This is a world of compensation; and he who would be no slave must consent to have no slave. Those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves, and, under a just God, cannot long retain it. Abraham Lincoln Although volume upon volume is written to prove slavery a very good thing, we never hear of the man who wishes to take the good of it, by being a slave himself. Abraham LincolnBut, slavery is good for some people! As a good thing, slavery is strikingly peculiar, in this, that it is the only good thing which no man ever seeks the good of, for himself. Abraham LincolnAnd then, the Negro being doomed, and damned, and forgotten, to everlasting bondage, is the white man quite certain that the tyrant demon will not turn upon him too? Abraham LincolnWe want, and must have, a national policy, as to slavery, which deals with it as being wrong Abraham Lincoln11ReligionAbraham Lincolns personal religion remains ambiguous. Though his parents were Baptists, he never joined any church and believed that a persons religious belief was his private affair. We do not know what these religious beliefs were. Though some historians have declared him an atheist, this view does not hold water. Lincoln had in- depth knowledge of the Bible and often quoted from it. In most speeches he refers to the power of Almighty again and again. According to his wife Mary, personal tragedy (the death of his son Willie) and the devastating Civil War brought him closer to God and made Lincoln turn to Him for guidance to help him lead his country out of the nightmare that gripped it towards hope of better days.When I do good, I feel good; when I do bad, I feel bad, and that is my religion. Abraham Lincoln,The Bible is not my book, and Christianity is not my religion. I could never give assent to the long, complicated statements of Christian dogma. Abraham LincolnMy earlier views of the unsoundness of the Christian scheme of salvation and the human origin of the scriptures, have become clearer and stronger with advancing years and I see no reason for thinking I shall ever change them. Abraham LincolnIn regard to this great book, I have but to say, it is the best gift God has given to man. All the good the Saviour gave to the world was communicated through this book. But for it we could not know right from wrong. All things most desirable for mans welfare, here and hereafter, are to be found portrayed in it Abraham LincolnWould God Show His Will For Me To Others and Not To Me? Abraham Lincoln"That I am not a member of any Christian church is true; but I have never denied the truth of the Scriptures; and I have never spoken with intentional disrespect of religion in general, or of any denomination of Christians in particular....I do not think I could myself be brought to support a man for ofce whom I knew to be an open enemy of, or scoffer at, religion. Abraham LincolnBoth read the same Bible, and pray to the same God; and each invokes His aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God's assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men's faces; but let us judge not that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered; that of neither has been answered fully. Abraham Lincoln12To His care commending you, as I hope in your prayers you will commend me, I bid you an affectionate farewell. Abraham LincolnGod bless the Methodist Church -- bless all the churches -- and blessed be God, Who, in this our great trial, giveth us the churches. Abraham LincolnThe evacuation of Petersburg and Richmond, and the surrender of the principal insurgent army, give hope of a righteous and speedy peace whose joyous expression can not be restrained. In the midst of this, however, He, from Whom all blessings ow, must not be forgotten. A call for a national thanksgiving is being prepared, and will be duly promulgated Abraham Lincoln13Democracy & Government A rm believer in the constitution Lincoln had full faith in the ability of people to govern themselves. The perfect example of a self made man who had risen from humble beginnings to the highest position of the land, Lincoln knew that his success story could be possible only in a democracy. He has been revered as the greatest among those associated with the cause of popular government He fully realized the power of the people to give the nation a new birth of freedom . One of his most quoted lines are The government by the people, for the people, of the people shall not perish from the earth.Our government rests in public opinion. Whoever can change public opinion, can change the government, practically just so much Abraham Lincoln No man is good enough to govern another man without that other's consent. Abraham LincolnI desire to so conduct the affairs of this administration that if at the end, when I come to lay down the reins of power, I have lost every other friend on earth, I shall at least have one friend left, and that friend shall be down inside of me. Abraham Lincoln There are few things wholly evil or wholly good. Almost everything, especially of government policy, is an inseparable compound of the two, so that our best judgment of the preponderance between them is continually demanded. Abraham Lincoln Public sentiment is everything, with it nothing can fail, without it nothing can succeed. Abraham Lincoln Honest statesmanship is the wise employment of individual meanness for the public good. Abraham Lincoln Must a government be too strong for the liberties of its people or too weak to maintain its own existence? Abraham Lincoln He who molds the public sentiment... makes statues and decisions possible or impossible to make. Abraham Lincoln 14 If once you forfeit the condence of your fellow-citizens, you can never regain their respect and esteem. Abraham Lincoln There is an important sense in which government is distinctive from administration. One is perpetual; the other is temporary and changeable. A man may be loyal to his government and yet oppose the particular principles and methods of administration. Abraham Lincoln While the people retain their virtue, and vigilance, no administration, by any extreme of wickedness or folly, can very seriously injure the government, in the short space of four years. Abraham Lincoln I am struggling to maintain the government, not to overthrow it. I am struggling especially to prevent others from overthrowing it. Abraham Lincoln The Democracy of to-day hold the liberty of one man to be absolutely nothing, when in conict with another mans right of property. Republicans, on the contrary, are for both the man and the dollar; but in cases of conict, the man before the dollar. Abraham LincolnIf the policy of the government, upon vital questions affecting the whole people, is to be irrevocably xed by decisions of the Supreme Court, the people will have ceased, to be their own rulers, having, to that extent, practically resigned their government into the hands of that eminent tribunal. Nor is there, in this view, any assault upon the court, or the judges. It is a duty, from which they may not shrink, to decide cases properly brought before them; and it is no fault of theirs, if others seek to turn their decisions to political purposes. Abraham LincolnThe people will save their government, if the government itself will allow them. Abraham LincolnA man may be loyal to his government and yet oppose the particular principles and methods of administration. Abraham Lincoln In a certain sense, and to a certain extent, he [the president] is the representative of the people. He is elected by them, as well as congress is. But can he, in the nature [of] things, know the wants of the people, as well as three hundred other men, coming from all the various localities of the nation? If so, where is the propriety of having a congress? Abraham Lincoln15I do not deny the possibility that the people may err in an election; but if they do, the true [cure] is in the next election, and not in the treachery of the person elected. Abraham Lincoln16War & PeaceNo President in the history of America had faced a more challenging task. When Lincoln assumed ofce he found himself in the midst of a civil war which set the country in ames bringing death and destruction in its wake. Millions of men were butchered, the country ravaged and property destroyed. Most critics did not expect the United States to survive. However thanks to the leadership and guidance of one man the country came out of its worst crisis bearing scars but heading towards a new era of freedom. Lincoln was never in favor of war. He did his best to work out a compromise to prevent the civil war but in vain. When war became inevitable, Lincoln preserved his country from being torn asunder. He inspired his soldiers to rise to greater heights. In victory he was generous granting amnesty freely.Tell me what brand of whiskey that Grant drinks. I would like to send a barrel of it to my other generals. Abraham Lincoln I can make a General in ve minutes but a good horse is hard to replace. Abraham LincolnThis extraordinary war in which we are engaged falls heavily upon all classes of people, but the most heavily upon the soldier. For it has been said, all that a man hath will he give for his life; and while all contribute of their substance the soldier puts his life at stake, and often yields it up in his countrys cause. The highest merit, then, is due to the soldier. Abraham LincolnHonor to the Soldier, and Sailor everywhere, who bravely bears his countrys cause. Honor also to the citizen who cares for his brother in the eld, and serves, as he best can, the same cause honor to him, only less than to him, who braves, for the common good, the storms of heaven and the storms of battle. Abraham Lincoln.Peace does not appear so distant as it did. I hope it will come soon, and come to stay; and so come as to be worth the keeping in all future time. It will then have been proved that, among free men, there can be no successful appeal from the ballot to the bullet; and that they who take such appeal are sure to lose their case, and pay the cost. Abraham LincolnHe who does something at the head of one Regiment, will eclipse him who does nothing at the head of a hundred Abraham Lincoln17I certainly know that if the war fails, the administration fails, and that I will be blamed for it, whether I deserve it or not. And I ought to be blamed, if I could do better. You think I could do better; therefore you blame me already. I think I could not do better; therefore I blame you for blaming me. Abraham LincolnWe accepted this war for an object, a worthy object, and the war will end when that object is attained. Under God, I hope it never will until that time. Abraham LincolnWe hoped for a happy termination of this terrible war long before this; but God knows best, and has ruled otherwise. Abraham LincolnLet us, therefore, study the incidents of this [war], as philosophy to learn wisdom from, and none of them as wrongs to be revenged. Abraham LincolnWe must believe that He permits it [this war] for some wise purpose of his own, mysterious and unknown to us; and though with our limited understandings we may not be able to comprehend it, yet we cannot but believe, that he who made the world still governs it. Abraham LincolnSuppose you go to war, you cannot ght always; and when, after much loss on both sides, and no gain on either, you cease ghting, the identical old questions, as to terms of intercourse, are again upon you. Abraham Lincoln What would you do in my position? Would you drop the war where it is? Or, would you prosecute it in future, with elderstalk squirts, charged with rose water? Abraham Lincoln "Both parties deprecated war; but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive; and the other would accept war rather than let it perish. And the war came." Abraham Lincoln18"In your hands, my dissatised fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to 'preserve, protect, and defend it' Abraham LincolnBut in a larger sense we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. Abraham Lincoln19Wisdom & PhilosophyOne of the reasons why Abraham Lincoln is considered one of the greatest heroes of all times is not only because of his brilliant leadership but also because of his humanity and wisdom. His philosophy of life is grounded on sound common sense. Abraham did not receive any formal education, he was educated in the school of nature and from whatever books he could lay his hands on. His home spun homilies on various subjects are relevant even today. One of the most eloquent Presidents that America has ever produced, Lincolns astute observations on human nature also displays his wit and dry humor. His philosophy was shaped by his personal experience and the books that he read. The ballot is stronger than the bullet. Abraham Lincoln People who like this sort of thing will nd this the sort of thing they like. Abraham Lincoln We know nothing of what will happen in future, but by the analogy of experience. Abraham Lincoln "Bad promises are better broken than kept"; Abraham Lincoln The shepherd drives the wolf from the sheep's throat, for which the sheep thanks the shepherd as his liberator, while the wolf denounces him for the same act as the destroyer of liberty. Abraham Lincoln"Tact is the ability to describe others as they see themselves." Abraham LincolnThe best thing about the future is that it comes only one day at a time. Abraham Lincoln20A person will be just about as happy as they make up their minds to be. Abraham Lincoln When I am getting ready to reason with a man, I spend one-third of my time thinking about myself and what I am going to say and two-thirds about him and what he is going to say. Abraham Lincoln Force is all-conquering, but its victories are short-lived. Abraham Lincoln Avoid popularity if you would have peace. Abraham Lincoln Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man's character, give him power. Abraham Lincoln The shadow is what we think of it; the tree is the real thing. Abraham Lincoln You cannot escape the responsibility of tomorrow by evading it today. Abraham Lincoln To correct the evils, great and small, which spring from want of sympathy and from positive enmity among strangers, as nations or as individuals, is one of the highest functions of civilization. Abraham Lincoln We should be too big to take offense and too noble to give it. Abraham LincolnI see in the near future a crisis approaching that unnerves me and causes me to tremble for the safety of my country. Corporations have been enthroned, an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money-power of the country will endeavor to prolong it's reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until the wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the Republic is destroyed. Abraham Lincoln What has once happened, will invariably happen again, when the same circumstances which combined to produce it, shall again combine in the same way. 21 Abraham LincolnIf we could rst know where we are, and whither we are tending, we could then better judge what to do, and how to do it. Abraham LincolnLet not him who is houseless pull down the house of another; but let him labor diligently and build one for himself, thus by example assuring that his own shall be safe from violence when built. Abraham Lincoln God gave man a mouth to receive bread, hands to feed it, and his hand has a right to carry bread to his mouth without controversy. Abraham LincolnMy great concern is not whether you have failed, but whether you are content with your failure. Abraham LincolnAnd in the end, it's not the years in your life that count. It's the life in your years. Abraham Lincoln It has been my experience that folks who have no vices have very few virtues. Abraham Lincoln22InspirationalOne of the reasons Lincoln was successful in leading his nation successfully out of its worst crisis was his ability to motivate and inspire people to rise above themselves and help preserve the Union. His never say die spirit is reected in his quotes. With his soaring oratory and moving words he helped uplift the morale of a nation, ravaged by civil war which had come to the brink of extinction. His sublime speeches succeeded in lifting a nation from the depths of despair and strife to usher in a new era of peace, freedom and hope. Such was his ability to motivate his fellow beings that most leaders including Barack Obama draw inspiration from his words even today.Our common country is in great peril, demanding the loftiest views, and boldest action to bring it speedy relief. Abraham LincolnThe power of hope upon human exertion, and happiness, is wonderful. Abraham LincolnWith the Union saved] its form of government is saved to the world; its beloved history, and cherished memories, are vindicated; and its happy future fully assured, and rendered inconceivably grand. Abraham Lincoln The cause of civil liberty must not be surrendered at the end of one, or even one hundred defeats. Abraham Lincoln Having thus chosen our course, without guile and with pure purpose, let us renew our trust in God, and go forward without fear and with manly hearts. Abraham Lincoln Determine that the thing can and shall be done, and then we shall nd the way. Abraham Lincoln Always bear in mind that your own resolution to succeed is more important than any one thing. Abraham Lincoln I'm a slow walker, but I never walk back. Abraham Lincoln 23I will prepare and some day my chance will come. Abraham Lincoln I am not concerned that you have fallen -- I am concerned that you arise. Abraham Lincoln Freedom is the last, best hope of earth. Abraham Lincoln"The probability that we may fail in the struggle ought not to deter us from the support of a cause we believe to be just." Abraham LincolnI am not bound to win, but I am bound to be true. I am not bound to succeed, but I am bound to live by the light that I have. I must stand with anybody that stands right, and stand with him while he is right, and part with him when he goes wrong. Abraham LincolnOnward and upward. Abraham Lincoln24Constitution & LawAbraham Lincoln had a deep reverence for the constitution and laws of the country which was laid down by the founding fathers. The principles of liberty, equality and freedom were close to his heart. Lincoln had to battle against various constitutional crises including secession and civil war. He emerged as the man of the moment, a champion of the nation and its constitution and helped shape the history of the United States of America. As a lawyer he understood and respected the laws of the country."I hold, that in contemplation of universal law, and of the Constitution, the Union of these States is perpetual." Abraham LincolnLet every American, every lover of liberty, every well wisher to his posterity, swear by the blood of the Revolution, never to violate in the least particular, the laws of the country; and never to tolerate their violation by others Abraham Lincoln Dont interfere with anything in the Constitution. That must be maintained, for it is the only safeguard of our liberties. Abraham Lincoln I am exceedingly anxious that this Union, the Constitution, and the liberties of the people shall be perpetuated in accordance with the original idea for which that struggle was made, and I shall be most happy indeed if I shall be an humble instrument in the hands of the Almighty, and of this, his almost chosen people, for perpetuating the object of that great struggle. Abraham LincolnThis country, with its institutions, belongs to the people who inhabit it. Whenever they shall grow weary of the existing government, they can exercise their Constitutional right of amending it or their revolutionary right to dismember it or overthrow it Abraham Lincoln"I freely acknowledge myself the servant of the people, according to the bond of service -- the United States Constitution; and that, as such, I am responsible to them." Abraham LincolnThe best way to get a bad law repealed is to enforce it strictly. Abraham Lincoln25Social IssuesA master of words and endowed with shrewd common sense, Abraham Lincoln has voiced his views on a wide range of subjects including social issues. His views were often colored by the times he lived in. though he was against the institute of slavery, he did not advocate treating blacks and whites on an equal footing. "I will say then, that I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races; that I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of making voters or jurors of Negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold ofce, nor to intermarry with white people Abraham Lincoln Upon the subject of education, not presuming to dictate any plan or system respecting it, I can only say that I view it as the most important subject which we as a people may be engaged in. That everyone may receive at least a moderate education appears to be an objective of vital importance. Abraham LincolnA woman is the only thing I am afraid of that I know will not hurt me. Abraham Lincoln Marriage is neither heaven nor hell, it is simply purgatory. Abraham Lincoln Whether or not the world would be vastly beneted by a total banishment from it of all intoxicating drinks seems not now an open question. Three-fourths of mankind confess the afrmative with their tongues, and I believe all the rest acknowledge it in their hearts. Abraham Lincoln Do not worry; eat three square meals a day; say your prayers; be courteous to your creditors; keep your digestion good; exercise; go slow and easy. Maybe there are other things your special case requires to make you happy, but my friend, these I reckon will give you a good lift.- Abraham Lincoln Property is the fruit of labor; property is desirable; it is a positive good in the world. Abraham Lincoln Prohibition goes beyond the bounds of reason in that it attempts to control a man's appetite by legislation and makes crimes out of things that are not crimes. Abraham Lincoln26 Take it that it is best for all to leave each man free to acquire property as fast as he can. Some will get wealthy. I dont believe in a law to prevent a man from getting rich; it would do more harm than good. Abraham LincolnNo matter how much cats ght, there always seem to be plenty of kittens Abraham LincolnMr. Clay's lack of a more perfect early education, however it may be regretted generally, teaches at least one protable lesson; it teaches that in this country, one can scarcely be so poor, but that, if he will, he can acquire sufcient education to get through the world respectably Abraham Lincoln27PersonalAbraham Lincolns life story is an awe inspiring journey from backwoods to greatness. Honest and open Abraham Lincoln has often aired his views on personal topics including his relationship with his wife. The place that Abraham Lincoln holds in history is not only due to his leadership qualities and sharp political acumen but also because of his personality. He was a humane and sympathetic man who deeply felt the suffering of others. Many regarded him as an embodiment of basic human values like honesty, gentleness, sincerity and compassion. Despite commanding extraordinary power he remained humble to the last putting his faith on God to steer his beloved nation out of its worst crisis.My wife is as handsome as when she was a girl, and I...fell in love with her; and what is more, I have never fallen out. Abraham LincolnI am not an accomplished lawyer. Abraham LincolnI must, in candor, say I do not think myself t for the Presidency. Abraham LincolnI have no wealthy or popular relations to recommend me. Abraham LincolnWhatever woman may cast her lot with mine, should any ever do so, it is my intention to do all in my power to make her happy and contented; and there is nothing I can imagine, that would make me more unhappy than to fail in the effort. Abraham LincolnOur eldest boy, Bob, has been away from us nearly a year at school, and will enter Harvard University this month. He promises very well, considering we never controlled him much. Abraham Lincoln I have come to the conclusion never again to think of marrying, and for this reason, I can never be satised with anyone who would be blockhead enough to have me. Abraham LincolnI am not a very sentimental man; and the best sentiment I can think of is, that if you collect the signatures of all persons who are no less distinguished than I, you will have a very undistinguishing mass of names. Abraham Lincoln28I was losing interest in politics, when the repeal of the Missouri Compromise aroused me again. What I have done since then is pretty well known. Abraham LincolnI was raised to farm work. Abraham LincolnOthers have been made fools of by the girls; but, this can never be with truth said of me. I most emphatically, in this instance, made a fool of myself. Abraham Lincoln My father, at the death of his father, was but six years of age; and he grew up, literally without education. Abraham Lincoln My father taught me to work, but he did not teach me to love it. Abraham Lincoln All that I am or hope to be I owe to my angel mother. I remember my mother's prayers and they have always followed me. They have clung to me all my life. Abraham Lincoln I never had a policy; I have just tried to do my very best each and every day. Abraham Lincoln29Lincolns Historic SpeechesAbraham Lincoln, June 16th, 1858 House divided speech at Springeld IllinoisWhen Lincoln made this speech he was just a candidate for the US senate. The speech was rendered when Lincoln accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination as that state's United States senator. Lincoln made this oft quoted speech to around 1000 republican delegates in the Hall of Representatives. Lincoln was then competing against Democrat Stephen A Douglas. The phrase a House Divided is taken from the Bible. Realizing that the nation was sitting on a power keg which could burst at any moment, Lincoln stressed the underlying danger of disunity. He warned that it would be impossible for the nation to survive with half slaves and half free. This speech reveals Lincolns grasp over the political situation of his times; and the dangers of the North- South divide over slavery. His words A house divided against itself cannot stand proved prophetic as within a short period of time the nation would be engulfed in a bitter Civil War. Though Lincoln lost the election, this speech brought him national recognition.Full Transcript Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Convention. If we could rst know where we are, and whither we are tending, we could then better judge what to do, and how to do it. We are now far into the fth year, since a policy was initiated, with the avowed object, and condent promise, of putting an end to slavery agitation. Under the operation of that policy, that agitation has not only, not ceased, but has constantly augmented. In my opinion, it will not cease, until a crisis shall have been reached, and passed. "A house divided against itself cannot stand." I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved -- I do not expect the house to fall -- but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery, will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates will push it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new -- North as well as South. Have we no tendency to the latter condition? Let any one who doubts, carefully contemplate that now almost complete legal combination -- piece of machinery so to speak -- compounded of the Nebraska doctrine, and the Dred Scott decision. Let him consider not only what work the machinery is adapted to do, and how well adapted; but also, let him study the history of its construction, and trace, if he can, or rather fail, if he can, to trace the evidence of design and concert of action, among its chief architects, from the beginning. But, so far, Congress only, had acted; and an indorsement by the people, real or apparent, was indispensable, to save the point already gained, and give chance for more. 30The new year of 1854 found slavery excluded from more than half the States by State Constitutions, and from most of the national territory by congressional prohibition. Four days later, commenced the struggle, which ended in repealing that congressional prohibition. This opened all the national territory to slavery, and was the rst point gained. This necessity had not been overlooked; but had been provided for, as well as might be, in the notable argument of "squatter sovereignty," otherwise called "sacred right of self government," which latter phrase, though expressive of the only rightful basis of any government, was so perverted in this attempted use of it as to amount to just this: That if any one man, choose to enslave another, no third man shall be allowed to object. That argument was incorporated into the Nebraska bill itself, in the language which follows: "It being the true intent and meaning of this act not to legislate slavery into any Territory or state, not to exclude it therefrom; but to leave the people thereof perfectly free to form and regulate their domestic institutions in their own way, subject only to the Constitution of the United States." Then opened the roar of loose declamation in favor of "Squatter Sovereignty," and "Sacred right of self-government." "But," said opposition members, "let us be more specic -- let us amend the bill so as to expressly declare that the people of the territory may exclude slavery." "Not we," said the friends of the measure; and down they voted the amendment. While the Nebraska Bill was passing through congress, a law case involving the question of a negroe's freedom, by reason of his owner having voluntarily taken him rst into a free state and then a territory covered by the congressional prohibition, and held him as a slave, for a long time in each, was passing through the U.S. Circuit Court for the District of Missouri; and both Nebraska bill and law suit were brought to a decision in the same month of May, 1854. The negroe's name was "Dred Scott," which name now designates the decision nally made in the case. Before the then next Presidential election, the law case came to, and was argued in, the Supreme Court of the United States; but the decision of it was deferred until after the election. Still, before the election, Senator Trumbull, on the oor of the Senate, requests the leading advocate of the Nebraska bill to state his opinion whether the people of a territory can constitutionally exclude slavery from their limits; and the latter answers: "That is a question for the Supreme Court." The election came. Mr. Buchanan was elected, and the indorsement, such as it was, secured. That was the second point gained. The indorsement, however, fell short of a clear popular majority by nearly four hundred thousand votes, and so, perhaps, was not overwhelmingly reliable and satisfactory. The outgoing President, in his last annual message, as impressively as possible, echoed back upon the people the weight and authority of the indorsement. The Supreme Court met again; did not announce their decision, but ordered a re-argument. The Presidential inauguration came, and still no decision of the court; but the incoming President, in his inaugural address, fervently exhorted the people to abide by the forthcoming decision, whatever might be. Then, in a few days, came the decision. The reputed author of the Nebraska Bill nds an early occasion to make a speech at this capital indorsing the Dred Scott Decision, and vehemently denouncing all opposition to it. The new President, too, seizes the early occasion of the Silliman letter to indorse and strongly construe that decision, and to express his astonishment that any different view had ever been entertained. At length a squabble springs up between the President and the author of the Nebraska Bill, on the mere question of fact, whether the Lecompton constitution was or was not, in any just sense, made by the people of Kansas; and in that squabble the latter declares that all he wants is a fair vote for 31the people, and that he cares not whether slavery be voted down or voted up. I do not understand his declaration that he cares not whether slavery be voted down or voted up, to be intended by him other than as an apt denition of the policy he would impress upon the public mind -- the principle for which he declares he has suffered much, and is ready to suffer to the end. And well may he cling to that principle. If he has any parental feeling, well may he cling to it. That principle, is the only shred left of his original Nebraska doctrine. Under the Dred Scott decision, "squatter sovereignty" squatted out of existence, tumbled down like temporary scaffolding -- like the mould at the foundry served through one blast and fell back into loose sand -- helped to carry an election, and then was kicked to the winds. His late joint struggle with the Republicans, against the Lecompton Constitution, involves nothing of the original Nebraska doctrine. That struggle was made on a point, the right of a people to make their own constitution, upon which he and the Republicans have never differed. The several points of the Dred Scott decision, in connection with Senator Douglas's "care-not" policy, constitute the piece of machinery, in its present state of advancement. This was the third point gained. The working points of that machinery are:- First, that no negro slave, imported as such from Africa, and no descendant of such slave, can ever be a citizen of any State, in the sense of that term as used in the Constitution of the United States. This point is made in order to deprive the negro, in every possible event, of the benet of that provision of the United States Constitution, which declares that: "The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States." Second, that "subject to the Constitution of the United States, " neither Congress nor a Territorial legislature can exclude slavery from any United States Territory. This point is made in order that individual men may ll up the Territories with slaves, without danger of losing them as property, and thus to enhance the chances of permanency to the institution through all the future. Third, that whether the holding a negro in actual slavery in a free State makes him free, as against the holder, the United States courts will not decide, but will leave to be decided by the courts of any slave State the negro may be forced into by the master. This point is made, not to be pressed immediately; but, if acquiesced in for a while, and apparently indorsed by the people at an election, then to sustain the logical conclusion that what Dred Scott's master might lawfully do with Dred Scott, in the free State of Illinois, every other master may lawfully do with any other one, or one thousand slaves, in Illinois, or in any other free State. Auxiliary to all this, and working hand in hand with it, the Nebraska doctrine, or what is left of it, is to educate and mold public opinion, at least Northern public opinion, not to care whether slavery is voted down or voted up. This shows exactly where we now are; and partially, also, whither we are tending. It will throw additional light on the latter, to go back, and run the mind over the string of historical facts already stated. Several things will now appear less dark and mysterious than they did when they were transpiring. The people were to be left "perfectly free," subject only to the Constitution. What the Constitution had to do with it, outsiders could not then see. Plainly enough now, it was an exactly tted niche, for the Dred Scott decision to afterward come in, and declare the perfect free freedom of the people to be just no freedom at all. Why was the amendment, expressly declaring the right of the people, voted down? Plainly enough now: the adoption of it would have spoiled the niche for the Dred Scott decision. Why was the court decision held up? Why even a Senator's individual opinion withheld, till after the presidential election? Plainly enough now- the speaking out then would have damaged the perfectly free argument upon which the election was to be carried. Why the outgoing President's felicitation on the indorsement? Why the delay of a re-argument? Why the incoming President's advance exhortation in favor of the decision? These things look like the cautious patting and petting of a 32spirited horse, preparatory to mounting him, when it is dreaded that he may give the rider a fall. And why the hasty after-indorsement of the decision by the President and others? We cannot absolutely know that all these exact adaptations are the result of preconcert. But when we see a lot of framed timbers, different portions of which we know have been gotten out at different times and places, and by different workmen- Stephen, Franklin, Roger, and James, for instance-and when we see these timbers joined together, and see they exactly matte the frame of a house or a mill, all the tenons and mortices exactly tting, and all the lengths and proportions of the different l pieces exactly adapted to their respective places, and not a piece. too many or too few,-not omitting even scaffolding-or, if a single piece be lacking, we see the place in the frame exactly tted and prepared yet to bring such piece in-in such a case we nd it impossible not to believe that Stephen and Franklin and Roger and James all understood one another from the beginning and all worked upon a common plan or draft drawn up before the rst blow was struck. It should not be overlooked that, by the Nebraska Bill, the people of a State, as well as a Territory, were to be left "perfectly free," "subject only to the Constitution." Why mention a State? They were legislating for Territories, and not for or about States. Certainly the people of a State are and ought to be subject to the Constitution of the United States; but why is mention of this lugged into this merely Territorial law? Why are the people of a Territory and the people of a State therein lumped together, and their relation to the Constitution therein treated as being precisely the same? While the opinion of the court, by Chief-Justice Taney, in the Dred Scott case and the separate opinions of all the concurring judges, expressly declare that the Constitution of the United States neither permits Congress nor a Territorial legislature to exclude slavery from any United States Territory, they all omit to declare whether or not the same Constitution permits a State, or the people of a State, to exclude it. Possibly this is a mere omission; but who can be quite sure, if McLean or Curtis had sought to get into the opinion a declaration of unlimited power in the people of a State to exclude slavery from their limits, just as Chase and Mace sought to get such declaration, in behalf of the people of a Territory, into the Nebraska Bill-I ask, who can be quite sure that it would not have been voted down in the one case as it ad been in the other? The nearest approach to the point of declaring the power of a State over slavery is made by Judge Nelson. He approaches it more than once, using the precise idea, and almost the language, too, of the Nebraska Act. On one occasion, his exact language is, "except in cases where the power is restrained by the Constitution of the United States the law of the State is supreme over the subject of slavery within its g jurisdiction." In what cases the power of the States is so restrained by the United States Constitution is left an open question, precisely as the same question, as to the restraint on the power of the Territories, was left open in the Nebraska Act Put this and that together, and we have another nice little niche which we may ere long see lled with another Supreme Court decisions declaring that the Constitution of the United States does not permit a State to exclude slavery from its limits. And this may especially be expected if the doctrine of "care not wether slavery be voted down or voted up," shall gain upon he public mind sufciently to give promise that such a decision an be maintained when made. Such a decision is all that slavery now lacks of being alike lawful in all the States. Welcome, or unwelcome, such decision is probably coming, and will soon be upon us, unless the power of the present political dynasty shall be met and overthrown. We shall lie down pleasantly dreaming that the people of Missouri. are on the verge of making their State free, and we shall awake to the reality instead, that the Supreme Court has made Illinois a slave State. To meet and overthrow the power of that dynasty is the work now before all those who would prevent that consummation. This is what we have to do. How can we best do it? There are those who denounce us openly to their own friends and yet whisper us softly, that Senator Douglas is the aptest instrument there is with which to effect that object. They wish us to infer all from the fact that he now has a little quarrel with the present head of the dynasty; and that he has regularly voted with us on a single 33point, upon which he and we have never differed. They remind us that he is a great man, and that the largest of us are very small ones. Let this be granted. But "a living dog is better than a dead lion." Judge Douglas, if not a dead lion, for this work, is at least a caged and tooth. less one. How can he oppose the advances of slavery? He does not care anything about it. His avowed mission is impressing the "public heart" to care nothing about it. A leading Douglas Democratic newspaper thinks Douglas's superior talent will be needed to resist the revival of the African slave trade. Does Douglas believe an effort to revive that trade is approaching ? He has not said so. Does he really think so? But if it is, how can he resist it? For years he has labored to prove it a sacred right of white men to take negro slaves into the new Territories. Can he possibly show that it is less a sacred right to buy them where they can be bought cheapest? And unquestionably they can be bought cheaper in Africa than in Virginia. He has done all in his power to reduce the whole question of slavery to one of a mere right of property; and as such, how can he oppose the foreign slave trade-how can he refuse that trade in that "property" shall be "perfectly free"-unless he does it as a protection to the home production? And as the home producers will probably not ask the protection, he will be wholly without a ground of opposition. Senator Douglas holds, we know, that a man may rightfully be wiser today than he was yesterday-that he may rightfully | change when he nds himself wrong. But can we, for that reason, run ahead, and infer that he will make any particular change, of which he, himself, has given no intimation? Can we safely base our action upon any such vague inference? Now, as ever, I wish not to misrepresent Judge Douglas's position, question his motives, or do aught that can be personally offensive to him. Whenever, if ever, he and we can come together on principle so that our cause may have assistance from his great ability, I hope to have interposed no adventitious obstacle. But clearly, he is not now with us-he does not pretend to be-he does not promise ever to be. Our cause, then, must be intrusted to, and conducted by, its own undoubted friends-those whose hands are free, whose hearts are in the work-who do care for the result. Two years ago the Republicans of the nation mustered over thirteen hundred thousand strong. We did this under the single impulse of resistance to a common danger, with every external circumstance against us. Of strange, discordant, and even hostile elements, we gathered from the four winds, and formed and fought the battle through, under the constant hot re of a disciplined, proud, and pampered enemy. Did we brave all them to falter now?-now, when that same enemy is wavering, dissevered, and belligerent? The result is not doubtful. We shall not fail-if we stand rm, we shall not fail. Wise counsels may accelerate, or mistakes delay it, but, sooner or later, the victory is sure to come. 34Abraham Lincoln, February 27th, 1860Copper Union address at New YorkThis is one of the most important speeches of Lincoln which catapulted him to stardom and brought to the forefront his majestic oratorical skills. This speech was delivered when Lincoln had not yet been chosen as a Presidential nominee. Lincoln arrived in New York in response to an invitation at Henry Ward Beecher's church in Brooklyn. The venue was later shifted to the Copper Union. Realizing the impact that a well crafted and eloquent speech w