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A guide to citing and documenting sources using APA Claire McMurray, Ph.D., KU Writing Center
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A guide to citing and documenting sources using APA Claire McMurray, Ph.D., KU Writing Center

Feb 24, 2016

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A guide to citing and documenting sources using APA Claire McMurray, Ph.D., KU Writing Center. Why are there different citation styles?. MLA Format in-text style humanities how writings influence one another, authorship Highlights author’s name, pg #. APA Format in-text style - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Social Workers Write

A guide to citing and documenting sources using APA

Claire McMurray, Ph.D., KU Writing Center

KU Writing Centerwww.ukans.edu/~writing1Why are there different citation styles?MLA Format

in-text stylehumanitieshow writings influence one another, authorshipHighlights authors name, pg #

APA Format

in-text stylesocial scienceshow research has evolved and dates of publicationHighlights authors name, year, page #

Chicago Formatfootnote stylehistorical researchhelps reader focus on evidence and source originsvery flexiblecan mix discursive and bibliographic footnotesExplain 3 forms and that each has different guidelines for in-text citations and list of references (MLA: Works Cited, APA: References, Chicago: Bibliography. Show: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/pdf/20110928111055_949.pdfliography). APA and MLA can have discursive footnotes. APA can also have footnotes about copyright permission. Can be at bottom or on separate page at end after References. Show the Yale website: http://writing.yalecollege.yale.edu/why-are-there-different-citation-styles and Purdue Owl citation chart: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/pdf/20110928111055_949.pdfKU Writing Centerwww.ukans.edu/~writing2Resources (on handout)KU Writing Center (face-to-face consultations, email feedback, videoconferences, quick questions, writing guides) www.writing.ku.edu

APA Handbook

Purdue Owl APA Overview website

http://blog.apastyle.org/

When in all else fails: google the question, search for reputable sources

Show Purdue Owl website: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/560/

KU Writing Centerwww.ukans.edu/~writing3Why cite using APA?Acknowledge those youve learned from

Build credibility (for yourself and the people you work with)

Guide readers to further information

KU Writing Centerwww.ukans.edu/~writing4What is included in the APA format?Document guidelines (formatting)Writing style and toneOrganization and structureIn-text citation guidelinesReferences guidelines

*Hint: use Zotero, EndNote, or Word References to organization your citations

Types of PapersLiterature Review

Title pageIntroduction sectionList of references

Experimental Report

Title pageAbstractIntroductionMethodResultsDiscussionReferencesAppendices (if necessary)Tables/Figures (if necessary) Other PapersUse general format guidelinesConsult your advisorConsult APA HandbookKU Writing Centerwww.ukans.edu/~writing6APA StyleExpectations for writing style, tone and organizationExplicit (thesis up front with map)ConciseValues standardization of papers so that research can easily be compared

KU Writing Centerwww.ukans.edu/~writing7Avoiding Bias in Language

Be descriptive and specific:Describe individuals and groups as they describe themselves, including them in the decision when possible.Find alternatives to the generic he and man.Age: be specific and avoid pejorative terms (e.g. elderly)Person-first language: person with neurosisperson who lives with bi-polar disorderSexual orientation rather than sexual preferenceRacial & Ethnic groups are capitalizedBlack rather than black; White rather than white etc.

VerbsUse past tense or present perfect in literature review and to present your results: Sanchez (2004) has reported thatWe found that 65% of the participants adopted more formal speechUse present tense to discuss or synthesize:Overall analysis suggests thatThe majority of researchers seem to support the hypothesisKU Writing Centerwww.ukans.edu/~writing9VerbsPassive and active voiceVerbs are vigorous, direct communicatorsPrefer the active voiceThe survey was conducted in a controlled setting.We conducted the survey in a controlled setting.Use passive judiciously to focus the object or recipient of action rather than the actorThe speakers were attached to either side of the chair.NumbersExpressed in numerals:Numbers 10 and aboveNumbers below 10 grouped for comparison with numbers 10 and aboveNumbers preceding a unit of measurement or statistical functionNumbers representing time, date, age, population size, etc.Numbers in series, such as Tables, Chapters, etc.Expressed as words:Numbers below 10Zero and one when words would be easier to comprehend than numeralsAny number that begins a title, text heading, or sentenceCommon fractions (two-thirds)Numbers expressing approximate lengths of time (about three hours)

PunctuationUse commas between all elements of a series: A, B, and C.Use comma to set off the year in dates and in parenthetical reference citations. (Lastname, 2010) Use a semicolon to separate elements in a series already containing commas. PunctuationUse a colon between a complete introductory clause and a final phrase or a complete sentence, as in These are the options: Introduce a single-payer system or create a government insurance pool.Hyphenate compound words used as adjectives, as in same-day appointment or two-time winner.Do not use dashes; instead, use parentheses, as in Studs Terkel (author of the classic Working) died recently.

Formatting: Title PageRunning Head on every page

Running head: SHORT TITLE ALL CAPS IN HEADER 1

Full Title of Paper: Sentence Case, Centered Left to RightName of AuthorInstitutional Affiliation

Author NoteDepartmental affiliation Changes of Affiliation (if any)AcknowledgmentsSpecial circumstancesPerson to contact (mailing address, email)

No more than 50 charactersFull title is centered and positioned in upper half of the page, Times New Roman, 12 pt font Formatting: Heading LevelsUse levels consecutively, meaning that, if your paper has three levels, use levels 1, 2, and 3Levels have slightly different formatting

Level of HeadingFormatting of Heading1Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading2Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading3 Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.5 Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.Formatting Levels: like an outlineOutlineHow it would look in your paperMethodFirst typePart OnePart TwoSecond TypePart OnePart TwoResults

Method In this paper I used two types of methods to figure out the results of my experiment.First Type: Sand Collecting The first type of method I used was the sand collecting method. Part one of the sand collecting method: collection. This part included collecting sand and putting it into giant buckets to be sorted by grain size. Part two of the sand collecting method: testing. This part includedIn-Text Citation: ParaphrasesIf you mention the author in the sentence, place the publication year in parenthesis directly after name: Walter (2000) found that the strengths perspective worked well with

If you do not mention the authors name, save parenthetical reference for the end:Many researchers have studied the strengths perspective (Walter, 2000; Davis, 1998).

In-Text Citation: QuotationsAuthor in sentence:Miele (1993) found that the placebo effect disappeared when [only the first groups] behaviors were modified (p. 276).

Author not in sentence:She stated that The placebo effectdisappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner (Miele, 1993, p. 276).

Reference PageTitle the page References.

Double space the entire reference pageno extra space between entries.

List alphabetically.

List works by the same author chronologically from earliest to latest.

Common Problems: Citing WebsitesIn TextWhen referring in passing to a website within your text, the url is sufficient. Dont add it to the references list.Ex: Gussie Fink-Nottle has set up a discussion forum for newt fanciers (http://gfnnfg.livejournal.com/).List (author, date) or (title, date) at the end of the sentence for more in-depth discussion of a website.

Pull up http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11/how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style.html and show the chart for when something is missingOnly use the [format description] for an unusual format, such as blog post or lecture notes.KU Writing Centerwww.ukans.edu/~writing20Common Problems: Citing WebsitesReferences When citing a document or piece of information from a website, you need to put it on the references list.Author, A. (date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://URL.When a doi (digital object identifier) exists, use instead of url. Author, A.A, & Author, B.B. (Date). Title of article. Title of journal, vol. #, page range. doi:000000/0000000.Something missing? Check the APA Style Blog. Often there are no dates or authors for websites.Consider purchasing APA Style Guide to Electronic References.

KU Writing Centerwww.ukans.edu/~writing21Common Problems: Tables and FiguresCheck APA Manual: Section 5 (Displaying Results) pg. 125-167

Check Purdue Owl website (on handout)

Decide the tables or figures purpose (exploration, communication, calculation, storage, decoration)

Consider using a standard (canonical) form when possiblePurdue Owl website: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/560/

KU Writing Centerwww.ukans.edu/~writing22Common Problems: A Source w/in a SourceIn Text(as cited in Author, date).Ex: In his e-mails, Smith argued that asynchronous line dancing would be the next Internet meme (as cited in Jones, 2010).

ReferencesList only the SECONDARY source (source in which you found the quote) on your references list.

Think seriously about tracking down the original source to become better informed and be sure of the authors intention.KU Writing Centerwww.ukans.edu/~writing23

Questions?Dont feel ashamed if you still have a question. No one can memorize all of the APA rules and guidelines. Everyone needs to look them up from time or to figure it out with someone elses guidance. Come visit the Writing Center for more help!

KU Writing Centerwww.ukans.edu/~writing24