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Jan 06, 2016
A graduate Coursewww.ribler.com
Artificial Intelligence1A Visiting ProfessorRandy RiblerPhD from Virginia TechPostdoc at University of Illinois (UIUC)
I was here before in 2006Im absolutely delighted to be back in 2013
Lynchburg CollegeHobbs Hall
Lynchburg CollegeSmall liberal arts college2000+ students50-60 Computer Science Majors3 fulltime professors
My Primary Interests in AIGenetic AlgorithmsRule Induction Algorithms for playing gamesChessChinese ChessDots and BoxesWhat Do you want out of this Class?I would like the class to be project-centered, but first I need to know:Who are you?What do you want to get out of this class?What are your career goals?What do you already know about AI?What subfields of AI are you interested in?
What is Artificial IntelligenceDo you know a definition?Do you have your own criteria?Have you heard of the Turing Test?What do you think it is?
Alan M. TuringComputing Machinery and Intelligence (1950)- Can machines think?What are the meanings of the wordsmachine andthink?
Today we still have problems defining Artificial IntelligenceWhat are the meanings of the wordsartificial and intelligence?
Computing Machinery and Intelligence (1950)
Imitation GameNew form of the problem, Can machines think?ParticipantsManWomanInterrogator (man or woman)The GameEach participant is in a different roomInterrogator does not know who is in each roomInterrogator sends written questions to other participantsMan tries to convince interrogator that he is the womanWoman tries to convince interrogator that she is the woman
Turing TestImitation GameSubstitute the man with a machine
Will the interrogator decide wrongly as often when the game is played like this as he does when the game is played between a man and a woman?
This will replace the question Can machines think?
Sample Questions Types from TuringWrite me a sonnetMachine might say its not good at itPerform some mathematicsMachine might have to appear slowSolve a chess problems
Machine DefinitionDigital ComputerNot biological clone of a manNot necessarily every computerCan we imagine a computer that can do well in the game?Turings PRedictionIn fifty years time (year 2000)After 5 minutes of interrogation the interrogator will make the correct identification about 70% of the time.Turings Anticipated ObjectionsTheologicalGod has given an immortal soul to every man and woman, but not to any other animal or to machines. Hence no animal or machine can think.Turing rejects this with an interesting argumentIn attempting to construct such machines we should not be irreverently usurping His power of creating souls, any more than we are in the procreation of children: rather we are, in either case, instruments of His will providing .mansions for the souls that He creates.Such arguments have often been found unsatisfactory in the past. In the time of Galileo it was argued that the texts, "And the sun stood still .Turings Anticipated ObjectionsThe "Heads in the Sand" ObjectionThe consequences of machines thinking would be too dreadful. Let us hope and believe that they cannot do so."I do not think that this argument is sufficiently substantial to require refutation.
Turings Anticipated ObjectionsThe Mathematical ObjectionWe know that some functions are not computable, so there must be some questions that the computer will be unable to answer.Yes, but we dont have any proof that a person can answer these questions eitherFailing in some areas is not necessarily lack of the ability to think
Turings Anticipated ObjectionsThe Argument from Consciousness"Not until a machine can write a sonnet or compose a concerto because of thoughts and emotions felt, and not by the chance fall of symbols, could we agree that machine equals brain-that is, not only write it but know that it had written it. No mechanism could feel (and not merely artificially signal, an easy contrivance) pleasure at its successes, grief when its valves fuse, be warmed by flattery, be made miserable by its mistakes, be charmed by sex, be angry or depressed when it cannot get what it wants. - JeffersonTurings Anticipated ObjectionsWe cant even know these things about a person? (solipsist point of view)We can ask questions as part of the interrogation that probe understandingIn the first line of your sonnet which reads "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day," would not "a spring day" do as well or better?Turings Anticipated ObjectionsArguments from Various Disabilities"I grant you that you can make machines do all the things you have mentioned but you will never be able to make one to do X."X = Enjoy strawberries and creamX = Make mistakesTuring claims most of these objections are disguised forms of the argument from consciousnessTurings Anticipated ObjectionsLady Lovelace's Objection - "The Analytical Engine has no pretensions to originateanything. It can dowhatever we know how to order itto performMachines can change their instructionsMachines can surprise us (debugging)
Turings Anticipated ObjectionsArgument from Continuity in the Nervous System- The nervous system is certainly not a discrete-state machine. A small error in the information about the size of a nervous impulse impinging on a neuron, may make a large difference to the size of the outgoing impulse. It may be argued that, this being so, one cannot expect to be able to mimic the behaviour of the nervous system with a discrete-state system.Turings Anticipated ObjectionsThe machine can approximate the continuous sufficiently to fool the interrogator in Turings Anticipated ObjectionsThe Argument from Informality of BehaviourIt is not possible to produce a set of rules purporting to describe what a man should do in every conceivable set of circumstances. One might for instance have a rule that one is to stop when one sees a red traffic light, and to go if one sees a green one, but what if by some fault both appear together? One may perhaps decide that it is safest to stop. But some further difficulty may well arise from this decision later. To attempt to provide rules of conduct to cover every eventuality, even those arising from traffic lights, appears to be impossible. With all this I agree.Turings Anticipated ObjectionsThe Argument from Extrasensory PerceptionTuring thought that statistical evidence, at least for telepathy, is overwhelmingOf course, this has been shown to be incorrect, but it is interesting to think about.