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59100 sengupta

Jun 21, 2015



  • 1. E xperience of A irPollution C ontrol inLas t Two Decadesin IndiaDr. B. Sengupta Member SecretaryCentral Pollution Control Board Ministry of Environment & ForestsNew Delhi Email: [email protected], Website:http://cpcb.delhi.nic.inPaper Presented at International Conference on Better Air Quality, 2004held at Agra during December 6 8, 2004

2. Important A ct DE A LING WITH A IR POLLUTIONC ONTROL IN INDIA Air (Prevention and Controlof Pollution) Act , 1981 EnvironmentalProtectionAct, 1986 Factory Act (OccupationalHealth) 1987 3. Major A ir Pollution Is s ues in India1. Major Cities (53 non-attainment areas mainly due to vehicular pollution)2. 24 Critically polluted area (Industrial Air Pollution)3. Indoor Air Pollution (Rural Area) and Air Pollution in work zone area 4. Reas ons for High A irPollution in India Quality of fuel (coal, diesel, petrol, fuel oil) Toxic and hazardous air pollutants emission fromchemical industries, (pesticides, dye and dyeintermediate, pharmaceutical etc) specially located inindustrial estates (Gujarat, Maharashtra, A.P. andTamil Nadu) Use of high ash coal for power generation Siting of small industries specially industrial estates No pollution preventive step taken (early stage ofindustrialization) Conti.. 5. Reas ons for High A irPollution in IndiaPredominance of 2-stroke in use vehiclesUncontrolled growth of vehicle populationand poor i/m system for in use vehicleInadequate pollution prevention andcontrol system in small/ medium scaleindustry (s.M.S) (brick kiln, foundry, stonecrusher etc.)Poor compliance of standard in s.M.S.Large number of pollutinggensetoperating in commercial area 6. Inventory ofIndus trial E mis s ions 7. Particulate Matter E mis s ionLoad From Major A ir PollutingIndus triesCementOthersThermal7% 1%SugarPower 10% Plants82%Share of Suspended Particulate Matter Load (tonnes/day) by Different Categories of Industries (WithControl Device), Total Load = 5365 tonnes/day 8. S ulphur Dioxide E mis s ion Loadfrom Major A ir Polluting Indus tries OilSulphuric Refineries Acid3% PlantsOthers 2% 1%Steel 5% ThermalPowerPlants 89%Share of Sulphur Dioxide Load (tonnes/day) by DifferentCategories of Industries (Total Load = 3715 tonnes/day) 9. Lis t of C ritically Polluted A reas (Identified During E ighties ) S. AREA TYPE OF POLLUTING INDUSTRIESNO.01. Singrauli - Power Plants, Mining,Aluminium Industry02. Korba - Power Plants, Mining,Aluminium Industry03. Vapi- Chemical Industries04. Greater Cochin- Oil Refineries,Chemical, MetallurgicalIndustries05. Vishakhapatnam - Oil Refinery, Chemical, Steel Plants06. Howrah- Foundry, Rerolling Mills, Vehicles07. Durgapur- Chemical Industries, Power Plants, SteelPlants08. Ankaleshwar - Chemical IndustriesContd 10. Lis t of C ritically Polluted A reas(Identified During E ighties ) S.AREATYPE OF POLLUTING INDUSTRIESNO.09. Manali- Oil Refineries, Chemical & Fertilizer Industries10. Chembur - Power Plants, Refineries, Fertilizer Industry11. Mandi - Secondary Steel IndustryGovindgarh12. Dhanbad - Mining, Coke Oven13. Pali- Cotton Textile, Dyeing14. Nagafgarh Drain - Power Plats, VehiclesBasin15. Angul - Talcher - Mining, Aluminium Plants, Thermal PowerPlants16. Bhadravati- Iron & Steel, Paper Industry Contd 11. Lis t of C ritically Polluted A reas(Identified During E ighties ) S.AREATYPE OF POLLUTING INDUSTRIESNO.17. Digboi- Oil Refinery18. Jodhpur - Cotton Textile, Dye19. Kala - Amb- Paper, Electroplating20. Nagda - Ratlam- Viscose Rayon, Caustic, Dyes Distillery21. North Arcot - Tanneries22. Parwanoo- Food Processing Unit, Electroplating23. Patancheru -- Organic Chemical Paints, PetrochemicalBollaramIndustry24. Tarapur - Chemical Industries 12. C ritically Polluted A reas(2004) S.AREA TYPE OF POLLUTINGNO.INDUSTRIES01. Panipat - Power Plants, Refinery,Petrochemical, Fertilizer,S.S.I.02. Mangalore - Refinery, Petrochemical,Pesticides, S.S.I.03. Cuddalore - ChemicalUnits,Petrochemical, Pesticides 13. A ir Polluting Indus tries inS mall S cale Indus try S ectorS.INDUSTRYSTANDARD NOTIFIED UNDER DEVELOPMENT OF CLEENNo.E.P. ACTTECHNOLOGY / POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNOLOGY01. Arc Furnace-Yes02. Bagassee Fired Boilers GSR 475 (E), 5th May, 1992 Yes03. Battery Manufacturing Unit GSR 7, 22nd December , 1998Yes04. Beehive Hard Coke Oven GSR 176 (E) 2nd April, 1996Yes05. Briquette Industry (Coal)GSR 176 (E) 2nd April, 1996Yes06. Boilers (Small)GSR 176 (E) 2nd April, 1996Yes07. Brick KilnsGSR 682 (E), 5th October, 1999 Yes08. Ceramic Industry GSR 475 (E), 5th May, 1992 Yes09. Coke Ovens S.O. 64 (E), 18th January 1988 Yes10. Cupola Furnace GSR 176 (E) 2nd April, 1996Yes11. FoundriesGSR 742 (E), 30th August, 1990 Yes12. Hot Mix Plants - -13. Lime Kilns GSR 92 (E), 21st February, 1991Yes14. Soft Coke Industries GSR 176 (E) 2nd April, 1996Yes15. Stone Crushing UnitGSR 742 (E), 30th August, 1990 Yes 14. A ir Polluting Indus tries for whichE mis s ion S tandard Developed and E nforc ed by S PC BS. INDUSTRYSTANDARD NOTIFIEDNo.01. Aluminium Industries GSR 742 (E), 30th August, 199002. Asbestos ProductsGSR 913 (E), 24th October , 198903. Carbon Black IndustriesS.O. 64 (E), 18th January, 198804. Calcium Carbide PlantS.O. 64 (E), 18th January, 198805. Cement IndustriesS.O. 393 (3), 16th April, 198706. Copper, Lead and Zinc Smelting S.O. 64 (E), 18th January 198807. Coal Mines Evolved by CPCB08. Coal Washeries GSR 7, 27th December, 199809. Glass Industries GSR 93 (E), 21st February, 199110. Integrated Iron & SteelS.O. 64 (E), 18th January, 1988Contd.. 15. A ir Polluting Indus tries for which E mis s ion S tandard Developed andE nforc ed by S PC B S. INDUSTRY STANDARD NOTIFIED No.11. Nitric Acid Plants S.O. 65 (E), 18th January 198812. Oil Refineries GSR 742 (E), 30th August, 199013. Oil Drilling and Gas ExtractionGSR 176 (E) April, 1996Industry14. Sulphuric Acid PlantsS.O. 64 (E), 18th January, 198815. Thermal Power Plant Coal Based S.O. 8 (E), 3rd January, 198316. Thermal Power Plant Gas BasedGSR 7, 22nd December, 199817. Stand alone Coke Oven Plants- 16. E mis s ion Load Reduction from Major A ir PollutingIndus tries Name ofPresentEmission Present%theProduction during Emission Reduction IndustryEighties- 2003Thermal62,000 MW 1,76,5824,374 MT / 97.52Power PlantMT / DayDay (PM) (PM)Oil Refinery 123 MMTPA2,250 MT / 175 MT / 92.22Day (SO2)Day (SO2)Aluminium 1,905 MT /35.1 MT / 3.1 MT /91.17SmelterDay Day (F)Day (F)Cement 3,30,7881,18,422397 MT / 99.66Industry MT / DayMT / DayDay (PM) (PM) 17. Inventory ofVehicular E mis s ions 18. Vehicle Population in NineMetro C ities in India 40 35.5 35 30Population (lakhs) 25 20 15.74 1513.09 13.3210.89 10 8.26 8.465.53.93 5 0i ne urida i redlhbanaat babaPu alonp Deumen lkra daKaKong Ch deMem Ba HyAh 19. Percentage S hare of DifferentC ategory of Vehic les in Nine Metro100 C ities in India90 8.4 280 1.3 17.413.4 8.5 26 8.3 2.17060 36 Bus32.150Car40 80.2 77.2 81.7 2W 73.174.2 7465.73020 4243.510 0 rne i ii dad re balhpunaat baba PuDealo umenlk n ra daKaKoChng deMemBa HyAh 20. Fuel C ons umption in Nine MetroC ities in India ( 2000-2001)800759700 DieselPetrolAnnual consumption ( TMT)600500 413411379400 298278300 265 209220221152168 180200148134 105 118100 720Delhi Mumbai KolkataChennai Bangalore HyderabadAhemdabad PuneKanpur 21. C O E mis s ion Load inNine Metro C ities in India(2001)350293300250Annual Load ( TMT)200150129109 118100 8858 51 45 50 230iirai nead a adbalhre pu tnkaPu Dealoabbum en n da lKaerChKo ngMem dBaHy Ah 22. HC E mis s ion Load in Nine MetroC ities in India (2001) 120 113 100Annual Load ( TMT)80 717360 54 4440 31292016 12 0 i i r ai ne adtaad balh repu n kaPu De alo ab b umen ndalKa er Ch Kong M emd Ba HyAh 23. NOx E mis s ion Load in Nine MetroC ities in India (2001) 7063 60 50Annual Load ( TMT) 40 30 272222 20 20171517 10 60ine ir ai lh ta ba dad re pu nbaPuDe lka um aloenbnera da Ka ChKong Mem dBaHy Ah 24. Annual Load ( TMT)0246810 1214 16De lh i M 14 um ba i6 Kolkata5 Chen n ai 4Bang alo re7 Hydera bad6Ah emda bad5 Kan pu r 2vara nasi1.2C ities in India(2001) PM E mis s ion Load in Nine Metro 25. Ventilation Coefficient ( M3/Sec-m)0 5 10 1520 2530 De lhi 6 M umba i 8 Kol kata 6Chenna i 24Ba ng alo re H20 yder abad10Ah em daba d 4 Pu ne 8Kan p ur 4 Metro C ities in India(2001) Ventilation C o-efficient in Nine 26. E pidemiological S tudies Initiated by C PC B in India Epidemiological Study to find the Effect of Air Pollutantsespecially Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter(RSPM) and other carcinogens on Human Health in Delhi CNCI, Kolkata Study on Ambient Air Quality, Respiratory Symptoms andLung Function of Children in Delhi CNCI, Kolkata Effects of Environmental Pollution on the Status of HumanHealth of Delhi Residents AIIMS, New Delhi Human Risk Assessment Studies in Asbestos Industriesin India- ITRC, Lucknow The Environmental benefits Mapping and AnalysisProgram for International Applications (BenMAP International) Training and Demonstration in India -USEPA 27. Lung Function Impairment inRes idents of Delhi 60(Non-s mokers ) 53.9 50 46.1 Pattern of impairment% of individuals 40 30 24.7 2014.2 107.2 0Normal Impaired Restrictive Obstructive Combined 28. Health Impact 29. A mbientA ir Quality S tandard 30. National A mbient A ir Quality S tandards (Naaqs ) (1982, 1994) Concentration in Ambient Air Method of MeasurementTime WeightedAverage IndustrialResidential, SensitivePollutant Area Rural and other AreaAreasSulphur Dioxide Annual Average* 80 g/m360 g/m3 15 g/m3 1. Improved West and Gaeke Method(SO2) 2. Ultraviolet Fluorescence24 Hours 120 g/m380 g/m3 30 g/m3Average**Oxides of NitrogenAnnual Average* 80 g/m360 g/m3 15 g/m3 1. Jacob & Hochheiser modified (NaOH-as NO2NaAsO2) Method24 Hours 120 g/m380 g/m3 30 g/m3 2. Gas Phase ChemiluminiscenceAverage**Suspended Annual Average*360 g/m3 140 g/m3 70 g/m3 High Volume Sampling (Average flow rateParticulate

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