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39369044 Internet Mobile Robot the Quad Copter

Oct 30, 2014

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Internet Mobile RobotThe QuadcopterGroup 13 Rahul Bura Mohamed Chande Vinayak Goge Hue Vo

Supervisor: Professor Peter X. Liu

A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of SYSC-4907 Engineering Project

Department of Systems and Computer Engineering Faculty of Engineering Carleton University

April 7, 2010

Internet Mobile Robot

April 7th, 2010

AbstractGroup 13 consisting of Rahul Bura, Mohamed Chande, Vinayak Goge and Hue Vo have developed a start-up project as a partial fulfillment for SYSC 4907 Engineering Project: Internet Mobile Robot: The Quadcopter. The objective of the project was to design and implement a Quadcopter (helicopter with four propellers) that can take flight and be controlled using a remote client application over the internet. Currently, different Quadcopter designs have been implemented. However, most of them have used handheld Radio Control implementations. With the design implemented in this project, different applications can be developed to control the Quadcopter over the internet from a remote location. This opens up different possibilities with the design being applied in different areas ranging from Surveillance to Virtual Gaming Technologies to Military Applications. Different designs were explored and from these designs, it was determined that we would need a microcontroller to run control algorithms, a Wi-Fi chip to facilitate wireless communication and a webpage to for user interaction. Any command received from the WI-Fi chip is processed by the microcontroller and executed by all the components including motors, speed controllers and inertial measurement units that are used to stabilize the Quadcopter. The communication system implemented a server/client architecture with the Wi-Fi chip behaving as a server that acts to reply to requests from a remote client webpage. For the data transfer mechanism, TCP protocol was used over the Internet to send traffic from the client to the server and bidirectionally. The webpage, implementedDepartment of Systems and Computer Engineering |Carleton University i

Internet Mobile Robot

April 7th, 2010

as a simple Graphical User Interface (GUI), is a good replacement for the RC handheld devices and allows for easy portability from one client to another.

Department of Systems and Computer Engineering |Carleton University

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Internet Mobile Robot

April 7th, 2010

AcknowledgementsWe would like to formally thank Professor Peter X. Liu for supervising and for his guidance throughout the Internet Mobile Robot project as well as giving us the opportunity to explore and experiment with our creativity. We would also like to thank the Technical Support Staff, Danny Lemay, Jerry Buburuz and Daren Russ, for their support throughout the project. Their prompt actions, experience and knowledge allowed us to surpass various milestones throughout the duration of the project.

Department of Systems and Computer Engineering |Carleton University

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Internet Mobile Robot

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Table of ContentsAbstract...................................................................................................................................... i Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................. iii List of Figures ........................................................................................................................... vi List of Tables .......................................................................................................................... viii 1.0 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Background .................................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Motivation ................................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Problem Statement...................................................................................................... 3 1.4 Proposed Solution and Accomplishments ................................................................... 3 1.5 Overview of the Remainder of the Report .................................................................. 6 2.0 The Engineering Project .................................................................................................... 8 2.1 Health and Safety......................................................................................................... 8 2.2 Engineering Professionalism ........................................................................................ 9 2.3 Project Management ................................................................................................. 10 2.4 Individual Contributions ............................................................................................ 11 2.4.1 Project Contributions ......................................................................................... 11 2.4.2 Report Contributions ......................................................................................... 12 3.0 Robot Design ................................................................................................................... 13 3.1 Structure .................................................................................................................... 13 3.1.1 Number of Motors ............................................................................................. 13 3.1.2 Frame ................................................................................................................. 15 3.2 Communications ........................................................................................................ 15 3.3 Flight and Stability ..................................................................................................... 16 3.4 Flight Control ............................................................................................................. 18 3.5 Power ......................................................................................................................... 20 4.0 Hardware Components and Construction ...................................................................... 22 4.1 Frame and Structure .................................................................................................. 22 4.2 Microcontroller .......................................................................................................... 24 4.3 Flight and Stability ..................................................................................................... 25 4.3.1 Propeller and Motor Combination Configuration.............................................. 25 4.3.2 Electronic Speed Controller (ESC) ...................................................................... 26 4.3.3 Six Degrees of Freedom (DOF) ........................................................................... 27 4.4 Communications ........................................................................................................ 28 4.5 Battery ....................................................................................................................... 28 4.5.1 Flight Time and Battery Power Dependancy ..................................................... 29 4.6 Design Implementation and Final Structure .............................................................. 30 5.0 Stability and Manoeuvre ................................................................................................. 33 5.1 Filtering Noise ............................................................................................................ 33 5.1.1 Noise Reduction ................................................................................................. 33 Department of Systems and Computer Engineering |Carleton University iv

Internet Mobile Robot

April 7th, 2010

5.1.2 Second Order Complementary Filter ................................................................. 34 5.2 Feedback Control ....................................................................................................... 35 5.2.1 Six Degrees of Freedom (DOF) ........................................................................... 36 5.2.2 System Control Theory ....................................................................................... 37 5.2.3 Proportional, Integral, Derivative Controller ..................................................... 40 5.2.4 Feedback Control Mechanism: Inertial Measurement Units ............................. 42 5.2.5 Feedback Control Loop ...................................................................................... 43 5.2.6 Flight Tuning Using Ziegler-Nichols Rules .......................................................... 45 5.3 Flight Configuration and Simulation .......................................................................... 46 5.3.1 Flight Configuration Methods and Tools............................................................ 46 5.3.2 Pre-Flight Tests................................................................................................... 49 5.3.3 Flight Control and Results .................................................................................. 50 6.0 Wireless Communication (Server) .................................................................................. 54 6.1 Communication System Overview ............................................................................. 54 6.2 Wireless Standards .................................................................................................... 55 6.2.1 ZigBee ..........