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MOVING UP GAINS IN PLANTATION CROP PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH EFFECTIVE PLANT BREEDING MOHAMAD BIN OSMAN Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam Selangor, Malaysia Email: mbopar2004@yahoo.com 4 th International Plantation Industry Conference and Exhibition (IPiCEX 2014) 24-25 November 2014 Kuching, Sarawak
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24-25 November 2014 Kuching, Sarawak MOVING UP … MOHAMAD OSMA… · MOVING UP GAINS IN PLANTATION CROP PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH EFFECTIVE PLANT ... cocoa and papaya, ... Oil Palm Breeding

Aug 18, 2018

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  • MOVING UP GAINS IN PLANTATION CROP PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH EFFECTIVE PLANT

    BREEDING

    MOHAMAD BIN OSMAN

    Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam

    Selangor, Malaysia

    Email: mbopar2004@yahoo.com

    4th International Plantation Industry Conference and Exhibition (IPiCEX 2014)

    24-25 November 2014 Kuching, Sarawak

    mailto: mbopar2004@yahoo.commailto: mbopar2004@yahoo.com

  • Rice Stevia Roselle

  • Introduction

    Plant Breeding Programmes

    Oil palm as an example

    Key Issues Facing Plant Breeding

    Plant Breeders are a Dying Breed

    Plant Breeding Education

    Conclusion

    Outline

  • Plant breeding is an important field of research

    for improvement of yield and

    quality of plant production

    Plant breeding efforts have contributed to the development of superior varieties to uplift our major crops or commodities

    such as rubber, oil palm, rice, and fruits

    Introduction

  • Crop varieties with desirable genetic traits as a result of these breeding programs are valuable public resources

    Historically, public plant breeders focus on the development of superior varieties which are afterwards transferred to growers as public goods and used by them without restrictions

    A diversity of plant varieties are also needed to address the growing challenges of global climate change, increasing pest and pathogen pressures, food security and safety concerns, and shifting consumer preferences.

    Crop Varieties Developed Through Plant Breeding

  • Crop Varieties Developed Through Plant Breeding

  • A "cob" of teosinte alongside a cob of modern corn

    Power of Plant Breeding

  • Soyabean

    Source: Nelson, USDA-ARS

    Power of Plant Breeding

  • Wild and Improved Pumpkins

    Power of Plant Breeding

  • Significance of Plant Breeding

    Plant Breeding alone contributes > 50% of increased USA agricultural productivity

  • Source: Shaeffer & Moncada (2012)

  • Source: Hoegemeyer

  • Source: Jiangsheng Li, CAU

  • Source: Ramalho et al. (2012)

    Contributions of Plant Breeding in Brazil

  • For some economic crops such as oil palm and rubber, plant breeders have assembled considerable exotic germplasm across the world to broaden the genetic base of breeding materials, and also have made significant genetic gains from the well-organised and resourceful breeding programmes.

    Plant Breeding Programmes

  • For other crops, breeding research and programmes to improve them are still not well balanced; some have already achieved medium to advanced stages such as for rice, cocoa and papaya, while some are still grappling with the initial or infant stage of plant breeding such as for roselle and stevia.

    Plant Breeding Programmes

  • Example: Oil Palm

  • Source: Nelson, USDA-ARS

  • Generalised Plant Breeding Strategy

  • Oil Palm Germplasm

    Source: MPOB

    Field Genebank

    Living collections

    >60,000

    148 palms per ha

    >400 ha

  • Malaysia: Oil Palm Breeders

    Public Sector MPOB 12

    FELDA 4

    DOA (Sabah) 1

    DOA (Sarawak) ?

    USIM 1

    Private Sector Sime Darby 6

    AAR 4

    BSSB 3

    UP 3

    Asiatic 2

    EPA 2

    IJM 2

    PPNJ 1

    SPAD 1

    Source: Prof. Jalani, USIM (2012)

  • Uses of the Oil Palm Tree

  • To increase oil yield

    To reduce palm height

    To increase oil quality

    Tolerance to pests and diseases

    Oil Palm Breeding Objectives

    Source: MPOB

  • Oil Palm Breeding Programmes

    Dura

    Tenera/

    Pisifera

    Dura

    Tenera/

    Pisifera

    DxP / DxT

    Progeny Test

    DxP

    Seed Production

    New Introductions

    (e.g. germplasm)

    Repeat Repeat

    Modified Reciprocal Recurrent Selection (MRS)

    in Oil Palm Improvement Programme

    Cycle 0

    Selection on

    own merit

    Bunch yield

    Bunch and fruit

    characteristics

    Cycle 0

    Selection based

    on tenera sibs

    Bunch yield

    Bunch and fruit

    characteristics

    Mating design

    e.g. NCMI

    Heterosis

    GCA, SCA

    Cycle I Cycle I

    Source: MPOB

  • Oil Palm Yield Potential

    Source: MPOB

    0.181.6 2

    3.85

    6

    8.6

    12.213.6

    18.2

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    16

    18

    20

    ton

    ne/h

    a

    African

    groove

    African

    plantations

    (national)

    Malaysian

    plantations

    (national)

    Malaysian

    commercial

    plantations

    Best

    experimental

    plot

    Selected

    progeny

    Individual

    palm

    Maximum

    teoretical

    yield

    Category of Production

  • Malaysian Standard MS157:2005

    Source: MPOB

    Traits

    Fresh fruit bunch (kg/p/yr), min.

    Mesocarp to fruit (%), min.

    Shell to fruit (%), max.

    Kernel to bunch (%), min.

    Oil to dry mesocarp (%), min.

    Oil to bunch (%), min.

    Dura

    150

    55

    35

    -

    75

    18

    Tenera

    170

    -

    -

    3

    -

    25

    Selection requirements of parental palms for

    commercial DxP seed production

    Yield records: Mean of four consecutive years,

    Bunch analysis: Minimum of three bunches/palm

  • Distribution Of Elite Oil Palm Germplasm To Seed Producers

    Source: MPOB

    1. Applied Agricultural Research 2. Eastern Plantation Agency 3. Felda Agricultural Services Corporation 4. Sime Darby 5. Industrial Oxygen Incorporated 6. Jabatan Pertanian, Sabah 7. Pamol Plantation 8. Borneo Samudera 9. Sarawak Plantations Agriculture Development 10. Genting Plantations 11. United Plantations Berhad 12. IJM Plantations

  • Source: Ramalho et al. (2012)

    Linear regression equations obtained for yield in the period of 1975-2010 (Blue = Brazil; Red = US)

  • OTHER EXAMPLES

  • 1,088856

    1,805

    3,086

    1,466

    2,535

    500817

    424630123

    724

    0

    500

    1,000

    1,500

    2,000

    2,500

    3,000

    3,500

    1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

    ( ' 000 tonnes )

    Malaysia Thailand Indonesia India China Vietnam

    PRODUCTION TREND OF MAJOR NR PRODUCERS

    -21% 71% 73% 63% 49% 489%

    Source: International Rubber Study Group, IRSG

  • NR yields in selected countries (kg/ha), 1980-2005 Source: UNCTAD secretariat (Data: FAOSTAT database)

  • RICE VARIETIES RELEASED, 1964-2012

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    1986

    1964

    2005

    Direct-seeding

    Rice yield (t/ha)

  • The productivity of public plant breeding programmes usually relies on

    a long-term commitment of resources

    adequate infrastructure support to maintain and preserve plant genetic materials

    as well as the expertise to undertake and oversee the breeding programs

    Plant Breeding Programmes

  • First, plant breeders are becoming more concerned because genetic lines developed over decades in the public sector have suddenly become proprietary and unavailable for use by other breeders, which runs contrary to the spirit of the free exchange of germplasm that has long been prevalent in public breeding programs.

    The negative effects of changes in IPRs on public institutions and breeding programs deserve increased public oversight.

    With the PNPV Act 2004 put in place and as an impetus, we expect enhancement of plant breeding activities in the country, and consequently increase in production and consumption of plantation and agriculture sector.

    Key Issues Facing Plant Breeding

  • Second, plant breeders and plant breeding programmes are regularly facing scarcity of resources, in particular which are causing classical (conventional) crop breeding to wither and dwindle.

    Plant breeders usually face shortages and uncertainty in public funding for long-term research, and invariably have to seek short-term and unrelated grants from other sources to support their breeding programmes.

    Such situation eventually pulls away these breeders from trait- and field-based breeding.

    The situation is further aggravated when research universities and institutions do not replace positions with bona fide plant breeders but rather fill positions with biotechnologists and molecular biologists or none at all. Or since they have fewer resources they may even shift their research to do other crops or carry out other research.

    Key Issues Facing Plant Breeding

  • Third, advanced techniques and tools such as genetic engineering have considerably overwhelm the practice of selection and strategies for plant breeding.

    We should not pretend that field-oriented conventional plant breeding and leading-edge lab-oriented genetic technologies are similar.

    The trends appear that the latter tends to dominate in many ways in terms of human resources and budget at the expense of conventional plant breeding. This should not be the case.

    In plain words, it means that field-oriented classical breeding is supplanted by lab-oriented high-biotech methods.

    New genomic tools present opportunities for breeders to enhance their efforts in new perspectives, strategies and more innovative approaches, but it is of utmost importance to understand that classical breeding methods remain imperative in bringing viable varieties to the field.

    Without classical breeders' expertise, biotechnological and molecular genetic approaches may be hard to bear fruit.

    Key Issues Facing Plant Breeding

  • The history of genetics since 1900. Shaded areas represent the periods of major development in each branch of the subject.

    Source: Nicholl (2008)

    Number of publications citing the polymerase chain reaction from 1985 to 1999. This shows the rapid spread of the use of the PCR in research.

  • Fourth, plant breeders are entrusted with the noble, yet extremely very difficult, responsibilty to produce quantum leap of plant productivity in the face of stagnant or shrinking existing agricultural land.

    Therefore, a quantum number of qualified, well-trained, dedicated and well-remunerated plant breeders should be recruited in both public and private domains rather than having a dearth of them or being stucked in the status quo.

    Without plant breeders, there will be no viable seed industry.

    Key Issues Facing Plant Breeding

  • In reality, sooner rather than later, the conventional plant breeders are ultimately becoming the "dying breeds".

    Plant Breeders are Dying Breeds

  • Public-sector research into classical crop breeding is withering, supplanted by sexier high-tech methods. But without breeders expertise, molecular genetic approaches might never bear fruit. Jonathan Knight reports.

  • There is widespread consensus that the public sector should play the leading role in training students to become plant breeders. There are many universities which offer life sciences or biology or agriculture specializations.

    It is unfortunate that too many present undergraduate and postgraduate programs are offering biotechnology which are slanted towards molecular biology or genetic engineering.

    Undoubtedly, students are very much attracted to the promise, glamour and experience of venturing into interesting field of biotechnology-cum-expensive and cutting edge equipment.

    To date, none of our local universities are offering specialization or major in plant breeding.

    Consequently, the number of plant breeders in public institutions, namely universities and research institutions, is very negligible compared to that of other fields.

    The number of plant breeders in private sector is even smaller still.

    Many senior plant breeders have retired or are on the verge of retirement, often without imminent replacement in the offing.

    Plant Breeding Education

  • Green World Genetics Corn & vegetable hybrid seeds

    RB Biotech - Hybrid rice, Siraj, Siraj 2

    BASF MR220CL1, MR220Cl2

    According to GWG, value of seed industry in Malaysia (including rice) is worth around USD300 million

    Seed Companies In Malaysia* A Major Constraint

  • Initiatives

    2nd international Plant Breeding Seminar 14-15 October 2014, UPM Serdang

  • We urgently need to take cognizance of the matter at hand and reverse the debilitating situation of plant breeding for some crops

    In order to reinvigourate plant breeding in the country, it is imperative that we increase

    the number of plant breeders and

    plant breeding programmes

    Conclusion

  • Thank You