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20th century

May 17, 2015

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Education

Brief discussion of the events at the start of the 20th century

  • 1. LIFE AT THE TURN OF THE 20THCENTURYTHE EMERGENCE OF MODERN AMERICA

2. SCIENCE AND URBAN LIFE By the turn of the 20thcentury, four out of tenAmericans lived in cities In response tourbanization,technological advancesbegan to meetcommunication,transportation, andspace demandsArtist Annie Bandez 3. SKYSCRAPERS Skyscrapers emerged after two critical inventions: elevators & steel skeletons that bear weight Famous examples include; Daniel Burnhams Flatiron Building in NYC, Louis Sullivans Wainwright Building in St. Louis The skyscraper was Americas greatest contribution to architecture and solved the issue of how to best use limited and expensive spaceFlatiron Building - 1902 4. Another view of Burnhams Flatiron Building 5. ELECTRIC TRANSIT Changes intransportation allowedcities to spread outward By the turn of thecentury, intricatenetworks of electricstreetcars also calledtrolley cars ran fromoutlying neighborhoodsto downtown offices &stores 6. ELS AND SUBWAYS A few large cities moved their streetcars far above street level, creating elevated or el trains Other cities built subways by moving their rail lines underground 7. BRIDGES & PARKS Steel-cable suspensionbridges, like the BrooklynBridge, also brought citiessections closer Some urban plannerssought to includelandscaped areas & parks Frederick Law Olmsted wasinstrumental in drawing upplans for Central park, NYCCentral Park is an oasis among Manhattans skyscrapers 8. CITY PLANNING: CHICAGO Daniel Burnham oversaw the transformation of Chicagos lakefront from swampy wasteland to elegant parks strung along Lake Michigan Today Chicagos lakefront is one of the most beautiful shorelines in North America 9. NEW TECHNOLOGIES New developments incommunication broughtthe nation closer Advances in printing,aviation, andphotography helpedspeed the transfer ofinformation 10. A REVOLUTION IN PRINTING By 1890, the literacy rate in theU.S. was nearly 90% American mills began toproduce huge quantities ofcheap paper from wood pulp Electrical web-perfectingpresses printed on both sidesof paper at the same time Faster production and lowercosts made newspapers andmagazines more affordable(most papers sold for 1 cent) 11. AIRPLANES In the early 20th century, brothersOrville and Wilbur Wright,experimented with engines andaircrafts They commissioned a four-cylinder internal combustionengine, chose a propeller, andbuilt a biplane On December 17, 1903 they flewtheir plane for 12 secondscovering 120 feet Within two years the brotherswere making 30 minute flights By 1920, the U.S. was usingairmail flights regularly Actual photo of Wright Brothers first flight 12/17/03 12. PHOTOGRAPHY EXPLOSION Before 1880, photography wasa professional activity Subjects could not move andthe film had to be developedimmediately George Eastman inventedlighter weight equipment andmore versatile film In 1888, Eastman introducedhis Kodak Camera The $25 camera came with1888100-picture roll of filmKodak 13. SECTION 2: EXPANDINGPUBLIC EDUCATION Between 1865 and 1895,states passed laws requiring12 to 16 weeks of annualeducation for students ages8-14, but the curriculum waspoor and the teachers wereusually not qualified However, the number ofkindergartens expanded from200 in 1880 to 3,000 in 1900 14. HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT SOARS High schools expanded their curriculum to include science, civics and social studies By 1900 500,000 teen- agers were enrolled in high schoolsElroy High School Photo 1906 15. RACIAL DISCRIMINATION African Americans were mostly excluded from secondary education In 1890 less than 1% attended high school By 1910 that figured had reached only 3%African American school in the south about 1920 16. EDUCATION FOR IMMIGRANTS Unlike AfricanAmericans, immigrantswere encouraged to goto school Most immigrants senttheir children to publicschools Also, thousands ofadult immigrantsattended night schoolsto learn English 17. EXPANDING HIGHER ED In 1900, less than 3% of Americas youth attended college Between 1880 and 1920 college enrollments more than quadrupled Professional schools were established for law and medicine 18. AFRICAN AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES FORMED After the Civil War,thousands of AfricanAmericans pursued highereducation despite beingexcluded from whiteinstitutions Blacks founded Howard,Fisk, and TuskegeeUniversities (founded byBooker T. Washington) W.E.B. Dubois founded theNiagara Movement, whichsought liberal artseducations for all blacksW.E.B. Dubois 19. SECTION 3: SEGREGATIONAND DISCRIMINATION By the turn of the 20th century, Southern States had adopted a broad system of legal discrimination Blacks had to deal with voting restrictions, Jim Crow laws, Supreme Court set-backs, and physical violence 20. WHAT IS DISCRIMINATION? Discrimination involves: Beliefs : "This group ofpeople is inferiorbecause" Emotions : "I hate thisgroup of people." Actions : "I will denyopportunity/hurt/killmembers of this group." 21. VOTING RESTRICTIONS All Southern states imposed new voting restrictions and denied legal equality to African Americans Some states limited the vote to those who could read, other states had a poll tax which had to be paid prior to voting 22. JIM CROW LAWS Southern states passedsegregation laws to separatewhite and black people inpublic and private facilities These laws came to be knownas Jim Crow Laws, namedafter an old minstrel song Racial segregation was putinto effect in schools,hospitals, parks, andtransportation systemsthroughout the South 23. PLESSY v. FERGUSON Eventually a legal case reached the U.S. Supreme Court to test the constitutionality of segregation In 1896, in Plessy v. Ferguson the Supreme Court ruled that the segregation of races was legal and did not violate the 14th Amendment 24. RACE RELATIONS - 1900 Blacks faced legaldiscrimination as well asinformal rules and customs Meant to humiliate theserules included; whitesnever shaking the hand of anAfrican America, blacks hadto yield the sidewalk towhites, blacks also had toremove their hats in thepresence of whites 25. VIOLENCE African Americans who didnot follow the racial etiquettecould face severepunishment or death Between 1882-1892, morethan 1,400 black men andwomen were shot, burned, orlynched Lynching peaked in the1880s and 90s but continuedwell into the 20th century 26. MAJOR AREAS OF LYNCHING 27. DISCRIMINATION IN THE NORTH While most AfricanAmericans lived in thesegregated South, manyblacks had migrated tothe North in hopes ofbetter jobs & equality However, the North hadits own brand of racismas blacks got lowpaying jobs and lived insegregatedneighborhoods 28. DISCRIMINATION IN THEWEST Discrimination in the west was most often directed against Mexican and Asian immigrants Mexicans were often forced in Debt Peonage a system of forced labor due to debt Asians were increasingly excluded from mainstream societyAnti-Asian Cartoon 29. Add BlackNotions http://youtu.be/IHMo64KSApQ 30. SECTION 4: DAWN OF A MASS CULTURE Many middle classAmericans fought offcity congestion and dullindustrial work byenjoying amusementparks, bicycling, tennisand spectator sports American leisure wasdeveloping into a multi-million dollar industry 31. AMUSEMENT PARKS To meet the recreational needs of city dwellers, Chicago, NYC and other cities began setting aside land for parks Amusement parks were constructed on the outskirts of cities These parks had picnic grounds and a variety ofConey Island was Americas most famous amusement park in the late 19th century rides 32. BICYCLING & TENNIS After the introduction ofthe safety bike in1885, Americansincreasingly enjoyedbiking By 1890, 312 companiesmade over 10,000,000bikes Tennis also was verypopular in the late 19thcentury On the right is the safety bike much easier and safer to ride 33. SPECTATOR SPORTS Americans not only participated in new sports, but became avid fans of spectator sports Baseball and boxing became profitable businesses Mark Twain called baseball, the very symbol of the booming 19th century1897 Baseball team picture Kansas State University 34. NEWSPAPERS Mass-production printingtechniques led to thepublication of millions ofbooks, magazines, andnewspapers Joseph Pulitzer andWilliam Randolph Hearstwere two leadingpublishers whose Hearst (above) andcompetition led to more Pulitzer initiated what was known asand more sensational Yellownewspaper reporting Journalism 35. Characteristicsof YellowJournalismincluded huge,sensational,exaggeratedheadlines 36. Some contendthat Hearst andPulitzers YellowJournalism wasresponsible forthe Spanish-American War in1898 37. PROMOTING FINE ARTS By 1900, free circulating Public libraries numbered in the thousands By 1900, most major cities had art galleries In the early 20th century, the Ashcan School of American Art painted urban lifeThis portrait was done by RobertHenri, who led the Ashcan School 38. ASHCANSCHOOL Title: Dempsey and Firpo, 1924 Artist: George Wesley Bellows 39. ASHCANSCHOOL Unsigned work, 1930 40. POPULAR FICTION Dime novels werepopular & inexpensive Most of these focusedon adventure tales andheroes of the west Some readers preferreda more realisticportrayal from authorsMark Twain, JackLondon, and WillaCather 41. GROWING CONSUMERISM The turn of the century witnessed the beginnings of the shopping center, department and chain stores, and the birth of modern advertising 42. THE DEPARTMENT STORE Marshall Field ofChicago brought thefirst department store toAmerica Fields motto was Givethe lady what shewants Field also pioneered thebargain basementconcept Marshall Fields has been around for almost 150 years 43. CHAIN STORES In the 1870s, F.W.Woolworth found that if heoffered an item at a lowprice, the consumerwould purchase it on thespur of the moment By 1911, the Woolworthchain had 596 stores andsold $1,000,000 per week