Top Banner

of 35

2013 Rey Ty, History of Philosophy

May 06, 2015




Rey Ty, History of Philosophy

  • 1.History ofPhilosophyRey TyNorthern Illinois University 2013 Rey Ty

2. History of Philosophy 2013 Rey Ty 3. 2013 Rey Ty 4. Western & Middle Eastern philosophers1. Classical philosophers: 600-300 BCE2. Hellenistic Philosophers: 300-100-0 BCE3. Roman Era Philosophers: 0-400 CE4. Western Medieval Era Philosophers: 500-1500 CE5. Early Modern Philosophers: 1500-1800 CE6. Modern Philosophers: 1800-2000 CE 2013 Rey Ty 5. History of Philosophy 2013 Rey Ty 6. Classical philosopher 600-500 BCE1. Thales of Miletus (c. 624 546 BCE). Of the Milesian school. Believed that all was made of water.2. Anaximander of Miletus (c. 610 546 BCE). Of the Milesian school. Famous for the concept of Apeiron, or "the boundless".3. Anaximenes of Miletus (c. 585 525 BCE). Of the Milesian school. Believed that all was made of air.4. Pythagoras of Samos (c. 580 c. 500 BCE). Of the Ionian School. Understood the deepest reality to be composed of numbers; believed that souls are immortal.5. Xenophanes of Colophon (c. 570 480 BCE). Sometimes associated with the Eleatic school. Politically anti-militant, and epistemically skeptical. 2013 Rey Ty 7. Classical philosopher500-400 BCE1. Heraclitus of Ephesus (c. 535 c. 475 BCE). Of the Ionians. Emphasizedthe mutability of the world, which he understood to be analogous to fire.2. Parmenides of Elea (c. 515 450 BCE). Of the Eleatics.3. Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (c. 500 428 BCE). Of the Ionians. Atomist.4. Protagoras of Abdera (c. 481 420 BCE). Sophist. Early advocateof relativism.5. Hippias (middle of the 5th century BCE). Sophist.6. Gorgias. (c. 483 375 BCE). Sophist.7. Socrates of Athens (c. 470 399 BCE). Emphasized virtue ethics.In epistemology, understood dialectic to be central to the pursuit of truth.8. Leucippus of Miletus (First half of 5th century BCE). Atomist, Determinist.9. Democritus of Abdera (c. 450 370 BCE). Atomist.10. Archelaus. A pupil of Anaxagoras.11. Melissus of Samos. Eleatic.12. Cratylus.13. Ion of Chios.14. Echecrates.15. Timaeus of Locri. 2013 Rey Ty 8. Classical philosopher 400-300 BCE1. Antisthenes (c. 444 365 BCE). Founder of Cynicism. Maintained that the wise cannot be fooled. Pupil of Socrates.2. Aristippus of Cyrene (c. 435 366 BCE). A Cyrenaic. Advocate of ethical hedonism.3. Xenophon (c. 427 355 BCE). Philosopher of history.4. Plato (c. 427 347 BCE). Famed for view of the transcendental forms. Advocated polity governed by philosophers.5. Diogenes of Sinope (c. 399 323 BCE). Cynic.6. Xenocrates (c. 396 314 BCE). Disciple of Plato.7. Aristotle (c. 384 322 BCE). A polymath whose works ranged across all philosophical fields.8. Pyrrho of Elis (c. 360 270 BCE). Skeptic.9. Strato of Lampsacus (c. 340 BCEc. 268 BCE). Atheist, Materialist.10.Euclid (c. 325 265 BCE). Founder of Euclidean geometry. 2013 Rey Ty 9. Hellenistic Philosophers 300-200 BCE Epicurus (c. 341 270BCE). Materialist Atomist, hedonist. Zeno of Citium (c. 333 264 BCE). Founderof Stoicism. Anarchist. Held that the acceptanceof objectivity allows the overcoming ofpassions. Timon (c. 320 230 BCE). Pyrrhonist, skeptic. Chrysippus of Soli (c. 280 207 BCE). Majorfigure in Stoicism. 200-100 BCE Carneades (c. 214 129 BCE). Academicskeptic. Understood probability as the purveyorof truth.100-0 BCE 2013 Rey Ty 10. Roman Era Philosophers0-100 CE Cicero (c. 106 BCE 43 BCE) Philo (c. 20 BCE 40 CE). Believed in the allegorical method ofreading texts. Seneca the Younger (c. 4 BCE 65 CE). Stoic.100-200 CE Epictetus (c. 55 135). Stoic. Emphasized ethics of self-determination. Marcus Aurelius (121180). Stoic.200-400 CE Sextus Empiricus (fl. during the 2nd and possibly the 3rdcenturies CE). Skeptic, Pyrrhonist. Plotinus (c. 205 270). Neoplatonist. Had a holisticmetaphysics. Porphyry (c. 232 304). Student of Plotinus. Iamblichus of Syria (c. 245 325). Late neoplatonist.Espoused theurgy. Augustine of Hippo (c. 354 430). Original Sin. Church father. Proclus (c. 412 485). Neoplatonist. 2013 Rey Ty 11. Western Medieval Era Philosophers500-800 CE Boethius (c. 480524). John Philoponus (c. 490570). 800-900 CE Al-Kindi (c. 801 873). Major figure at Islamicphilosophy. Influenced by Neoplatonism. John the Scot (c. 815 877). neoplatonist, pantheist.900-1000 CE al-Farbi (c. 870 950). Major Islamicphilosopher. Neoplatonist. Saadia Gaon (c. 882 942). al-Razi (c. 865 925). Rationalist. Major Islamicphilosopher. Held that God creates universe byrearranging pre-existing laws. 2013 Rey Ty 12. Western Medieval Era Philosophers 1000-1100 CE Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (c. 980 1037). Major Islamicphilosopher. Ibn Gabirol (Avicebron) (c. 10211058). Jewishphilosopher. Anselm (c. 10341109). Christian philosopher. Producedontological argument for the existence of God. al-Ghazali (c. 10581111). Islamic philosopher. Mystic.1100-1200 CE Peter Abelard (c. 10791142). Scholastic philosopher.Dealt with problem of universals. Abraham ibn Daud (c. 11101180). Jewish philosophy. Peter Lombard (c. 11001160). Scholastic. Averroes (Ibn Rushd, "The Commentator") (c. 1126-December 10, 1198). Islamic philosopher. Maimonides (c. 11351204). Jewish philosophy. St Francis of Assisi (c. 11821226). Ascetic. 2013 Rey Ty 13. Western Medieval Era Philosophers1200-1300 CE Robert Grosseteste (c. 11751253). Albert the Great (c. 11931280).Early Empiricist. Roger Bacon (c. 12141294). Empiricist, mathematician. Thomas Aquinas (c. 12211274). Christianphilosopher. Bonaventure (c. 12251274). Franciscan. Siger (c. 1240 c. 1280). Averroist. Boetius of Dacia. Averroist, Aristotelian. 2013 Rey Ty 14. Western Medieval Era Philosophers1300-1400 CE Ramon Llull (c. 12321315) Catalan philosopher Duns Scotus (c. 12661308). Franciscan, Scholastic. Meister Eckhart (c. 12601328). mystic. John Wycliffe (c. 13201384). Nicole Oresme (c. 1320-5 1382). Made contributions toeconomics, science, mathematics, theology andphilosophy. Marsilius of Padua (c. 12701342). Understood chieffunction of state as mediator. William of Ockham (c. 12881348). Franciscan. Scholastic. Nominalist, creatorof Ockhams razor. Gersonides (c. 12881344). Jewish philosopher. Jean Buridan (c. 13001358). Nominalist. Hasdai Crescas (c. 1340 c. 1411). Jewish philosopher. 2013 Rey Ty 15. Western Medieval Era Philosophers 1400-1500 CE Nicholas of Cusa (14011464). Christian philosopher. Lorenzo Valla (14071457). Humanist, critic ofscholastic logic. Pico della Mirandola (14631494). Renaissance humanist. 2013 Rey Ty 16. Early Modern Philosophers 1500-1550 CE Desiderius Erasmus (14661536). Humanist, advocate of free will. Niccol Machiavelli (14691527). Political realism. Copernicus (14731543). Sir Thomas More (14781535). Humanist, created term "utopia". Petrus Ramus (15151572). Martin Luther (14831546).Major Western Christian theologian. 2013 Rey Ty 17. Early Modern Philosophers1550-1600 CE Teresa of Avila (15151582). Spanishmystic. Michel de Montaigne (15331592). Humanist, skeptic. Giordano Bruno (15481600). Advocateof heliocentrism. Francisco Suarez (15481617).Politically proto-liberal. John Calvin (15091564).Major Western Christian theologian. Pierre Charron (15411603). 2013 Rey Ty 18. Early Modern Philosophers 1600-1650 CE Francis Bacon (15611626). Empiricist. Hugo Grotius (15831645). Natural law theorist. Galileo Galilei (15641642). Heliocentrist. Herbert of Cherbury. Nativist. Ren Descartes (1596-1650). Heliocentrism, dualism, rationalism. Pierre Gassendi (15921655). Mechanicism. Empiricist. Marin Mersenne (15881648). Cartesian. Baltasar Gracin (16011658). Spanish catholicphilosopher Queen Kristina (16261689). Pierre de Fermat (c. 16011665). Probability theorist. Robert Filmer (15881653). 2013 Rey Ty 19. Early Modern Philosophers 1650-1700 CE Thomas Hobbes (15881679). Political realist. Joseph Glanvill (16361680). Arnold Geulincx (16241669). Important occasionalist theorist. Blaise Pascal (16231662). Physicist, scientist. Noted for Pascals wager. Henry More (16141687). Geraud Cordemoy. Dualist. Pierre Nicole (16251695). Ralph Cudworth (16171688). Cambridge Platonist. Margaret Cavendish (16231673). Materialist, feminist. Antoine Arnauld (16121694). Richard Cumberland (16311718). Early proponent of utilitarianism. Jacques Rohault. (16171672) Cartesian. Simon Foucher (16441696). Skeptic. Robert Boyle (16271691). Nicolas Malebranche (16381715). Cartesian. Samuel von Pufendorf (16321694). Social contract theorist. Baruch Spinoza (16321677). Isaac Newton (16431727). Anne Conwa, Viscountess Conway (16311679). John Locke (16321704). Major Empiricist. Political philosopher. Damaris Masham. John Toland (16701722). Pierre Bayle ( 16471706). Pyrrhonist. Madeline de Souvr. 2013 Rey Ty 20. Early Modern Philosophers1700-1750 CE Samuel Clarke (16751729). Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (16711713). John Norris (16571711). Malebranchian. Gottfried Leibniz (16461716). Co-inventor of the calculus. George Berkeley (16851753). Idealist, empiricist. Catherine Cockburn (16791749). Giambattista Vico (16681744). Bernard Mandeville (16701733). Francis Hutcheson (16941746). Proto-utilitarian. Joseph Butler (16921752). Christian Wolff (16791754). Determinist, rationalist. John Gay (philosopher) (16991745). David Hume (17111776). Empiricist, skeptic. Julien La Mettrie (17091751). Materialist, genetic determinist. David Hartley (17051757). Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (16891755). Skeptic, humanist. 2013 Rey Ty 21. Early Modern Philosophers 1750-1800 CE Etienne de Condillac. Richard Price (17231791). Political liberal. Jean dAlembert (17171783). Voltaire (16941778). Denis Diderot (17131784). John Wesley (17031791). Jean-Jacques Rousseau (17121778). Social contract political philosopher. Baron dHolbach (17231789). Materialist, atheist. Claude Adrien Helvtius (17151771). Utilitarian. Adam Smith (17231790). Economic theorist, member of Scottish Enlightenment. Thomas Jefferson (17431826). Liberal political philosopher. Thomas Reid (17101796). Member of Scottish Enlightenment, fou