Top Banner
Slide 1 of 36 PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering 14. Horizontal Drilling PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Lesson 14 Horizontal Drilling
36

14. Horizontal Drilling

Mar 08, 2015

Download

Documents

Welcome message from author
This document is posted to help you gain knowledge. Please leave a comment to let me know what you think about it! Share it to your friends and learn new things together.
Transcript
Page 1: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 1 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

PETE 661

Drilling Engineering

Lesson 14

Horizontal Drilling

Page 2: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 2 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Lesson 14 - Horizontal Drilling

Why Drill Horizontal Wells? Relative Production Rates Relative Costs Types of Horizontal Wells Drilling Problems & Solutions How Popular is Horizontal Drilling? Examples

Page 3: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 3 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Page 4: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 4 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Why Drill Horizontal Wells?

Increase Reserves

Increase Production Rates

Control Water Production

Control Gas Production

Page 5: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 5 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Why Drill Horizontal Wells?

Produce From Thin Reservoirs

Connect Vertical Fractures Produce Methane from Coal Seams

Increase Injectivity - (steam, water, polymers, etc.)

Control Sand Production

Page 6: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 6 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Page 7: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 7 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Page 8: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 8 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Page 9: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 9 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Page 10: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 10 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Page 11: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 11 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Production RatesOryx - Austin Chalk

Vertical Horizontal Horizontal/Vertical Well Well Production Ratio B/D B/D 12 507 42

15 215 14

5 107 21

Page 12: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 12 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Production Rates

Drilled 7 wells from 1986 to 1989.

Drilled ~ 85 wells in 1990

Vertical Well Drilling Cost: 235 $/ft

Horizontal Well Drilling Cost: 520-282 $/ft

Cost Ratio: 2.2-1.2

Page 13: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 13 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Drilling CostsAustin Chalk (1993)

Vertical well ~ $500,000

Recompletion as Horizontal Well ~ $375,000

New Horizontal Well ~ $1,000,000-2,000,000

~ $100+/ft to $150/ft

{these numbers are rough estimates only}

Page 14: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 14 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Rospo Mare - Italy

Page 15: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 15 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Prudhoe Bay

Vertical Well: 3,000 – 4,000 B/D

Horizontal Well: 10,000 - 12,000 B/D

Production Ratio: 3 - 4

Vertical Well: 235 $/ft

Horizontal Well: 520 - 282 $/ft

Cost Ratio: 2.2-1.2

Page 16: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 16 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Long Radius (~1,000-3,000 ft) {~2-6 deg/100 ft}

Medium Radius (140~700 ft) {~8-40 deg/100 ft}

Short Radius (~20-40 ft) {~1.5-3 deg/ft}

<1,000 ft ~5,000 ft ~8,000 ft

Page 17: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 17 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

New Drilling Technology

Measurement While Drilling (MWD)

Directional Surverying and Control

Indentification of Markers (identify zones)

Top Drive

Drill with 90-ft stands instead of 30-ft joints

Circulate while pulling drillpipe out of hole

Rotate drillpipe while pulling out of hole

Page 18: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 18 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

New Drilling Technology

Mud Motors

Drill without rotating pipe

Change hole direction while drilling

Steerable systems

Page 19: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 19 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Page 20: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 20 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Potential Problems in Horizontal Drilling

• Running equipment in and out of hole• drillstring, casing, cables

• Preventing/Remedying differential sticking

• Excessive torque

Page 21: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 21 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Potential Problems in Horizontal Drilling

• Cleaning the hole and preventing cuttings from settling along the hole bottom

• Controlling weight on bit to achieve and maintain directional control

• Cementing casing or liner

Page 22: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 22 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Summary

• Horizontal wells may produce at 3-5 times the rate of vertical wells in the same area

(… as much as 20 times higher in special cases).

• Horizontal wells typically cost 1.5-3 times as much as vertical wells in the same area.

• Horizontal wells are often very attractive in formations with extensive vertical fractures.

Page 23: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 23 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Summary

• The use of horizontal wells is growing - worldwide.

• Horizontal wells has increased our recoverable reserves.

• In the U.S. one rig in ten is drilling horizontal wells. (1994) (1998)

~ 7% in Oct. 2001

Page 24: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 24 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Page 25: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 25 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Page 26: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 26 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Long - Radius Wells

• Used for achieving large horizontal

displacements from platforms or drilling pads• Used for achieving very long horizontal sections

(to 6,000 ft +)

Build Rate: ~ 2-6 degrees/100 ft

Build Radius: ~ 1,000-3,000 ft

Length of Horiz. Section: 1,000 - 8,000 ft (1995)

Page 27: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 27 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Method:

• Use conventional directional drilling technology

• Use rigid bottom hole assemblies, motors & bent subs, stabilizers

• or Use Navigation drilling systems with “steerable” drilling motors

Page 28: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 28 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Medium - Radius Wells

Build Rate: ~ 8 - 20 degrees/100 ft

(up to 40 deg/100 ft in some cases)

Build Radius: ~ 300 - 700 ft

Length of Horiz. Section: 1,000-6,000 ft

Page 29: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 29 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Method:

• Use modified long-radius drilling technology

• Use different motors for Angle Build and Angle Hold sections.

• Use a “Tangent Section” between the two build sections

• Use compressive service drillpipe through the curve if Build Rate > 15 deg./100 ft.

(CS drillpipe has integral wear knots every ~ 10 ft)

Page 30: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 30 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Short-Radius Wells

Build Rate: ~ 1 - 3 degrees/ft

Build Radius: ~ 20 - 40 ft

Length of Horiz. Section: 200 - 1,000 ft

Page 31: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 31 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Method:

Two downhole motor designs are available Drill vertical “rathole” to identify horizon Build angle with special curve-drilling

assembly with a non-rotating shell that gives curvature to the tool

After building angle to horizontal, use a special angle-hold assembly: this consists of two undergauge stabilizers behind the bit, and flexible drillpipe.

Page 32: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 32 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Page 33: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 33 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Horizontal Well Pair

Page 34: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 34 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Horizontal Well Pair

Page 35: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 35 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling

Vertical Injection Wells and Horizontal Production Well

Page 36: 14. Horizontal Drilling

Slide 36 of 36PETE 661 - Drilling Engineering14. Horizontal Drilling