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Your concise reference book – always ready to hand. The Lighting Handbook
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12810442 Lighting Handbook the Lighting Handbook

Nov 08, 2014

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Adrian Zeno

THE LIGHTING HANDBOOK
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The Lighting Handbook

Your concise reference book always ready to hand.

Chapter 1

Lighting technology and lighting applicationChapter 2

Standard values for indoor and outdoor lightingBased on the new European standards Chapter 3

ProductsChapter 4

Lamps and ballastsChapter 5

Lighting and room managementChapter 6

Quickplan calculating the n of lum. requiredChapter 7

Technical informationChapter 8

ChecklistsChapter 9

ServicesChapter 10

Notes

Imprint: For questions and suggestions on the The Lighting Handbook: Zumtobel Lighting GmbH Schweizer Strasse 30 Postfach 72 6851 Dornbirn, AUSTRIA T +43/(0)5572/390-0 F +43/(0)5572/22 826

2nd edition, revised and updated, December 2008

The Lighting Handbook

Chapter 1

Lighting technology and lighting applicationWhat is light? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic parameters used in lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Luminous flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Luminous intensity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Illuminance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Luminance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traditional quality characteristics of lighting . . . . . . . . The right light traditional and new quality criteria . Illuminance definition of terminology . . . . . . . . . . Glare glare limitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour rendition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measuring illuminance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lighting technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lighting concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Humanergy Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comprehensive assessment of lighting quality (ELI) . . . Visual performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vista . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Visual comfort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Empowerment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of energy efficiency (LENI) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 45 4 5 5 5 68 6 67 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 18 17 17 17 18 18 19

What is light?Light is that part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is perceived by our eyes.

What is light? Wavelength [m] 10-10 Gamma rays X-rays Ultraviolet Visible light 10-5

What does the human eye see? Relative spectral brightness perception 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 Infrared Microwaves 0.2 350 450 550 650 750 Wavelength [nm] Wavelength [m] Night Day

100

Television, VSW Medium wave

105

Radio waves

By day we see in colour, while at night we can only see in shades of grey.

The Lighting Handbook

Light has a triple effect: Light for visual functions llumination of task area in conformity with relevant standards glare-free and convenient Light creating biological effects Supporting peoples biological rhythms Stimulating and motivating Light for emotional perception Pleasant lighting enhancing the interior design Makes people relax and feel at ease

The Lighting Handbook

Chapter 1 / 3

Basic parameters used in lightingLuminous flux Luminous intensity Illuminance Luminance

Luminous ux q

I=

q

E=

q

Lumen [lm] Luminous intensity I Illuminance E

Candela [lm/sr]=[cd] Luminance L L=

Lux [lm/m2]=[lx]

L=

[lm/(sr*m2)]=[cd/m2]

solid angle into which luminous ux is emitted area hit by luminous ux visible areas of light source reectance of area 3.14 for diffuse surface areas

Abbreviation: Unit:

q lm

Phi Lumen

4 / Chapter 1

The Lighting Handbook

Luminous flux The luminous flux describes the quantity of light emitted by a light source. The luminous efficiency is the ratio of the luminous flux to the electrical power consumed (lm/W). It is a measure of a lamps economic efficiency.

Luminous intensity The luminous intensity describes the quantity of light that is radiated in a particular direction. This is a useful measurement for directive lighting elements such as reflectors. It is represented by the luminous intensity distribution curve (LDC).

Abbreviation: Unit:

P cd

Candela

Illuminance Illuminance describes the quantity of luminous flux falling on a surface. It decreases by the square of the distance (inverse square law). Relevant standards specify the required illuminance (e.g. EN 12464 Lighting of indoor workplaces). Illuminance: (lm) E(lx) = luminous flux 2 area (m )

Abbreviation: Unit:

E lx

Lux

Luminance Luminance is the only basic lighting parameter that is perceived by the eye. It specifies the brightness of a surface and is essentially dependent on its reflectance (finish and colour).The Lighting Handbook

Abbreviation: Unit:

L cd/m2

Chapter 1 / 5

Traditional quality characteristics of lightingThe right light traditional and new quality criteriaT R A D I T I O N A L

Harmonious brightness distribution Sufficient illumination level

Glare limitation Avoidance of reflections

Good modelling Correct light colour Appropriate colour rendition

Quality criteriaChanging lighting situations Personal control Energy efficiency Daylight integration Light as an interior design element

N E W

Illuminance definition of terminology Each term corresponds to the new European standards (see Chapter 2 / 2). m: value that the illuminance Illuminance maintenance value E level must not fall below in the visual task area. Visual task area: illuminance levels are specified for specific visual tasks and are designed for the area in which these may take place. If the precise location is not known, then the whole room or a specific working area is used to define it. The visual task area may be a horizontal, vertical or inclined plane. Area immediately surrounding the visual task area: here illuminance may be one level lower than in the visual task area (e.g. 300 lx to 500 lx). Maintenance factor: the initial value multiplied by the maintenance factor gives the illuminance maintenance value. The maintenance factor accounts for the reduction in luminous flux from lamps, luminaires and room surfaces in the installation, and can be determined on a case-by-case basis. The maintenance schedule (the cleaning and maintenance intervals for the lamps and installation) must be documented. See also Chapter 8 / 22 on Economic efficiency calculation.

6 / Chapter 1

The Lighting Handbook

Relative illuminance (%)150 125 100 75 50 25 maintenance value initial value

operating timeMaintenance value = maintenance factor x initial value Glare glare limitation Direct glare Reflected glare

luminaires without glare control very bright surfaces loss of concentration more frequent mistakes fatigueThe Lighting Handbook

reflective surfaces incorrect luminaire arrangement incorrect workstation position loss of concentration more frequent mistakes fatigue matching luminaire to workstation (layout) indirect lighting matt surfaces

remedy

luminaires with limited luminance levels blinds

effect

cause

Chapter 1 / 7

Light colour The light colour describes the colour appearance of the light.Colour temperature Appearance ww nw tw up to 3,300 K 3,300 K 5,300 K above 5,300 K reddish white blue-ish Association warm intermediate cool

Ww = warm white, nw = intermediate, tw = cool white

The light colour sets the underlying mood of the room! Colour renditionColour rendition index Ra 90 8089 7079 6069 4059 2039 Daylight Incandescent lamp Compact fluorescent lamp Fluorescent lamp Mercury vapour highpressure lamp Metal halide lamp Sodium vapour highpressure lamp

Application examples (minimum requirements for Ra): Ra 90: colour inspection Ra 80 89: offices Ra 70 79: electronics industry Ra 60 69: assembly work Ra 40 59: fabrication shop Ra 20 39: warehouses

Display format on fluorescent lamps Example 840: 8 Ra 80 Colour temperature 4,000 K (nw)The Lighting Handbook

40

8 / Chapter 1

Measuring illuminanceMean illuminance is the arithmetic mean of the point brilliance levels measured with a luxmeter in a defined grid, under precisely specified conditions. Measuring instruments: description and precision L: maximum precision, tolerance 3% A: high precision, tolerance 5% B: average precision; tolerance 10% (minimum requirement) Measuring conditions avoid external light/daylight (measure separately and subtract) check mains voltage and ambient temperature use new, burnt-in lamps (discharge lamps 100 h) Measuring grid and measuring level workplaces = 0.75 m; sports facilities (floor) = 0.03 m circulation areas, stairs, car parks (floor) = 0.03 m cylindrical illuminance = 1.2 m measuring grid: congruent triangles; approx. 1 m distance measuring grid not congruent with arrangement gridSize of measuring field 1m 5m 10 m 50 m 100 m Grid element spacing 0.2 m 0.5 m 1.0 m 3.0 m 5.0 m

The Lighting Handbook

Chapter 1 / 9

Lighting technologyUnder the new European standard for interior workplace lighting, EN 12464, (psychological) glare is assessed by the unified glare rating method (UGR), which is based on a formula for glare. It takes account of all the luminaires in a system contributing to the sensation of glare. UGR tables derived from this formula are provided by the manufacturers for glare rating. The Quickplan tables in Chapter 6 and the lighting catalogues contain reference values for specific room sizes. UGR = 8 log 0.25 Lb (1)

(

LP2 2

(2)

)

The UGR method takes account of all the luminaires in the system that contribute to the glare sensation (2) as well as the brightness of walls and ceilings (1). It produces a UGR index. The two methods the one set out in DIN 5035 and the one defined in EN 12464 produce comparable results. UGR limits (UGRL), that must not be exceeded: 16 19 22 25 28 Technical drawing Reading, writing, training, meetings, computer-based work Craft and light industries Heavy industry Railway platforms, foyers

10 / Chapter 1

The Lighting Handbook

Quality class for nominal illuminance (lx) 1000 750 500