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10 Process Mapping Module

Jan 03, 2016

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michael-wu

Process Mapping© 2001 ConceptFlow
Module Objectives
By the end of this module, the participant should be able to:
Discuss the need for process mapping
Apply various types of process maps in a project
Discuss how flow charts and other charts are used to map a process
Prepare a detailed Process Map
Presentation
Document the actual process
Identify the location and quantity of defects
Locate value added and non-value added steps of a process
Lead to improvement “next steps”
Communicate information
Presentation
What will a process map identify?
When do you apply the process mapping tool?
What are the results of mapping a process?
Detailed mapping can be used on ANY process and
is a LIVING document
What You Would
Relating The Versions Of Process Maps To Levels Of Performance
Time
The top level process map should describe:
Major tasks and activities
Who receives the outputs (clients)
What does the client require of the outputs
What are the process input variables (PIV)
Who supplies the inputs (suppliers)
What does the process require of the inputs
SIPOC: Supplier, Inputs, Process, Outputs, Clients
Presentation
© 2001 ConceptFlow
SIPOC Benefits
Documents a process as it moves from suppliers’ parts to clients’ product/service
Includes information:
identify “gaps”
verify team and information resource requirements
Helps drive Process Owners to use the right metrics and verify them continuously with the clients and suppliers
Presentation
Presentation
The SIPOC form is used to:
Identify and balance competing client requirements
Identify gaps in requirements for the process outputs or inputs
Identify suppliers of the process inputs
Help in identification of data collection needs
Verify team and information resource requirements
Target the right metrics and as a tool to continuously verify client requirements
Presentation
7
6
What Inputs are required to enable this process to occur?
8
1
5
4
2
Suppliers
Inputs
Process
Outputs
Clients
(Deliverables from the process)
Requirements
Requirements
Presentation
Inputs
Process
Outputs
Requirements
Requirements
Client
Booking a Business Airline Reservation
Carrying Cost
Travel Itinerary
Business/ Corporate Traveler
Airline Reservation
© 2001 ConceptFlow
Comparing The CT Tree To The Top-Level Process Outputs
A SIPOC of this nature would typically be done by the travel agency
VOC: do the outputs of the product or service meet client requirements?
How well aligned are the outputs and requirements to the client CT’s?
If this were your process, how would you verify the requirements are client driven?
What clients or client segments should be given priority?
Presentation
Critical Incidents (VOC)
Gap #1
Perhaps gap #2,
Delivery of Service and Information
Time to process < 10 minutes Itineraries/E-tickets emailed within the hour Daily updates of corporate travel account
Presentation
Steps For Performing The Gap Analysis
Collected incidents should be grouped in accordance with the CT’s
Accounting for any adjustments to the SIPOC
What requirements are being met?
What requirements are not being met?
Where are the perceived gaps in the process?
Validate gaps with data
Can you prioritize the efforts?
Should the project be re-scoped to focus on one or two of the efforts?
Discuss with Champion/process owner
Presentation
Highlighting The Gaps
Also recognize that some of the issues may be related to the process inputs
Presentation
Suppliers
Inputs
Process
Outputs
Requirements
Requirements
Client
Booking a Business Airline Reservation
Carrying Cost
Travel Itinerary
Business/ Corporate Traveler
Airline Reservation
© 2001 ConceptFlow
Establish the baseline before committing to goals
Output measures aligned with CTS’s
Aimed at internal efficiency metrics:
Value
Effectiveness or Output Measures
Internal Process, Efficiency Measures
Having quantified the baseline performance and conducted a gap analysis:
Which gaps/issues should be addressed first?
Should the project consist of resolving all of the gaps?
Can the project be phased into two or more projects?
For the same Black Belt?
Should additional Black Belt resources be assigned?
Discussions with Champion/Process Owner required
Presentation
Class Discussion:
In your teams, flipchart a list of how the SIPOC tool assisted you with your project
What are the benefits?
- Delay (Red)
- Storage (Yellow)
- Decision (Blue)
Presentation
How many Decision Points?
How many Measurement/Inspection Points?
Where are the Bottlenecks?
How many Re-work Loops?
What Level Of Magnification Is Required?
Document the overall flow of the process between the start and stop boundaries
When do we zoom in to map every process step?
What is a process step?
Continuous flow
Also known as a little y(s)
Multiple steps can merge
Often defined in process operating documentation
Stay as high as you can, for as long as you can
Presentation
Value Added
A step in an industrial or business process that, given a choice, the client is willing to pay for
Includes those activities that are required by contract or law
Anything, if you left it out, which would impact client satisfaction
Business-Value Added
Any activity, when left out, that does not directly impact the client and may incur no dissatisfaction
These steps may be necessary to support value added steps
Any activity required by the business
Non-Value Added
Any activity, when left out, that does not directly impact the client and may incur no dissatisfaction
Presentation
Complete High Level Process Map (SIPOC)
Identify all steps in the process, including value added and non-value-added, cycle time, defect/yield data, inventory and all rework loops
Determine outputs at each step (process and product)
List inputs and classify input variables
Add operating specifications and process targets for the controllable input variables
5 Easy Steps
Xs are sources of variation
Variation causes defects
Root cause of defects is the variation of Xs
Ys are outputs of processes and include failure modes of processes
Defects are also outputs of a process step
To identify sources of variation and reduce defects!
Presentation
Standard Operating Procedures (S)
Procedure for running process
Critical Inputs (X)
X’s that have been statistically proven to impact the process Y(s)
Presentation
Pasta High Level Process Map
Input
Output
Cooking
Pasta
Pasta Process Map
Add cycle time, defect/yield data and ALL rework loops
Raw Pasta
Pasta Process Map
Yes
Pasta Process Map
Amt. of Salt
Amt. of Oil
Lid or Not
Pasta Process Map
Pasta Process Map
Presentation
Presentation
Occurs before process starts
Inputs
Process
Outputs
Requirements
Requirements
Client
Booking a Business Airline Reservation
Carrying Cost
Travel Itinerary
Business/ Corporate Traveler
Airline Reservation
© 2001 ConceptFlow
Add steps and ALL rework loops
Presentation
148.unknown
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107.unknown
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108.unknown
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109.unknown
Initial Assessment of Control Plan
Start an initial assessment after process map is complete
Add
Cpk/Date (Sample Size)
Who
Where
When
Combine, eliminate duplicates, clarify steps
Map from start to finish
Analyze/review from finish to start
Presentation
Catapult Process Map Exercise
In teams, complete a detailed map for the process you used for launching the catapult (steps 2-5, slide 28)
(45 min.)
Presentation
Pick
Assemble the arm with the cup in the hole marked # 2
Place the screw with the eyelet through the hole marked # 4on the arm with the eyelet facing the stabilizer
Place wing nut on the eyelet screw and tighten down
Affix rubber band to eyelet screw
Put a pin in the #4 hole of the stabilizer
Put a pin in the hole on the bottom of the base through the hole in the arm furthest from the cup connecting the two
Put the Stop pin in hole # 4 hole
Drape the rubber band over the pin on the stabilizer with the stabilizer between the rubber band
Place the rubber band on the nub on the front of the catapult
Place assembled catapult on the corner of table marked with an X
Tape catapult to table
Stretch paper towel in front of catapult
Tape paper owl down on the table
Place tape measure on the table starting at the tip of catapult going on top of the paper towel to the end of the tape
Tape the tape measure to the table
Place ball in bag of chalk powder
Take ball out of the bag of chalk with right hand using thumb and forefinger
Position of ball
Place ball loosely in cup still using thumb and index finger
Shoot
Shooter is kneeling on the floor with the catapult arm in front of them
Place left index finger and thumb on arm nearest to the cup
Make sure that the arm is not touching either side of base
Release the arm
Presentation
Presentation
Set-up
Obtain the teams Catapult Obtain the teams rubber ball Remove table cloth Clamp front edge of Catapult to front edge of table Set Front arm tension pin at 2 Set rear arm tension pin 3 Set up measuring system Set up target area Mark loading position on ball Cup position to hole five Check wing nuts Test fire Catapult to find target range
Load Catapult
Catapult Operator Pick-up ball Load the ball softly in cup Align ball with the mark at top of cup Hold arm with thumb and fore finger Pull back arm to proper angle
Proper Catapult set-up
launched Ball
Measurement
Id each shot one thru ten Three operators to measure distance Measure to the nearest 1/8th inch Each operator measures the shot three times. Record measurements
Shot Measured
© 2001 ConceptFlow
Additional Breakout Sessions
In teams, pick one of the following and go through the process mapping procedure
Examples
Getting to work (wake, clean, dress, eat, travel)
Paying bills (open mail, review, write check, mail out)
Choose leader, spokesperson, timekeeper, scribe
As a team, be prepared to present the map on a flipchart easel
Presentation
as capture additional information
Presentation
Accuracy
detail required for full analysis
Presentation
Used to “describe” not “analyze”
Card Dropping
Pick one Stand straight Hold still
Thumb and forefinger Face target Release fingers
Do not bend Hand: shoulder height Free fall
Card vertical
Business Unit
Cause and Effects Matrix
Control Plan Summary
Cause and Effects Matrix
DETAILED Process Mapping is the foundation of many other Breakthrough Strategy® tools
Detailed Process Map
Initial Control Plans
Module Objectives Review
By the end of this module, the participant should be able to:
Discuss the need for process mapping
Apply various types of process maps in a project
Discuss how flow charts and other charts are used to map a process
Prepare a detailed Process Map
Presentation
This can be easily created in Excel
Input
Troubleshooting
Start
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Presentation
Suppliers
Outputs
the process)
Outputs
the process)
Outputs
the process)
Collect and
Measure Data
Analyze Data
Stop Pin Location - C, X, SOP
Tension Pin Location - C,X, SOP
Catapult - C, X, SOP
Duct Tape - C, SOP
Tape Measure - C, SOP
Operator - C, N
Floor Material - C
Ball Placement -
Lighting to foil - N
X-Base Pin - SOP
X-Arm Pin - SOP
X-Angle Pin - C
X-Cup Placement - SOP
X-Secure to avoid movement - SOP
X-Ball Selection - SOP
Y-Repeatable MSE
X-Grip Technique - SOP
X-Elasticity of rubber band - N
X-Wind / Air Flow - N
Y-Target Acquisition
Remove table cloth
edge of table
Set rear arm tension pin 3
Set up measuring system
Set up target area
Check wing nuts
Load Catapult
Align ball with the mark at top of cup
Hold arm with thumb and fore finger
Pull back arm to proper angle
Loaded Catapult
Fire Catapult
Release arm
Measurement
Three operators to measure distance
Measure to the nearest 1/8th inch
Each operator measures the shot three
times.
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