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1 Stimulants L. Scheffler. 2 Stimulants Stimulants are chemical substances that stimulate the brain and the central nervous system. Stimulants are chemical

Dec 16, 2015

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  • 1 Stimulants L. Scheffler
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  • 2 Stimulants Stimulants are chemical substances that stimulate the brain and the central nervous system. Stimulants are chemical substances that stimulate the brain and the central nervous system. They cause increased alertness and wakefulness. In many cases they also act to decrease appetite. They cause increased alertness and wakefulness. In many cases they also act to decrease appetite.
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  • 3 Sympathomimetic Drugs Sympathomimetic drugs are chemical substances that mimic the effects of the hormone adrenalin. Sympathomimetic drugs are chemical substances that mimic the effects of the hormone adrenalin. Generally cause constriction of the arteries and increase metabolism. Generally cause constriction of the arteries and increase metabolism.
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  • 4 Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters work to transmit electrical neuro-impulses across a synapse. Neurotransmitters work to transmit electrical neuro-impulses across a synapse. Many stimulants enhance the neuro-impulse transmission Many stimulants enhance the neuro-impulse transmission systems. systems. L dopamine Serotonin
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  • 5 Stimulants The structures of many stimulants mimic chemical are closely related to the structures of neurotransmitters or the body. The structures of many stimulants mimic chemical are closely related to the structures of neurotransmitters or the body. L Dopamine Serotonin
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  • 6 Amphetamines Amphetamine was first marketed in the 1930s as Benzedrine, an over-the-counter inhaler to treat nasal congestion. Amphetamine was first marketed in the 1930s as Benzedrine, an over-the-counter inhaler to treat nasal congestion. It was also used in the treatment of the sleeping disorder narcolepsy and the behavioral syndrome called minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), which today is called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It was also used in the treatment of the sleeping disorder narcolepsy and the behavioral syndrome called minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), which today is called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). During World War II, amphetamines were used to keep the fighting men going especially under intense battle conditions. During World War II, amphetamines were used to keep the fighting men going especially under intense battle conditions.
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  • 7 Amphetamines Amphetamines closely mimic the chemical structure of adrenalin. Amphetamines closely mimic the chemical structure of adrenalin.
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  • 8 Amphetamines Amphetamines Amphetamines constricting arteries, increasing perspiration activity and stimulating brain activity. constricting arteries, increasing perspiration activity and stimulating brain activity. increased heart rate, blood pressure, increased heart rate, blood pressure, increase wakefulness, restlessness, agitation and insomnia.. increase wakefulness, restlessness, agitation and insomnia..
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  • 9Amphetamines Amphetamines became a cure-all for helping long haul truckers stay awake Amphetamines became a cure-all for helping long haul truckers stay awake Also used for weight control, for helping athletes to perform better and train longer Also used for weight control, for helping athletes to perform better and train longer Intravenous amphetamine abuse Intravenous amphetamine abuse It became evident that the dangers of abuse outweighed therapeutic uses. It became evident that the dangers of abuse outweighed therapeutic uses.
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  • 10 Ecstasy Ecstasy is a powerful stimulant that has some characteristics in common with adrenalin and L- dopamine as well. Ecstasy is a powerful stimulant that has some characteristics in common with adrenalin and L- dopamine as well. Repeated use of Ecstasy ultimately may damage the cells that produce serotonin, which has an important role in the regulation of mood, appetite, pain, learning and memory.
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  • 11 Ecstasy - Effects Because it mimics L- Dopamine, it has been used to relieve symptoms of Parkinsons Disease. Because it mimics L- Dopamine, it has been used to relieve symptoms of Parkinsons Disease. Results in mental relaxation, increased sensitivity to stimuli and hallucinations. Results in mental relaxation, increased sensitivity to stimuli and hallucinations. It can be produce fatal effects even from a single exposure It can be produce fatal effects even from a single exposure Attempts to synthesize new amphetamines led to so called designer drugs, all of which are highly dangerous.
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  • 12 Harmful Effects of Amphetamines highly addictive and toxic highly addictive and toxic Long term use leads to deterioration of a number of body systems. Long term use leads to deterioration of a number of body systems. Chronic abuse produces a psychosis that resembles schizophrenia and is characterized by paranoia, picking at the skin, preoccupation with one's own thoughts, and auditory and visual hallucinations. Chronic abuse produces a psychosis that resembles schizophrenia and is characterized by paranoia, picking at the skin, preoccupation with one's own thoughts, and auditory and visual hallucinations. Severe depression and violent or erratic behavior are also common among meth addicts. Severe depression and violent or erratic behavior are also common among meth addicts.
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  • 13 Nicotine Nicotine Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae) Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae)nightshadeSolanaceaenightshadeSolanaceae It constitutes approximately 0.63.0% of dry weight of tobacco It constitutes approximately 0.63.0% of dry weight of tobacco
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  • 14 Nicotine -Short Term Nicotine -Short Term Sympathomimetic Sympathomimetic Increases concentration and relieves tension Increases concentration and relieves tension Increased heart rate Increased heart rate Increased blood pressure Increased blood pressure Reduction in urine output Reduction in urine output
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  • 15 Nicotine Long Term Nicotine Long Term Highly addictive Highly addictive Increased risk of heart disease and coronary thrombosis Increased risk of heart disease and coronary thrombosis Increased stomach acid and risk of peptic ulcers Increased stomach acid and risk of peptic ulcers Chronic lung disease Chronic lung disease Increased risk of cancer Increased risk of cancer
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  • 16 Cessation of smoking difficult Cessation of smoking difficult Cravings Cravings Nausea, weight gain, insomnia, irritability, and depression Nausea, weight gain, insomnia, irritability, and depression Nicotine -- Addiction and Withdrawal
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  • 17 Alkaloid Alkaloid Widely used stimulant found in coffee and tea. Widely used stimulant found in coffee and tea. Added to some pain killers to speed up their effects. Added to some pain killers to speed up their effects. Caffeine Characteristics
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  • 18 Increases alertness, concentration, and restlessness Increases alertness, concentration, and restlessness Diuretic Diuretic Potential dependence Potential dependence Caffeine Effects
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  • 19 Found in chocolate Found in chocolate Effects similar to caffeine. Effects similar to caffeine. Structure is similar to that of caffeine but the methyl group on the nitrogen between the two carbonyl groups is missing Structure is similar to that of caffeine but the methyl group on the nitrogen between the two carbonyl groups is missing Theobromine Theobromine Caffeine
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  • 20 Although theobromine does not cause harmful effects with humans, it is highly toxic to some domestic animals, including dogs and horses. Although theobromine does not cause harmful effects with humans, it is highly toxic to some domestic animals, including dogs and horses. With the animals, theobromine can lead to cardiac arrhythmias and seizures. With the animals, theobromine can lead to cardiac arrhythmias and seizures. Theobromine Theobromine Caffeine Theobromine has a bitter flavor, which gives dark chocolate its typical bitter taste.
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