Computer System Categories
Trends in Computer System Capabilities
Microcomputer SystemsHandheld ComputersPDA, Notebook ComputersDesktop ComputersWorkstationsNetwork Server Powerful microcomputer used in small LANs
Network Computers and TerminalsNetwork Computer (Thin Client)
Network TerminalBenefitsLower purchase costEasier maintenanceEasier software distribution and licensingComputer platform standardizationReduced end user support requirements Improved manageability
Computer System Components
Input Technology Trends
Common Input DevicesKeyboardPointing DevicesPen Based ComputingSpeech RecognitionOptical ScanningMagnetic Ink Character RecognitionSmart CardsDigital Cameras
Output Technology Trends
Common Output DevicesVideo OutputCRTLCDPrinted OutputInkjetLaser
Components of an Information System
Categories of Computer Software
Trends in Computer Software
Common General- Purpose Applications
Electronic MailWord ProcessingPresentation GraphicsMultimediaPersonal Information ManagerGroupware
Database Management Packages
Business Enterprise Application Software
Functions of an Operating System
Programming Language Translation
McGraw-Hill Video / 2002 UpdatesUsing Data Bases to Predict Market Behavior: Logical Information Machines ( 10:18 )
Logical Data Elements
Database Management Systems
Major Types of Databases
Data Warehouse and Data Mining
Data Resource Management
Database Structures (cont)
Accessing Files and Databases
McGraw-Hill Video / 2002 UpdatesEmerging technologies: AT&T and the future in telecommunications ( 13:04 )
Trends in Telecommunications
Telecommunications Strategic Capabilities
Business Value from e-Commerce Applications
Basic Components in a Telecommunications Network
Wide Area Networks
Local Area Networks
Client Server Networking
Telecommunications Communication MediaTwisted PairCoaxial CableFiber OpticsTerrestrial Microwave
Communication Satellites Cellular TechnologiesWireless LAN
Telecommunications Processors and SoftwareModemsMultiplexersInternetwork ProcessorsSwitchesRoutersHubsGatewaysFire wallsNetwork Operating SystemTelecommunications MonitorMiddlewareNetwork Management Software
The Internets TCP/IPTransmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
ProtocolA set of rules and procedures for the control of communications in a communications network
Traditionally, computer systems are classified as microcomputers, midrange computers, and mainframe computers. However, these distinctions are not so clear as a few years ago. Improvements in technology make microcomputers more powerful than ever and both minis and mainframes have lower and higher end versions. Within these parameters, the following are generally true:Microcomputers. These are the smallest computer systems, ranging in size from handheld personal digital assistants (PDAs) to laptops to desktop personal computers. Most microcomputer are designed for single-user application but can be linked via telecommunications to network servers.Midrange. Midrange or minicomputers are larger and more powerful that most microcomputers but smaller and less powerful than most large mainframes. Midrange systems are often used in business and scientific research. They are especially well suited for specialized tasks, usually so as to dedicate computing power to a specific function (such as back room order processing) without having to share time on an organization's larger mainframe. Of course, many small and medium-sized organizations use such computer for their whole operations. Mainframes. These are large, powerful computers (often filling an entire room) with very large primary storage capacities (from 64 megabytes to several gigabytes of RAM). This feature helps mainframes process information very quickly (at 10 to 200 million instructions per second - MIPS).
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 3.2 on pp.72 and relates to the material on pp. 71 -72.
What is a computer system? A computer system is an interrelated combination of components performing specialized functions to provide end users with a powerful information-processing tool.
Computers have radically changed from their early beginnings. As the figure indicates, theFirst Generation. First generation computers (1951-1958) used hundreds or thousands of vacuum tubes for their processing and memory circuitry. These were room size computers that generated a great deal of heat requiring large air conditioning and maintenance support.Second Generation. Second generation computers (1959-1963) used transistors and other solid-state semiconductor devices wired to circuit boards. Magnetic cores were used for memory and removable magnetic disk packs and magnetic tape were used for secondary storage.Third Generation. Third generation computers (19654-1979) began using integrated circuits consisting of thousands of transistors and other circuit elements etched on tiny chips of silicon allowing for increased memory and processing speeds of several millions of instructions per second (MIPS).Fourth Generation. Fourth generation computers (1979-present) use large scale integration (LSI) and very large scale integration (VLSI) that cram hundreds of thousands or millions of transistors and other circuit elements on each chip.Fifth Generation. The next generation of computers should continue the trend toward more power, more speed, smaller size, and longer terms of service. Fifth generation computers may use superconductor circuits or other developing technologies to process and store informationTeaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 3.3 on pp.73 and relates to the material on pp. 72-73.
Microcomputers are the most important category of computer systems for businesspeople and consumers. Though usually called a personal computer, or PC, a microcomputer is much more than a small computer for use by an individual. The computing power of microcomputers now exceeds that of the mainframes of previous computer generations at a fraction of their cost. Thus, they have become powerful networked professional workstations for business professionals.
PDA - is a hand-held microcomputer device that enable you to manage information such as appointments, to-do lists, and sales contacts, send and receive E-mail, access the Web, and exchange such information with your desktop PC or network server.Information Appliances - Small Web-enabled microcomputer devices with specialized functions, such as hand-held PDAs, TV set-top boxes, game consoles, cellular and PCS phones, wired telephone appliances, and other Web-enabled home appliances.Notebook computer - A computer that is designed for those who want a small portable PC for their work activities. Desktop computer - A computer that is designed to fit on an office desk.Workstation - (1) A computer system designed to support the work of one person. (2) a high-powered computer to support the work of professionals in engineering, science, and other areas that require extensive computing power and graphics capabilities.Network Servers - These powerful microcomputers are used to coordinate telecommunications and resource sharing in small local area networks and Internet and intranet websites.Teaching TipsThis slide relates to the material on pp. 73-75.
Network computers and terminals are emerging as the serious business-computing platform.Network Computers. Network computers (NC) are a microcomputer category designed primarily for use with the Internet and corporate Intranets by clerical workers, operational employees, and knowledge workers. NCs are low cost, sealed networked microcomputers with no or minimal disk storage. As a result they depend on Internet and Intranet servers for their operating system and web-browser, Java-enabled application software, and data access and storage.NC benefits include:Lower purchase costEasier maintenanceEasier software distribution and licensingComputer platform standardizationReduced end user support requirementsImproved manageabilityTeaching Tip: Ask students what other benefits they believe Networked Computers will provide business. Keep in mind that studies show that the common worker uses their PC for many non-work related activities.There are two types of Network Computers:NCs or Thin Clients. These devices generally have no hard disk. They rely on network servers to provide the operating system and application software. They typically use a web browser and can process Java-enabled software.NetPC. These devices work like a PC with its own software. It may have a hard drive but no floppy drive or CD-ROM. The operating system and applications are managed centrally by network servers.Still another device becoming more popular is the network terminal, or window terminal. Network Terminals. Like all terminals, these devices rely on a host processor (server) to perform processing. Hence they have no disk storage.They typically use multiuser versions of windows 2000, Linux, or unit as the operating system.
Teaching TipsThis slide relates to the material on pp. 74 - 76
A computer system is an interrelated combination of components performing specialized basic functions to provide end users with a powerful information processing tool. Key functions include:Input. The input devices of a computer system include keyboards, touch screens, pens, electronic "mice," optical scanners, and other peripheral hardware components that convert electronic data into electronic machine-readable form. Input may be direct entry (by the end user) or through telecommunications links.Processing. The central processing unit (CPU) is the main processing component of a computer system. A key component of the CPU is the arithmetic-logic unit (ALU), which performs the arithmetic and logic functions required in computer processing. Output. Output devices convert the electronic information produced by the computer system (binary or digital information) into human-intelligible form for presentation to end users. Output devices include video display units, printers, audio response units, and other peripheral hardware components specialized in this function.Storage. Storage devices store data and programs instructions needed for processing. A computer's primary storage or memory is used to hold key information needed to run the computer while secondary storage (such as magnetic disks and tape units) hold larger parts of programs used less frequently and the content files created by end users.Control. The control unit of the CPU interprets computer program instructions and transmits directions to the other components of the computer system.
This figure emphasizes that there has been a major trend toward the increased use of input technologies that provide a more natural user interface for computer users. You can now enter data and commands directly and easily into a computer system through pointing devices like electronic mice and touch pads, and technologies like optical scanning, handwriting recognition, and voice recognition. These developments have made it unnecessary to always record data on paper source documents (such as sales order forms, for example), and then keyboard the data into a computer in an additional data entry step. Further improvements in voice recognition and other technologies should enable an even more natural user interface in the future.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 3.15 on p.84 and relates to the material on pp.84-89.
Lets take a moment to review some of the more popular means and devices used for capturing input.Keyboards. Are the most widely used devices for entering data and text.Pointing Devices. Are widely used with operating systems that have a graphical user interface. They include a range of devices:Electronic mouseTrackballPointing stick-- a small button-like device centered on a row above the keyboard in some notebook PCs.Touchpads-- rectangular touch-sensitive surface usually below the keyboard, found in notebook PCsTouch screens-- devices that allow you to use a computer by touching the face of its video display screen.Pen-based Computing Devices. Are used in many handheld computers. These computers use special software to recognize and digitize handwriting and drawings using a stylus. Speech Recognition Systems. Use software to digitize, analyze, and classify your speech and its sound patterns. Recognized words are then passed to your application software. Optical Scanning. Are devices that read text or graphics and convert them into digital input. There are various types of optical scanning devices including:Desktop Scanners-- used with PCs to capture imagesOptical Character Recognition (OCR)-- reads special OCR characters and codes on documentsMagnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR). Used by the banking industry to read checks. Uses special ink and a special reader to read bank and customer identification data written on the bottom of the check.Magnetic Stripe. Uses a magnetic stripe on the back of cards to store up to 200 bytes of data. Data is read using a magnetic stripe reader.Smart Cards. Embeds a microprocessor chip with several kilobytes of memory. Digital Cameras. Enables you to capture and store still photos or full motion video in digital form.
Teaching TipsThis slide relates to the material on pp. 84-89. Ask students to describe everyday applications of these devices. How are they used in business?
This figure shows you the trends in output media and methods that have developed over the generations of computing. As you can see, video displays and printed documents have been, and still are, the most common forms of output from computer systems. But other natural and attractive output technologies such as voice response systems and multimedia output are increasingly found along with video displays in business applications.For example, you have probably experienced the voice and audio output generated by speech and audio microprocessors in a variety of consumer products. Voice messaging software enables PCs and servers in voice mail and messaging systems to interact with you through voice responses. And of course, multimedia output is common on web sites of the Internet and corporate intranets.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 3.21 on p. 90 and relates to the material on p.90-98.
Video displays and printed documents have been, and still are, the most common forms of output from computer systems. But other natural and attractive output technologies such as voice response systems and multimedia output are increasingly found along with video displays in business applications.Video images can serve as input as well as output. TV signals or photographs can be digitized and used by the computer. Video displays are the most common type of computer output. Typical video displays include:Cathode Rate Tube (CRT). Most video displays use a cathode ray tube technology similar to the picture tubes used in home TV sets. Although the clarity of the display is dependent upon the graphic capability of the computer, CRTs are capable of a very high level of clarity. This is especially important for graphics-intensive work needed in research and development and visual presentations.Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs). LCDs are the same technology used in electronic calculators and digital watches. LCDs can be made small and require very little current to operate, making them ideal for portable devices. Plasma Displays. Plasma displays are generated when electrically charged particles of gas are trapped between glass plates. These displays produce very high quality graphics on a flat service at faster speeds than LCDs. They are much more expensive than LCD output but necessary in portable computers that require very high resolution video output, such as full motion video and full color business presentations.
Printed output on paper is still the most common form of output after video displays.Inkjet printers: spray ink onto a page one line at a time.Laser printers: use an electrostatic process similar to a photocopying machine to produce many pages per minute of high-quality output.
Teaching TipsThis slide relates to the material on pp.90-91. Ask students to describe the advantages and disadvantages of both types of printers.
Data and information must be stored until needed using a variety of storage methods. For example, many people and organizations still rely on paper documents stored in filing cabinets as a major form of storage media. However, you and other computer users are more likely to depend on the memory circuits and secondary storage devices of computer systems to meet your storage requirements. Figure 3.26 illustrates major trends in primary and secondary storage methods. Progress in very-large-scale integration (VLSI), which packs millions of memory circuit elements on tiny semiconductor memory chips, is responsible for continuing increases in the main-memory capacity of computers. Secondary storage capacities are also expected to escalate into the billions and trillions of characters, due primarily to the use of optical media. Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 3.24 on p.92 and relates to the material on pp.91-92.
The information system model shown on the slide highlights the relationships among the components and activities of information systems:People Resources. People are required for operation of all ISs. People resources include: End Users. As mentioned, these people use the IS or the information it produces. IS Specialists. These people develop and operate the IS.Hardware Resources. These include all the physical devices and materials used in information processing, including all machines and data media. Key components include: Computer Systems. These are the CPUs and their related peripherals, such as terminals and networked PCs. Computer Peripherals. These are input and output devices like keyboards, monitors, and secondary storage. Telecommunications Networks. These are the computer systems interconnected by various telecommunications media such as modems.Software Resources. These include all sets of information processing instructions. Software resources include: System Software. This controls the computer. Application Software. These are for a specific end user task, such as word-processing. Procedures. These are the operating instructions for the people who use the IS.Data Resources. Data is both the raw material of and among the most valuable organizational resources in the IS. Data can be in alphanumeric, text, image and/or audio form. Data are typically organized into either Databases - which hold processed and organized data; or Knowledge bases - which hold knowledge in a variety of forms such as facts and rules of inference about a given subject.Information systems depend on software resources to help end users use computer hardware to transform data into information products. Software handles the input, processing, output, storage, and control activities of information systems. Computer software is typically classified into two major types of programs:Systems Software. These are programs that manage and support the resources and operations of a computer system.A. System Management Programs. These programs help run the hardware and communicate critical information throughout the IS. Examples are operating systems, operating environments (such as GUI interfaces), database management systems, and telecommunications monitors.B. System Development Programs. These programs are used to build new application programs or specific information systems applications. Examples include programming language translators, programming environments, and CASE packages.
Applications Software. These are programs that direct the performance of a particular use, or application, of computers to develop specific information products by end users. A. General-Purpose Application Programs. These programs allow end users to create a great many different information products within a general knowledge category. Examples include word processing, spreadsheets, database managers, graphics, and integrated packages.B. Application-Specific Programs. These programs are dedicated to veryspecific functions within a knowledge area. Examples include programs for accounting, generating marketing plans, or handling financing.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 4.2 on p. 108 and relates to the material on p. 109.
The figure on the slide emphasizes the following two major software trends important to end users:From Custom-Designed to Off-the-Shelf. There is a trend away from custom-designed one-of-a-kind programs developed by professional programmers toward the use of off-the-shelf packages acquired by end users from software vendors. This trend makes it possible for end users to develop information products quickly and inexpensively and to adapt the program to make new information products without having to re-write the program itself.From Machine-Specific to Procedural Languages. Another trend is away from technical, machine-specific programming languages that use binary-based or symbolic codes or procedural languages toward the use of nonprocedural, natural languages that are closer to human speech. These fourth-generation languages often make use of graphical user interfaces that make development of software applications easier for non-technical end users. Some software includes expert-assisted intelligent help features, sometimes called wizards, that question the user on a few custom features of the information product she or he wants to make and then automates the rest of the process on the basis of those answers.There are numerous general-purpose application programs commonly used in business. These include:Electronic Mail. Communication software that allows you to send electronic messages via the Internet or an intranet. Examples: Eudora, Webmail.Word Processing Programs. Are programs that computerize the creation, editing, and printing of documents. Examples: Microsoft Word, Corel WordPerfect.Electronic Spreadsheet. Software that helps you to design and create electronic accounting spreadsheets for use in business analysis, planning, and modeling. Examples: Lotus 1-2-3, Microsoft Excel.Presentation Graphics. Software that helps you prepare multimedia presentations of graphics, animations, video clips etc., as well web pages. Examples: Microsoft PowerPoint, Lotus Freelance.Multimedia Software. Related to presentation software is multimedia software. This software is used to create a wide variety of presentation products, information products, education and entertainment products, and usually comes with tools specifically created to capture and edit various types of media, e.g. video, audio, animation etc. Examples: Corel Draw 9, Adobe PhotoShop, Macromedia, Shockwave.Personal Information Managers. Software that helps end users store, organize, and retrieve information like schedules and management appointments, meetings, customers and clients etc. Examples: Lotus Organizer, Microsoft Outlook.Groupware Software. Collaboration software that helps workgroups and teams work together to accomplish group assignments. Examples: Lotus Notes, Microsoft Exchange.Teaching TipsThis slide relates to the material on pp. 109 - 120.Database and graphics programs are also increasingly common in the business environment. Together with word processing and spreadsheet programs, they are often combined in integrated software packages designed to work together as an "Office Suite."
Database Management Programs. These packages allow end users to set up database files and records on their personal computers. Most DBMS packages perform four primary tasks: Database Development. This defines and organizes the content, relationships, and structure of the data needed to build a database. Database Interrogation. This provides access to the data for information retrieval and report generation. Database Maintenance. This gives users the ability to add, delete, update, correct, and protect that data in the database. Application Development. This allows users to develop prototypes of data entry screens, queries, forms, reports, and labels for a proposed application.
Teaching TipsThis slide relates to the material on p. 114
Multimedia refers to computer-based integration of a large amount of high-quality data and information sources focused on providing end users alternatives in the way they acquire, use, and take advantage of the information products or content of the multimedia package. Multimedia can be used to enhance and accelerate learning and is becoming the area of first choice in developing new business training packages. Key technologies include:Authoring Language: This is a high-level programming facility with English language commands.Compact Disk Interactive: This is a standard proposed by Philips Corp. for reading data from a CD-ROM disk.Compressed Audio: This is designed to increase the storage capacity of disk systems.Computer Edit System: This is a video editing system controlled by computer to enhance accuracy and quality in frame-by-frame editing.Digital Audio: This is a technique for storing analog audio as a series of numbers.Digital Video Interactive: This compresses video images up to 160 to 1, necessary due to the very large sizes of digitized video data.Interactive Video: This allows the user to control the sequence of events unfolding on a video screen through manipulation of computer-based commands.Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI): This is the serial data transmission protocol for transporting musical information between compatible electronic musical devices.Sound Board: This is a circuit board and software that captures and plays back a sound on a PC.Storyboard: This is a visualization of a piece of multimedia code representing how the program will proceed, using frames from a sequence to show a visual skeleton of the piece.Video Capture Card: This circuit board and software allows end users to digitize analog video from a number of external devices such as TVs, VCRs, 8mm cameras, or still cameras.
Teaching TipsThis slide relates to the material pp. 116.
Business Enterprise Application Software are application packages that support managerial decision making and operational users. Such applications include these shown. Most of these will be discussed in more detail in later chapters.Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Uses integrated cross-functional software to reengineer, integrate, and automate the basic business processes of a company to improve its efficiency, agility, and profitability.Customer Relationship Management (CRM). These systems consist of a family of software modules that perform the business activities involved in such front office processes like customer sales, marketing, and service. These tools enable companies to identify, target, and retain their best customers.Human Resource Management. These are information systems that support human resource management activities such as recruitment, selection and hiring, job placement, performance appraisals and training and development.Accounting and Financial Management. These are information systems that record and report business transactions, the flow of funds through an organization, and produce financial statements. Thus, these systems provide information for the planning and control of business operations, as well as for legal and historical record keeping.Supply Chain Management. A supply chain is the network of business processes and interrelationships among businesses that are needed to build, sell, and deliver a product to its final customer. Supply Chain Management applications integrate management practices and IT to optimize information and product flows among these processes and partners.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 4.14 on p. 118 and relates to material on pp. 118-119.The operating system of a computer manages the operations of the CPU, controls the input/output and storage resources and activities of the computer system, and provides various support services as the computer executes the application programs of users. The user interface is the part of the operating system that allows users to communicate with the computer. Interfaces can be command-driven (the user types in command instructions through the keyboard), menu-driven (the user selects commands presented on-screen with either a mouse or keyboard), and graphical (the user selects commands that appear as icons, buttons, bars, and other images with a mouse or other pointing device). Through the interface, the end user has access to the following resources:Resource Management. These programs manage the hardware of a computer system, including its CPU, memory, secondary storage devices, and input/output peripherals.File Management. Operating systems also contain file management programs that control the creation, deletion, and access to files of data and programs. File management involves keeping track of the physical location of files on magnetic disks and other secondary storage devices. Task Management. Task management programs manage the computing tasks of end users. They give slices of the CPU's processing time to tasks and determine the logistics of which tasks take priority over others when more processing time is required. Instructors Note: The following is extra-textual material on this topic:Utilities and Other Functions. Operating systems may contain additional programs (or support for them to be added later) called utilities that help maintain the integrity of the system and its interface with the system hardware. Common utilities are used to defrag a system's hard drive, compress the space programs and files need for storage, or other functions.Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 4.17 on p. 123 and relates to material on pp. 122-124.Discussion topic: Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of popular operating systems, e.g. Windows 2000, UNIX, LINUX, Netware, etc.
Programming packages help programmers develop computer programs. These include:Language Translator Programs. These translate a set of instructions into the computers own machine language. Typical language translator programs include: Assembler. An assembler translates the symbolic instruction codes of programs written in an assembler language into machine language. Compiler. A compiler translates high-level language statements. Interpreter. An interpreter is a special kind of compiler that translates and executes each program statement one at a time.Programming Tools. Common programming tools include graphics-oriented editors and debuggers to help identify and avoid errors while programming.
Teaching TipsThis slide relates to material on p. 132.
To understand databases, it is useful to remember that the elements of data that make up the database are divided into hierarchical levels. These logical data elements make up the foundation data concepts upon which a database is built.Character. The most basic logical element is the character, which consists of a single alphabetic, numeric, or other symbol. While it may take several bits or bytes to represent a character digitally, remember that these refer to physical storage, not the logical concept of the character itself.Field. A field is a grouping of characters that represent a characteristic of a person, place, thing, or event. A person's name is typically placed in a field. A field is a data item. A data field represents an attribute or some entity.Record. A record is a collection of interrelated fields. For example, an employee's payroll record usually contains several fields, such as their name, social security number, department, and salary. Records may be fixed-length or variable-length.File. A file is a collection of interrelated records. For example, a payroll file might contain all of the payroll files for all the employees of a firm. Files are usually classified by the application for which they are used.Database. A database is an integrated collection of logically interrelated records or files. For example, the personnel database of a firm might contain payroll, personnel action, and employee skills files. The data stored in a database is independent of the application programs using it and of the type of secondary storage devices on which it is stored.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 5.2 on p. 144 and relates to material on pp. 144-145.Under the database management approach, data records are consolidated into databases that can be accessed by many different application programs. A database management system (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that control the creation, maintenance, and use of the databases of an organization and its end users. Four major DBMS facilities include:Database Development. A DBMS allows control of development to be placed with database administrators. The administrator uses a data definition language (DDL) to develop and specify the data contents, relationships, and structure of each database, and to modify these specifications when necessary. This approach improves integrity and security for the organizational databases. The information is stored in a data dictionary, which uses data definitions to specify what all the records and files are, can be, and, if desired, to automatically enforce data element definitions when fields, records, or files are modified.Database Interrogation. A DBMS allows end users without programming skills to ask for information from a database using a query language or report generator. Queries are usually made one of two ways:SQL (Structured Query Language). This uses the basic form of SELECT ...FROM...WHERE. After SELECT the user lists the data fields to be retrieved. After FROM the user lists the files or tables from which the data must be retrieved. After WHERE the user specifies conditions that limit the search.QBE (Query by Example). This method allows users to point and click on display boxes for each of the data fields in one or more files to specify the rules of the searchDatabase Maintenance. Updating the databases and other maintenance are conducted by transaction processing programs.Application Development. A DBMS makes application development much easier and quicker by allowing developers to include data manipulation language (DML) statements in their programs that let the DBMS perform necessary data-handling activities.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 5.5 on p. 147 and relates to material on pp. 147-150.Six major types of databases are illustrated on the slide and used by computer-based organizations:Operational Databases. These databases store detailed data needed to support the operations of the entire organization. They are also called subject area databases (SADB), transaction databases, and production databases. These also include databases of Internet and electronic commerce activity, such as click stream data or data describing online behavior of visitors at a companys website.Data Warehouse Databases. These store data from current and previous years that has been extracted from the various operational and management databases of the organization. As a standardized and integrated central source of data, warehouses can be used by managers for pattern processing, where key factors and trends about operations can be identified from the historical record.Data Marts. Are subsets of the data included in a Data Warehouse which focus on specific aspects of a company, e.g. department, business process, etc.Distributed Databases. These are the databases of local workgroups and departments at regional offices, branch offices, and other work sites needed to complete the task at hand. They include relevant information from other organizational databases combined with data and information generated only at the particular site. These databases can reside on network servers, on the World Wide Web, or on Intranets and Extranets.End User Databases. These consist of a variety of data files developed by end users at their workstations. For example, an end user in sales might combine information on a customers order history with her own notes and impressions from face-to-face meetings to improve follow-up.External Databases. Many organizations make use of privately generated and owned online databases or data banks that specialize in a particular area of interest. Access is usually through a subscription for continuing links or a one-time fee for a specific piece of information (like the results of a single search). Other sources like those found on the Web are free.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 5.10 on p. 151 and relates to material on pp. 150-152.A data warehouse stores data that has been extracted from various operational, external, and other databases within the organization. To create a data warehouse, data from various databases are captured, cleaned, e.g. sorted, filtered, converted, and transformed into data that can be better used for analysis. The data is then stored in the enterprise data warehouse, from where it can be moved into data marts or to an analytical data store that holds data to support certain types of analysis.Metadata, that defines the data in the data warehouse, is stored in a Metadata Directory that is used to support data administration. A variety of analytical software tools can then be used to query, report, and analyze data.One such means for analyzing data in a data warehouse is called data mining. In data mining, the data in a data warehouse are analyzed to reveal hidden patterns and trends in historical business activity. This can help managers make decisions about strategic changes in business operations.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 5.11 on p.152 and relates to material on pp. 151-153.The rapid growth of websites on the Internet and corporate intranets and extranets has dramatically increased the use of databases of hypertext and hypermedia documents. Hypermedia Database: A website stores information in a hypermedia database consisting of a home page and other hyperlinked pages of multimedia or mixed media (text, graphics and photographic images, video clips, audio segments, and so on). Browser: A web browser on your client PC is used to connect with a web network server. This server runs web software to access and transfer the web pages you request. Web Site: A website uses a hypermedia database consisting of HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) pages, GIF (graphics image files) files, and video files. Web Server Software: Acts as a database management system to manage the use of the interrelated hypermedia pages of the website.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 5.13 on p.153 and relates to material on pp. 153-154.The security and integrity of an organization's databases are the major concerns of the data resource management efforts. Key activities of data resource management include:Database Administration. This area is responsible for developing and maintaining the organization's data dictionary, as well as designing and monitoring the performance of databases, and enforcing the standards for database use and security.Data Planning. Data planning is a corporate planning and analysis function responsible for the overall data architecture for the firm. This role ensures that data resources are developed to support the firm's strategic mission and plans.Data Administration. This area involves the establishment and enforcement of policies and procedures for managing data as a strategic corporate resource. This means standardizing data so that it is available to all end users from whatever database they are working.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 5.14 on p.154 and relates to material on pp. 153-154.The relationships among the records stored in databases are based upon one of several logical database structures or models. These fundamental database structures are described below. Hierarchical Structure. Under this tree-like structure, each data element is related only to one element above it, a so-called one-to-many relationship. All records are dependent and arranged in multilevel structures.Network Structure. This structure features a many-to-many arrangement whereby the DBMS can access a data element by following one of several paths. Relational Structure. This model has become the most popular structure and is used by most microcomputers. All data elements within the database are viewed as being stored in the form of simple tables. The DBMS can link data elements from various tables to provide information to end users.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 5.16 on p. 158 and relates to material on pp. 158-162.Object-Oriented Structure. Objects consist of data values describing the attributes of an entity and the operations that can be performed on the data. This is called encapsulation and allows object-oriented database structures to better handle complex types of data such as video and audio. The object-oriented model also supports inheritance, allowing new objects to replicate some or all the characteristics of one or more parent objects, as shown in the slide. Such capabilities allow developers to copy and combine objects, allowing for very rapid development of new database solutions. Multidimensional Structure. This structure uses cells within a multidimensional framework to aggregate data related to elements within a given dimension. Each cell combines with similar cells to form a coherent "cube" of information and data, which in turn is combined with other cubes to form dimensions. As a result they are both compact and easy to understand. Multidimensional structures have fast become the most popular database structure for analytical databases that support online analytical processing (OLAP) applications.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 5.17 on p.160 and Figure 5.18 on p. 161 and relates to material on pp. 160-161.Efficient access to data is the critical necessity of an effective database system. Key concepts and terms associated with file access include:Key Fields. This is a unique identifier of the data record. URLs. The files and databases on the Internet and corporate intranets and extranets use URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) for data access. Thus, pages of hyperlinked text and multimedia documents on the Web and intranet/extranet websites are accessed by URLs.Sequential Organization. This refers to a structure in which the records are physically stored in a specified order according to a key field in each record. Sequential Access. This refers to the predetermined order of processing data. Each record is accessed according to the same set of commands. Access begins at the start of the file or record and proceeds, in order, to the end. This is a fast and efficient method for processing large volumes of data.Direct Access. Under this method, records do not have to be arranged into any particular sequence on storage media, however the computer must keep track of the storage location of each record.Key Transformation. This common direct access technique performs an arithmetic computation on a key field or record and uses the number that results as an address to store and access that record.Indexed Sequential Access Method. This approach combines features of both sequential and direct access. Sequential storage allows for large volume processing while indexed addressing allows direct access of smaller amounts of data from individual records.
Teaching TipsThis slide relates to material on pp. 163-164.Database planning, beyond that of a personal or small business end user database created by a database management package, typically requires use of a top-down data planning process based upon the systems development model covered earlier:1. Data Planning. At this stage, planners develop a model of business processes. This results in an enterprise model of business processes with documentation.2. Requirements Specification. This stage defines the information needs of end users in a business process. Description of needs may be provided in natural language or using the tools of a particular design methodology.3. Conceptual Design. This stage expresses all information requirements in the form of a high-level model.4. Logical Design. This stage translates the conceptual model into the data model of a DBMS.5. Physical Design. This stage determines the data storage structures and access methods.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 5.22 on p.165 and relates to material on pp. 164-166.Major trends occurring in the field of telecommunications have a significant impact on management decisions in this area. Key trends include:Industry Trends. The key trend in this area is a move away from a few, large, regulated monopolies as suppliers toward an industry structure with many suppliers in fierce competition for new customers with new products and innovative services. Bottom line: The service and vendor options available to meet a company's telecommunications needs have increased dramatically.Technology Trends. Digital transmission of information is the wave of the future. Besides being "computer ready" digital communication offer four distinct advantages to businesses and end users:1. Significantly higher transmission speeds. 2. Movement of larger amounts of information.3. Greater economy.4. Much lower error rates (compared to analog transmission).Another major technology trend is the advent of open systems -- information systems that use common standards for hardware, software, applications, and networking. Open systems create a computing environment characterized by easy access by developers, suppliers, and end users.Application Trends. Technology and industry trends combine to open up application development to more providers, more products, and more choices for businesses and end users.Discussion Note: Some choices are misleading. For example, application software for the personal computer in the utilities area (Symantec), statistics (SPSS), and personal finance (Quicken) are dominated by single companies who have bought their smaller rivals. The products and brands are maintained, but the control in these areas is very much monopolistic.Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 6.2 on pp. 176 and relates to the material on pp. 176-178.
The figure of the slide outlines the four major strategic capabilities of information technology:Time Barriers. Strategic use of information systems helps overcome time barriers by focusing on interval reduction and just-in-time operations. The goal is to shorten the response time to customer demands and reduce inventory investment to a minimum. Operating in real time means no time lag between the identification and fulfillment of a need.Geographic Barriers. Telecommunications and computing technologies make it possible to distribute key business activities to where they are needed most, where they are best performed, or where they best support the competitive advantage of a business. Telecommunication networks allow instantaneous access to all members and resources of the organization, however remote, so that the best combination of talent and ability can be brought to bear on problems or opportunities. Cost Barriers. Information systems help reduce costs in many areas: production, inventory, distribution, or communications. For example, decentralized decision making can be combined with centralized implementation of those decisions for greater economy without sacrificing the efficiency of the process.Teaching Tip: The IS also reduces travel costs as distance conferencing makes it less necessary to bring staff to headquarters for meetings.Structural Barriers. Structural barriers in business include traditional constraints in how business is conducted (such as hours of operation and labor costs) and the processing time various firms in a channel of distribution take to act on customer demand. An IS can extend hours of operation (example: automatic teller machines at banks), service support (example: 24 hour customer support for software products), and improve distribution (example: EDI between manufacturers and suppliers, or wholesalers and retailers).Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 6.4 on pp. 178 relates to the material on pp. 178-179.
Many companies perceive the business value of the Internet for electronic commerce. Substantial cost savings can arise because applications that use the Internet and Internet-based technologies (like intranets and extranets) are typically less expensive to develop, operate, and maintain than traditional systems.Example: American Airlines saves money every time customers use their website instead of their customer support telephone system.Other primary reasons for business value include:Attracting new customers with innovative marketing and products, and retaining present customers with improved customer service and support. Generating revenue through e-commerce applications is a major source of business value (discussed in Chapter 8).
Summary: Most companies are building e-commerce websites to achieve six major business values:1. Generate new revenue from online sales.2. Reduce costs through online sales and customer support.3. Attract new customers via Web marketing and advertising and online sales.4. Increase the loyalty of existing customers via improved Web customer service and support.5. Develop new Web-based markets and distribution channels for existing products.6. Develop new information-based accessible on the Web.Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 6.7 on pp. 182 relates to the material on pp. 181-182.
Like any communications model, a telecommunications network connects a sender to a receiver over a channel for sharing messages. The basic components of a telecommunications network are:Terminals. These are networked microcomputer workstations or video input/output stations that provide the sending and receiving endpoints for the network.Telecommunications Processors. These are specialized hardware components that support data transmission and reception between terminals and computers. Telecommunications Channels and Media. A channel connects two or more parties in a network. Media are the particular way a channel is connected. Telecommunications channels use combinations of media such as copper wires, coaxial cables, fiber optic cables, and microwave carriers to transmit information.Computers. All sizes and types of computers can and are connected to telecommunications networks. Typical arrangements include using a mainframe as a host for the network, a minicomputer as a front-end processor, with a dedicated microcomputer as a network server to a smaller local group of networked microcomputer workstations.Telecommunications Control Software. Software controls the interaction of the computers on the telecommunications information system. Mainframes use telecommunications monitors in their role as host computers. Network operating systems are specially designed for microcomputer servers while individual microcomputers on the network access its functions by communications packages.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 6.12 on pp. 188 relates to the material on pp. 188-189.
Local Area Networks (LAN) connect computers and other information processing devices within a limited physical area, such as an office, classroom, building, manufacturing plant, or other work site. LANs have become commonplace in many organizations for providing telecommunications network capabilities that link end users in offices, departments, and other workgroups.
Wide Area Networks (MAN) cover a large geographic areas. Networks that cover a large city or metropolitan area (MAN) are also included in this category. Such large networks have become a necessity for carrying out the day-to-day activities of many business and government organizations and their end users.
Example: WANs are used by many multinational companies to transmit and receive information among their employees, customers, suppliers, and other organizations across cities, regions, countries, and the world.Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 6.13 on pp. 190 relates to the material on pp. 189-190.
Local Area Networks (LANs) connect computers and other information processing devices within a limited physical area, such as an office, a building, or work site. LANs use a variety of telecommunications media. Key concepts and components of LANs include:Network Interface Card. PCs on a network must have a circuit board installed to handle the network interface. This is the typical way of expanding PC capability.Teaching Tip: The advent of Windows 95 and Plug and Play architecture should make the installation of network cards by end users much easier.Network Server. As mentioned earlier, this is a dedicated PC with a large hard disk capacity for secondary storage. Many servers also have more RAM than the individual workstations on the network. Network Operating System. Just as individual PCs have their own operating systems, the network operating system controls the interface between users and machine hardware as well as the telecommunications peripherals linking them.Internetworks. Most LANs are connected via telecommunications to other networks, which might be other LANs, wide area networks (WANs), mainframes, or very large networks like the Internet.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 6.14 on pp. 190 relates to the material on pp. 189-190.
Midrange computers have become popular as powerful network servers included in corporate Intranets and Extranets and in client server networks. A network is a system of microcomputers and servers linked together with telecommunications hardware and software. Telecommunications. Telecommunications is the use of networks of interconnected computers and peripheral devices to process and exchange data and information. Hardware such as modems allow computers at distant locations to share information over telephone lines. Network operating systems are software programs that control resource sharing and communications flow among computers and peripherals on a local area network (LAN).Networked computers draw additional computing power from the other computers on the network, which can include other microcomputers, minicomputers, and mainframes. This capability is known as distributed processing.Distributed Processing. This is the ability to spread the processing requirements for a particular task around the network to take advantage of unused processing capacity.Client server architectures, which are used frequently in businesses have the following components:Client. A client on a network is typically a microcomputer that serves an end user for most of her or his processing needs. Programs for the client and extra processing capacity are provided as needed by the network. Server. A server is a host or central computer that is dedicated to managing the logistics of routing data, information, and processing capacity among the clients on the system. In small networks, the server might be a single PC. On larger networks, the server can be a minicomputer or a mainframe. In very large organizations, several networks might be served, each by their own minicomputer, which in turn, is linked to the host mainframe.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 6.16 on pp. 192 relates to the material on pp. 192.
Telecommunications channels make use of a wide variety of media. In some cases, the media are complementary and the use of more than one media increases the functions and features of the telecommunications network. In other cases, the media are in direct competition with each other, hoping to capture customers from other media choices. Discussion Note: The dual nature of telecommunications has implications yet to be resolved for open systems architecture.Some major types of telecommunications media include:Twisted-Pair Wire. This is the traditional phone line used throughout the world. It is the most widely distributed telecommunications media but is limited in the amount of data and speed of transmission.Coaxial Cable. This is a sturdy copper or aluminum wire wrapped in spacers to insulate and protect it. Coaxial cable can carry more information and at higher speeds than twisted pair wires. It also is a higher-quality carrier, with little interference.Fiber Optics. These are hair-thin glass filaments spun into wires and wrapped in a protective jacket. Fiber optics transmit light pulses as carriers of information and so are extremely fast and produce no electromagnetic radiation. This makes them extremely reliable channels, although splicing cables for connections is difficult.Terrestrial Microwave. Earthbound microwave radiation transmit high-speed radio signals in line-of-sight paths between relay stations..Communications Satellites. Satellites in geosynchronous orbit are used to transmit microwave signals to any place on earth using dish antennas for sending and receiving.Cellular Radio. Low power transmitters on each cell of the system allow users to take advantage of several frequencies for communications.Wireless LANs. Using radio or infrared transmission, some LANs are completely wireless, thus eliminating the cost of installing wire in existing structures.Teaching Tip: The information in this slide comes from pp 194 - 197. Modem (Modulator-DEModulator). A device that converts the digital signals from input/output devices into appropriate frequencies at a transmission terminal and converts them back into digital signals at a receiving terminal.
Multiplexer: An electronic device that allows a single communications channel to carry simultaneous data transmission from many terminals.
Internetwork Processors: Communications processors used by local area networks to interconnect them with other local area and wide area networks. Examples include switches, routers, hubs, and gateways.
Fire wall: Computers, communications processors, and software that protect computer networks from intrusion by screening all network traffic and serving as a safe transfer point for access to and from other networks.
Network Operating System: Is a program that controls telecommunications and the use and sharing of network resources.
Telecommunications Monitor: Computer programs that control and support the communications between the computers and terminals in a telecommunications network.
Middleware: Software that helps diverse networked computer systems work together, thus promoting their interoperability.
Network Management Software: Software packages such as network operating systems and telecommunications monitors used to determine transmission priorities, route (switch) messages, poll terminals in the network, and form waiting waiting lines (queues) of transmission requests.Teaching Tip: The information in this slide comes from pages 198-201.
There are several basic types of network topologies, or structures, in telecommunications networks. Three basic topologies used in wide area and local area telecommunications networks are:
1. Star: A star network ties end user computers to a central computer.2. Ring: A ring network ties local computer processors together in a ring on a more equal basis.3. Bus: A bus network is a network in which local processors share the same bus, or communications channel.
Teaching Tip: Instructors may wish to discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these types of topologies. This discussion is laid out in the Instructors Manual.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 6.24 on pp. 201 and relates to the material on pp. 201-202.
The International Standards Organization (ISO) has developed a seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model to serve as a standard model for network architecture.Application Layer. This layer provides communications services for end user applications.Presentation Layer. This layer provides appropriate data transmission formats and codes. Session Layer. This layer supports the accomplishment of telecommunications sessions.Transport Layer. This layer supports the organization and transfer of data between nodes in the network.Network Layer. This layer provides appropriate routing by establishing connections among network links.Data Link Layer. This layer supports error free organization and transmission of data in the network.Physical Layer. This layer provides physical access to the telecommunications media in the network.
Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 6.25 on pp. 203 relates to the material on pp. 202-203.