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1 CLIMATE CHANGE & TOURISM IN THE CARIBBEAN RESPONSIBLE, SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN LATIN AMERICA & THE CARIBBEAN CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE CARIBBEAN TOURISM

Jan 05, 2016

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  • *CLIMATE CHANGE & TOURISM IN THE CARIBBEAN

    RESPONSIBLE, SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN LATIN AMERICA & THE CARIBBEAN

    CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE CARIBBEAN TOURISM SECTOR

    Ulric OD Trotz Ph.D15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • Dependencies of Tourism in the CaribbeanEquitable climateTourism plant-Hotels and other facilitiesInfrastructure- airports, cruise ship berths, roads, coastal protection structures etc.Natural amenities beach, reefs, wetlandsAccess to clean and adequate supply of water Access to ready supply of energyFinancial services especially insuranceHealthy environment free from diseasesAdequate supplies of food

    *15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • What are the projections of future Climate?

    Unequivocal evidence that the earths temperature is rising and attributable to anthropogenic activities Green House Gases

    Projected trends through 2100

    rise in global temperatures of between 2 4.5oC

    Sea level rise of between 11 -77 cm

    Changed weather patterns

    More intense extremes drought ,floods

    More intense hurricanes

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    15th April 2008

  • Climate Change Trends in the Caribbean Past 3 decades trend of increasing mean temperatureSignificant >> in minimum temp.(1.4 deg. since 1960)No. of warm days in region >>, no. of cold nights since 1960 (Cuba)Frequency of occurrence of extreme events changing- Flooding & hurricane passage > in 1990s

    *15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • *Temperature Trends in the CaribbeanTemperatures in the Caribbean region are changing in a manner consistent with the observed variations at global and northern hemisphere levels.

    Temperature records have shown an increase in the last century, with the 1990s being the warmest decade since the beginning of the 20th century. 15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • *

    IMPACT OF WARMER SEA TEMPERATURE

    More frequent episodes of Coral Bleaching since the 1980s15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • * Another Impact of Warmer Sea Temperature Hurricanes developing at lower latitudes and becoming more intense in a shorter period of timeGrenadaCozumelFormed 2 Sept. 2004 Ivan developed near 8oNFormed 15 Oct. 2004 Wilma went from Depression to Cat 5 hurricane in less than 24 hrs. 13 Aug. 2007 Cat 5 Hurricane Dean approaching the Yucatan PeninsulaAug. 31 2007 Cat 5 Hurricane Felix approaching Central America 15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • *The Impact of more intense hurricanes & Sea Level Rise15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • *Increase incidences of unusually heavy rainfall15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • *INSURED LOSSES15th April 2008

    StormClassYearEstimated 1990 Insured Losses (000s)Estimated 1990 Insured Lossesif Maximum Wind Speed Increases by

    5%10%15%Hugo41989$3,658,887 $4,902,70534% $6,514,17278%$8,542,428133% Alicia31983$2,435,589 $3,382,77539% $4,312,88477% $5,685,853133% Camille51969$3,086,201 $4,120,73334% $5,438,33276% $7,095,008130% Source: Clark, 1997.

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  • *Impact OF 2oC rise on AgriculturePreliminary studies on the impact on the staples -corn, beans and rice for 2oC warmer and +/- 20% change in precipitation

    15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • *Likely Consequences of a Warmer Climate in the CaribbeanWill pose significant, and in some cases insurmountable challenges to the regions Economic and Social VulnerabilityExpected Areas of Negative Impact Agriculture/FisheriesFood security threat TourismEconomic sustainability HealthIncrease in vector borne diseases and other heat related diseases Water Human Settlements

    15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • TOURISM AS ACONTRIBUTING CAUSEGHG emissions from the sector derived from:Transport- Road, Sea, AviationActivity specific tourism e.g. sportBuildings and other tourism amenities use of energyIncreased stress on natural ecosystems coastal ecosystems, natural resource base for ecotourism

    *15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • Second International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism in Davos(OCT.2007)Conference agreed inter alia that :Climate is a key resource for tourism and the sector is highly sensitive to impacts of climate change and global warming, many elements of which are already being felt. It is estimated to contribute some 5% of global CO2emissions,The tourism sector must rapidly respond to climate change, within the evolving UN framework and progressively reduce its GHG contribution if it is to grow in a sustainable manner: this will require action to:15th April 2008*

    15th April 2008

  • DAVOS MEETINGMitigate its GHG emissions, derived especially from transport and accommodation activities.Adapt tourism businesses and destinations to changing climate conditionsApply existing and new technology to improve energy efficiency.Secure financial resources to help poor regions and countries

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  • WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTORSustainable tourism thrust of regional industry in consonance with actions to mitigate climate change impactsImprove environmental performance of industry through benchmarking &eco-labeling e.g. through Green Globe 21 includes GHG emissions as one of nine key indicators.Explore potential of tourists to participate in carbon offsetting schemes-

    *15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • DECREASING TOURISM EMISSIONS FOOTPRINT

    Encourage green tourismEnergy efficient building designsWater conservation low flush toilets etc.Energy efficiency management practicesRenewable energy useEncourage use of energy efficient vehicles, cycling & activities that use less energy.

    *15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTORMore discriminatory approach to tourism destinations green tourism- win-win situations for the Caribbean.Support the transition of the Caribbean region to become the worlds first Carbon Neutral tourism destination, thereby affording the region a unique labeling and branding platform that will support growth within the global eco-sensitive client market.

    *15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTORPartnership with government to facilitate development of an enabling policy environment for sustainable tourism.Regional adaptation Fund Carbon levy??Adaptation lending window at financial institutions;Moratorium on repayments.Expeditious disbursementConcessionary interest rates*15th April 2008

    15th April 2008

  • WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTORPartnership with regional insurance companies, climate science community to better define future climate risks and provide: a rational basis for the design of insurance instruments e.g weather derivatives, catastrophe bonds, parametric insurance.the basis for incentives from financial/government/insurance sectors for smart development in the sector

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    15th April 2008

  • 15th April 2008*THANK YOU

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