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PSY 101U: Introduction to Psychology Psy Lecturer: Dr. Afroditi Papaioannou-Spiroulia E-mail: a.papaioannou@cityu.gr Lecture 1 Source of basic material: Dr. A. Papaioannou-Spiroulia
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01-PSY 101U-Lecture 1-General Psy Introduction

May 07, 2017

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  • PSY 101U: Introduction to Psychology

    Psy Lecturer: Dr. Afroditi Papaioannou-Spiroulia

    E-mail: a.papaioannou@cityu.gr

    Lecture 1

    Source of basic material:

    Dr. A. Papaioannou-Spiroulia

  • General introduction

    BASIC POINTS:

    History of Psychology

    Scope of Psychology

    The use of Metaphor in Psychology: From Platos approach to Artificial Intelligence

  • The history and scope of Psychology

    Q: How long have people been thinking and writing about the questions that fascinate psychologists today? Where did Psychology come from? What are Psychologys roots?

    Psychology traces its roots back through recorded history, more than 2000 years ago, to the writings of many scholars who spent their lives wondering about people: How our minds work? How our bodies relate to our minds? Mind and body are connected or distinct? Human ideas are innate or result from experience?...

    Psychology comes from Physiology and mainly from

    Philosophy.

  • Historical origins of Psychology from Philosophy

    Aristotle (384-322 B.C.): theorized about Psychologys concepts and suggested that:

    a) Soul and body are not

    separate.

    b) Knowledge grows from

    experience.

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  • Historical origins of Psychology from Philosophy

    Rene Descartes (1596-1650):

    - Beliefs:

    rationalist: true knowledge comes through reasoning;

    nativist: heredity provides individuals with inborn knowledge and abilities and we use this to reason;

    We are to doubt everything. Thats the only way we can be certain about anything

    I think, therefore I am.

  • Historical origins of Psychology from Philosophy

    John Locke (1632-1704):

    - Saw the mind as receptive and passive, with its main goal as sensing and perceiving.

    [An Essay Concerning Human Understanding]

    - Tabula rasa: We are born as a blank slate, everything we know is learned this is in direct contrast to the rationalist Descartes.

  • Psychology Becomes More Scientific

    Hermann Helmholtz(1821-1894):

    - He was a mechanist and he believed that everything can be understood with basic physical and chemical principles.

    - He pushed for the need to test and demonstrate things.

  • Psychology Becomes More Scientific

    Gustav Fechner(1801 1887):

    - Psychophysics He pushed to investigate the relationshipbetween the physical world and and our conscious psychologicalworld.

    - Possible: a) measure the perceivedas well as the physical intensities ofsensory stimuli, b) to determine amathematical relationship[JNC: Just Noticeable Difference approach].

  • Psychological Science is born

    Q: What event defines the birth of Psychology as we know it today?

    Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920):

    - Established the 1st psychology laboratory (1879) at the University of Leipzig, Germany.

    - Focused on consciousness:

    found basic elements of conscious processes;

    discovered how elements (sensations and feelings) are connected;

    specified laws of connection.

    - Introspection:

    Self-observation: seeing mental processes in immediate experience.

  • Psychological Science is born

    Wundt and Psychologys

    first graduate students

    studied the atoms of the

    mind by conducting

    experiments at Leipzig,

    Germany, in 1879. This

    work is considered the

    birth of Psychology as we

    know it today.

  • The first schools of Psychology

    Q: What were structuralism and functionalism, and

    how did they differ?

    Structuralism: an early school of Psychology that used

    introspection to explore the elemental structure of

    the human mind.

    - Lots of work based on sensation and perception and breaking those down into minute detail.

    - 3 basic mental elements: images, feelings and sensations.

    - Edward Bradford Titchener: found 43.000 elements associated with sensory experiences (visual, auditory, taste).

  • The first schools of Psychology

    Functionalism: a school of Psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function how they enable the organism to adapt, survive and flourish [applying Darwins theory of natural selection to mental processes].

    - William James (1842-1910):

    stream of consciousness;

    consciousness is personal/selective, continuous (cant be cut up for analysis), and constantly changing;

    structuralism was foolish to search for common elements to all minds.

  • The first schools of Psychology

    William James wrote

    an important psychology

    textbook

    [Principles of Psychology, 1890].

    Mary Calkins (memory

    researcher), Jamess

    student, became the

    APAs first female

    president.

  • The first schools of Psychology

    Structuralism

    searched for

    the BASIC ELEMENTS

    of the MIND

    Functionalism

    tried to explain

    WHY WE DO

    what we do

  • The first schools of Psychology

    Behaviorism: focused on observable behavior.

    - John. B. Watson (1878-1958):

    felt that the main goal of Psychology should be the prediction and control of behavior;

    stimulus-response theory: we respond to stimuli with our behavior, not thoughts

    [see and Pavlovs dog studies]

    reinforcement for behavior: if our behavior produces rewarding consequences, then we will do it again.

  • The first schools of Psychology

    Behaviorists, like Watson and later Skinner, emphasized the study of overt behavior as the subject matter of

    scientific Psychology.

    Watso

    n (1878-1958)

    Skinner (1904-1990)

  • Subsequent schools of Psychology

    Gestalt Psychology:

    - Das Ganze ist etwas mehr als die Summe seiner Teiler: The whole is something more that the sum of its parts

    - wholes vs multiple individual elements: Dont an experience into separate elements to discover truths instead, look at the whole.

    - Max Wertheimer (1880-1943):

    Phi phenomenon: you can create an illusion that a light is moving from one location to another by flashing lights on and off at a certain rate.

  • Subsequent schools of Psychology

    Psychoanalysis:

    - Sigmund Freuds (1856-1939) Psychodynamic Theory:

    importance of the unconscious mind and its effects on human behavior;

    conscious vs unconscious conflicts:

    a) unconscious: motivations and

    memories of which we are not

    aware,

    b) mental illness arises from being

    over- whelmed by which of these is

    in control.

    Psychoanalysis as therapy: tell me about your childhood

  • And Psychological Science Keeps on Developing

    Humanistic Psychology: for example, Maslow (1908-1970) and Rogers (1902-1987) emphasized current environmental influences on our growth potential and our need for love and acceptance.

    Cognitive Science/Psychology: the psychological study of higher mental processes of how people perceive, remember, think, speak, and solve problems [1956-on, Miller, Bruner, Newell] []

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  • Definition of modern/contemporary Psychology

    Q: How has the science of Psychologys focus changed since its birth in the late 19th century?

    After beginning as a science of mental life, Psychology evolved in the 1920s into a science of observable behavior. Then, after rediscovering the mind in the 1960s, Psychology today views itself as a science of behavior and mental processes.

  • Definition of modern/contemporary Psychology

    Q: What is the modern definition of Psychology?

    We define Psychology today as

    the scientific study of

    behavior (what we do) and

    mental processes (inner thoughts and feelings).

  • Psychological Associations and Societies

    Psychology is growing and globalizing Psychological

    Associations and Societies

    APA is the largest organization of Psychology with

    about 160.000 members world-wide, followed by the

    BPS with 34.000 members.

    http://www.bps.org.uk/

  • PLANNIND LECTURE 2

    TOPICS OF INTEREST:

    Based on Lecture 1: Focus on the roots and the definition of Psychology.

    Next, well focus on the Psy research and the biological perspective on Psychology.

  • FOR ANY FURTHER QUESTIONS

    DONT HESITATE TO ASK ME IN CLASS

    OR CONTACT ME VIA E-MAIL

    (a.papaioannou@cityu.gr)

    -Always Cc Student Support, as well (student.support@cityu.gr).

    ANY QUESTIONS, THOUGHTS, IDEAS?

    mailto:a.papaioannou@cityu.gr

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