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Sep 28, 2015

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  • NITC

  • Some basics - you had in FoundrySand casting.Steps: 1.Mechanical Drawing of the part2. Making pattern- about pattern material.3.Making cores- if needed4.Preparing drag and cope. (Setting the core, positioning etc.)5.Removal of pattern6Assembling cope and drag7.Pouring- factors, method, etc.8.Casting removed9.Trimming etc.10. READY FOR SHIPMENT

    NITC

  • 1.Mechanical Drawing of the part

    2. Making pattern- about pattern material.

    3.Making cores- if needed

    4.Preparing drag and cope. (Setting the core, positioning etc.)

    5.Removal of pattern

    6Assembling cope and drag

    7.Pouring- factors, method, etc.

    8.Casting removed

    9.Trimming etc.

    10. READY FOR SHIPMENT

    Some basics you had in Foundry14a325b68&9 105a4b3b3c3a

  • CASTING FUNDAMENTALS Basically involves i. Pouring molten metal into a mould patterned after the part to be made WITHOUT TURBULANCE , SERIES OF EVENTS TAKES PLACE INFLUENCE SIZE, SHAPE, UNIFORMITY OF THE GRAINS FORMED, AND THUS THE OVERALL PROPERTIES.

    ii. Allow it to cool HEAT TRANSFER DURING SOLIDIFICATION

    iii. Remove from the mold INFLUENCE OF THE TYPE OF MOULD MATERIAL SIMILARITY WITH POURING CAKE MIX INTO A PAN NITC

  • POURING CAKE MIX INTO A PAN (MOULD) & BAKING IT*SELECT THE KIND AND SIZE OF PAN,

    *CONTROL THE COMPOSITION OF THE MIX,

    * CAREFULLY POUR THE MIX,

    * SET THE PROPER BAKING TEMPERATURE,

    * SET THE TIMER FOR PROPER BAKING TIME,

    * LEAVE THE CAKE IN THE MOULD FOR A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF TIME BEFORE REMOVING. (CASTING OF PLASTICS & CERAMICS - DIFFERENT)

    NITC

  • Knowledge of certain fundamental relationships is essential to produce good quality economic castings

    This knowledge helps in establishing proper techniques for mould design and casting practice.Castings must be free from defects, must meet the required strength, dimensional accuracy, surface finish

    NITC

  • Outline of production steps in a typical sand casting operation - pattern making - Core making - Gating system

    MouldingSandMouldMeltingPouringcastingHeat TreatCleanInspectFurnacesSolidificationShakeoutAddl. Heat Treatment Defects, pressure tightness, dimensionsNITC

  • ADVANTAGES OF CASTING PROCESSProcess is cheapMore suitable for mass productionMost suitable for manufacturing complex/complicated/intricate shaped products.Large parts weighing several tonnes and also small components weighing a few grams can be cast. No limitation on the size of component.Directional properties absent in castings. Components with uniform properties as well as with varying properties at different locations can be cast. By use of cores, saving in machining of holes achieved.Internal stresses are relieved during solidification in many types of castings.Even some materials which cannot be made by other processes made by casting: eg. Phosphor-Bronze.

    NIT CALICUT

    NITC

  • DISADVANTAGESCast product properties inferior in many cases when compared with other manufacturing processes.Elevated temperature working in castings, as material has to be melted. Thin section limitations exist.For number of components very small, casting not preferred.NIT CALICUT

    NITC

  • SIGNIFICANT FACTORS-

    TYPE OF METAL,

    THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BOTH THE METAL AND MOULD,

    GEOMETRIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE VOLUME AND SURFACE AREA ,AND

    SHAPE OF MOULD.

    NITC

  • SOLIDIFICATION OF METALS

    AFTER POURING MOLTEN METAL INTO MOULD, SERIES OF EVENTS TAKES PLACE DURING SOLIDIFICATION AND COOLING TO AMBIENT TEMPERATURE.THESE EVENTS GREATLY INFLUENCE THE SIZE, SHAPE, UNIFORMITY OF THE GRAINS FORMED, AND THUS THE OVERALLL PROPERTIES.

    NITC

  • Volumetric variation from Liquid through Solidification and then to ambient temperature

  • The liquid Metal has a Volume "A

    It solidifies to solid with a new volume "B"

    The solidified casting further contracts (shrinks) through the cooling process to Volume "C"

    Three Stages of Contraction (Shrinkage)

  • COOLING CURVE For pure metal or compound

    TEMPERATURETIME, log scaleFreezing beginsFreezing endsLiquidLiquid + SolidSolidCooling of LiquidCooling of solidLatent heat of solidification given off during freezing- At constant temperature

  • COOLING CURVE For Binary solid solutions

    TEMPERATURETIME, log scaleFreezing with drop in temperature And FOR ALLOYS:Alloys solidify over a range of temperaturesBegins when temp. drops below liquidous, completed when it reaches solidous.Within this temperature range, mushy or pasty state.

    Inner zone can be extended throughout by adding a catalyst.- sodium, bismuth, tellurium, Mg (or by eliminating thermal gradient, i.e. eliminating convection. (Expts in space to see the effect of lack of gravity in eliminating convection)

    (refresh dendritic growth- branches of tree, interlock, each dendrite develops uniform composition, etc)

  • The ambient temperature is always in a state of transition Minor variations in volumetric displacement are negligible,compared to the variations that occur from "A" to "B" and lastly to "C". ACBBCA**

  • STRUCTURE

    NITC

    FOR PURE METALS: At the mould walls, metal cools rapidly. Produces solidified skin or shell (thickness depends on composition, mould temperature, mould size and shape etc)These of equiaxed structure.Grains grow opposite to heat transfer through the mouldThese are columnar grainsDriving force of the heat transfer is reduced away from the mould walls and blocking at the axis prevents further growth

  • Solidified structures of metal - solidified in a square mould(a). Pure metal(b). Solid solution(c). When thermal gradient is absent within solidifying metal

    Development of a preferred texture - for pure metal at a cool mould wall. A chill zone close to the wall and then a columnar zone away from the mould.Three basic types of cast structures- (a). Columnar dendritic; (b). equiaxed dendritic; (c). equiaxed nondendritic

  • Size and distribution of the overall grain structure throughout a casting depends on rate & direction of heat flow

    (Grain size influences strength, ductility, properties along different directions etc.)

    CONVECTION- TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS DUE TO DIFFERNCES IN THE DENSITY OF MOLTEN METAL AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES WITHIN THE FLUID - STRONGLY EFFECTS THE GRAIN SIZE.

    Outer chill zones do not occur in the absence of convection

    NITC

  • DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION

  • LIKE A PRESSURISED SYSTEM

  • MOULDING BOARDFLASKSHOWELDRAW SPIKERIDDLESLICKRAMMERLIFTERSTRIKE-OFF BARTROWELS GATE CUTTER BELLOWSSPRUE PINS VENT ROD ..

    MOULDERSTOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

  • Making a Core; (a). Ramming Core Sand. (b). Drawing the core box (c). Baking in an oven (d) Pasting the core halves (e). Washing the core with refractory slurry edcba

  • Make the pattern in pieces, prepare the core.Position the drag half of pattern on mould board in the drag half of flaskPrepare the drag half of mould, roll drag over, apply parting sand, place the cope half of pattern and flask, ram and strike off excess sandSeparate flasks, remove patterns, cut sprue, set core in place, close flaskNow after clamping, ready fro pouring.

    23b4a13a4b5

  • THREE BOX MOULDING PROCEDURE

    LOAM MOULDING USING LOAM SAND

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