Jan 04, 2016
Gender Gap and Gendered Math Education: Myth or Reality?
Gender Gap and Gendered Education: Myth or Reality?Tatyana SumnerFall 2012ED.7202.TAction Research Final PresentationStatement of Problem Slide 3Research Design Slide 4Threats to Internal Validity Slide 5Threats to External Validity Slide 6Proposed Data Slide 7 Proposed Correlations (Graphs) Slide 8 9 Sample Survey Questions Slide 10References Slide 11Table of Contents This research will focus on possible differences in math attitudes between female and male students.
Living in a gendered society (Ridgeway & Correll, 2004; Risman,2004).
Socially constructed stereotypes girls are not good at math, (Guderson et al., 2012; Nosek, Banaji, & Greenwald, 2002; Tomasetto, Alparone, & Cadinu, 2011; Tracy & Lane, 2006).
Gross underrepresentation of women in math-related fields (Brandell & Staberg 2008; Leaper et al., 2012; Steffens, Jelenec, & Noack, 2010).Statement of the Problem
Literature ReviewMath AttitudesGirls are less likely to pursue math-related careers (Brandell & Staberg, 2008; Steffens et al., 2010; James 2007).Math = Male, Me = Female, Therefore Math Me (Leaper et al., 2012; Norsek et al., 2002; Steffens et al., 2010).Girls attribute success to luck or hard work rather than talent (Steffens et al., 2010; Stetsenko, et al., 2000). Proposed SolutionsEducating teachers about gender bias (Tracy & Lane, 1999).Students should be taught to work together in peer-assisted and cooperative learning environments (Kroeger & Kouche, 2006; Kuntz et al., 2001; Sparks, 2012; Tournaki & Crischitello, 2003) Provide girls with female role-models, support against stereotype threat and encouragement in their abilities (Gool et al., 2007; Shapiro & Williams, 2012).
By implementing a dual-gender peer-assisted learning environment during math instruction for 18 students (9 girls and 9 boys) in an urban Elementary School X in Brooklyn, for the period of 4 weeks, 3 times a week, will improve students attitudes toward mathematics. Hypothesis StatementHR1
Participants and InstrumentsParticipants
Sample of convenience = 18 students from various schools throughout New York and northern New Jersey area. 9 girls age range 9-159 boys age range 9-15Instruments
Pre / Post Test Math attitude survey (devised by the researcher)Team RandomizationAn excel file to randomize pairs without bias. Quasi-Experimental DesignNonequivalent Control Group DesignSymbolic Design Representation:O X1 O O X2 O
Research Design and Threats to Validity Threats to Internal Validity
HistoryMaturationsInstrumentationMortalityStatistical RegressionDifferential Selection of Subject
Threats to External Validity
Ecological ValiditySelection-Treatment InteractionSpecificity of Variables
Pre-test Students of both groups will be given a survey measuring gauging their initial attitude toward mathematics.
Treatment Hypothetical treatment will be introduced to all participants.
Post-test A survey, identical to pre-test survey will be given to the group gauging any change in attitude toward mathematicsProcedures
Data Analysis: Math Attitudes
Pre-Test MeanPost-Test MeanChangeGroup 1 Mean 2.22 2.81 0.59 Group 1 Mean %56%70%15%Pre-Test MeanPost-Test MeanChangeGroup 2 Mean 2.67 3.04 0.37 Group 2 Mean %67%76% 9%Composite Predictive Variables9Data Analysis: Math Skill ConfidenceComposite Predictive VariablesPre-Test MeanPost-TestMeanChangeGroup 1 Mean 2.11 2.50 0.39 Group 1 Mean %53%63% 10%Pre-Test MeanPost-TestMeanChangeGroup 2 Mean 2.56 3.00 0.44 Group 2 Mean %64%75% 11%
10Correlations: Math AttitudesBrief Analysis: A fair, positive correlation (.326rxy) suggests that the more students prefer to work in parirs or groups when doing math problems, the more positive their attitudes toward math are.Correlation Coefficient = 0.326rxy Post-Survey Correlation Q.5 Preferences X-AxisMean of Q.2, Q.3 and Q.9. Preferences Y-Axis2 2.67 2 2.67 4 2.67 3 3.33 3 2.67 3 3.00 3 2.00 2 3.67 2 2.67 2 3.33 3 3.00 3 3.67 3 3.33 2 3.00 22.672 2.33 4 4.00 2 2.00 Correlations: Parent Assistance and Math confidence Brief Analysis: A fair, negative correlation (-.35rxy) suggests that the less parents spend time helping students with math, the more confident the students in working on math independently.Correlation Coefficient = -0.35rxy Post-Survey Correlation Q.4 Frequencies X-AxisQ.6 Preferences Y-Axis2 2 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 4 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 Bell Curve DistributionMean = 2.44Mode = 2.67Median = 2.83SD = 0.783% within +/- 1SDNegative Skew More higher scores few to none lower scores beyond 1SD
DiscussionEven the hypothetical implementation of treatment produced a change of perception in students attitudes toward math.
By attempting to eliminate gender-based competition in the classroom, and by creating peer-assisted learning environment, raises students confidence in and enjoyment of mathematics. ImplicationsFurther research using a randomly selected and larger sample. Further research with actual implementation of treatment. Discussion/ImplicationsPre-Test MeanPost-Test MeanChangeGroup 1 Mean (Female) 2.09 2.37 15%Group 2 Mean (Male) 2.67 3.04 9%
Brandell, G., & Staberg, E. (2008). Mathematics: A female, male or gender-neutral domain? A study of attitudes among students at secondary level. Gender and Education, 20(5), 495-509. doi:10.1080/09540250701805771Gool, J., Carpenter, J., Davies, S., Ligos, T., MacKenzie, L., Schilp, R., & Schips, J. (2006). Teacher bias of gender in the elementary classroom. Education Today, (5), 27-30. Retrieved from Education Research Complete DatabaseGunderson, E., Ramirez, G., Levine, S., & Beilock, S. (2012). The role of parents and teachers in the development of gender-related math attitudes. Sex Roles, 66(3/4), 153-166. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-9996-2Kroeger, S. D., & Kouche, B. (2006). Using peer- assisted learning strategies to increase response to intervention in inclusive middle math settings. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(5), 6-13. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete DatabaseKuntz, K. J., McLaughlin, T. F., & Howard, V. F. (2001). A comparison of cooperative learning and small group individualized instruction for math in a self contained classroom for elementary students with disabilities. Educational Research Quarterly, 24(3), 41-56. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete DatabaseLeaper, C., Farkas, T., & Brown, C. (2012). Adolescent girls experiences and gender-related beliefs in relation to their motivation in math/science and English. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(3), 268-282. doi:10.1007/s10964-011-9693-z ReferencesNosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2002). Math = male, me = female, therefore math me. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 83(1), 44-59. doi:10.1037//0022-35220.127.116.11Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2002). Math = male, me = female, therefore math me. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 83(1), 44-59. doi:10.1037//0022-3518.104.22.168Ridgeway, C. L., & Correll, S. J. (2004). Unpacking the gender system: A theoretical perspective on gender beliefs and social relations. Gender & Society, 18(4), 510-531. doi:10:1177/0891243204265269Risman, B. J. (2004). Gender as a social structure: Theory wrestling with activism. Gender & Society, 18(4), 429-450. doi:10.1177/0891243204265349Shapiro, J., & Willaims, A. (2012). The role of stereotype threats in undermining girls and womens performance and interest in STEM fields. Sex Roles, 66(3/4), 175-183. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-0051-0Sparks, S. D. (2012). Researchers cite social benefits in coed classes. Education Week, 31(30), 1-15. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete DatabaseReferencesSteffens, M. C., Jelenec, P., &Noack, P. (2010). On the leaky math pipeline: Comparing implicit math-gender stereotypes and math withdrawal in female and male children and adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(4), 947-963. doi:10.1037/a0019920Stetsenko, A., Little, T. D., Gordeeva, T., Grasshof, M., & Oettingen, G. (2000). Gender effects in childrens beliefs about school performance: A cross-cultural study. Child Development, 71(2), 517-527. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00161Tomasetto, C., Alparone, F., & Cadinu, M. (2011). Girls math performance under stereotype threat: The moderating role of mothers gender stereotypes. Developmental Psychology, 47(4), 943-949. doi:10.1037/a0024047Tournaki, N., & Criscitiello, E. (2003). Using peer tutoring as a successful part of behavior management. Teaching Exceptional Children, 36(2), 22-29. Retrieved from http://www.cec.sped.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Publications2/TEACHINGExceptionalChildren/default.htmTracy, D. M., & Lane, M. B. (1999). Gender-equitable teaching behaviors: Preservice teachers awareness and implementation. Equity & Excellence in Education, 32(3), 93-104. doi:10.1080/1066568990320311