Jan 12, 2016
Campaign Finance Reform
FRQ#1: Interest Groups What aspects of our governmental system create Multiple Access Points for interest groups in search of favorable policy?+1) Separation of PowersInterestGroupsCongressPresident & BureaucracyFederalCourtsFile lawsuits.Ask pres. to sign/veto bills.Seek favorable legislation.Favorable policyoutcomesLOBBYING!Ask for oversight hearings on implementation.Lobby federal agencies for favorable regulations. Submit amicus curiae briefs.Ask president to issue executive orders.+2) FederalismState Legislaturesand various locallaw-making boards/councils StateGovernors and various state/local agenciesStateCourtSystemsInterestGroups+3) Frequency of Elections 2012
2015Primary (spring)General (November)Primary (spring)General (November)PresidentialMidtermsState/localState/localAt least 6 elections every 4-year cycle.Initiative and Referendum+FRQ#2: Campaign Finance Reform+A. 1970s Federal Election Campaign Acts (FECA) Imposed rules and regulations on fundraising practices of candidates. Created the Federal Election Commission (FEC) to act as a watchdog and enforce rules. Required Interest Groups to form Political Action Committees (PACs) if they want to donate to campaigns.
+A. 1970s Federal Election Campaign Acts (FECA) Established limits on hard money contributions. Individual Candidate$1000 (primary)$1000 (general election)
+A. 1970s Federal Election Campaign Acts (FECA) Interest Group Candidate$5000 (primary)$5000 (general election)Purpose of FECA: Make candidates get lots of small contributors instead of just a few big ones.(PAC) +A. 1970s Federal Election Campaign Acts (FECA) 2) Rich Individual candidate. Political Parties. 3) Independent Expenditure Ads. (unlimited spending if not coordinated with any individual campaigns.)(unlimited $$$ if given for party building activities) 1) Individual(Issue Ads)(unlimited spending on own campaign.)Buckley v. Valeo (1976)Free SpeechLoopholes:Soft Money+B. McCain-Feingold Act (2002) Formal Name: Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) IndividualCandidate$2000/primary$2000/general election(Indexed for inflation.)+B. McCain-Feingold Act (2002) 2) Millionaires Amendment.Higher contribution limits for opponents of rich, self-funded candidates.Political Party$ 25,000/year(indexed for inflation)1) Individual+B. McCain-Feingold Act (2002) 3) Blackout periods on Independent Ads:-- 30 days before primary.-- 60 days before general election.(Only hard money ads allowed Stand by your ad provision.)+C. Court challenges to BCRA McConnell v. FEC (2003).
5-4 decision upholding BCRA. (w/ Sandra Day OConnoras swing vote.)+C. Court challenges to BCRA Roberts/Alito Court: FEC v. WRTL (2007). Davis v. FEC (2008). Citizens United v. FEC (2010). RNC v. FEC (2014) (pending).+