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สารชีวโมเลกุล - Division of Biotechnology | Faculty of ... · PDF file · 2017-02-07สารชีวโมเลกุล Biomolecules...

Mar 20, 2018

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  • Biomolecules

    .

  • 1.

    2.

  • (H2O) 70

    90% 1 2

    1 Covalent bonds

    105

  • (minerals)

    2

    1. (major / macro minerals) 100 (Ca) (P) (Na) (K) (Cl) (Mg) (S)

    2. (minor / micro minerals) 100 (Fe) (Cu) (Mn) (I) (Zn) (F) (Co) (Mo) (Se) (Si) (Ni)

  • 1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

  • (biological molecule)

    4

  • 1. (Carbohydrate)

    C,H,O H O 2 :1 (CH2O)n n 3

    (-CHO) (-CO) (-OH) (functional group)

  • (Carbohydrate) 3

    1. (MONOSACCHARIDE) 3-7 (simple sugar) (3C) (5C) (6C)

    2. (OLIGOSACCHARIDE) 2-10 (glycosidic bond) 2 (disaccharide)

    3. (POLYSACCHARIDE) 100-1,000

  • 1. Monosaccharide (Glucose)

    (Fructose)

    (Galactose)

    Monosaccharide C, O H (CH2O)n

    C Carbonyl group hydroxy group C

    aldehydes ketones Carbonyl group

  • The structure and classification of some monosaccharides

  • 2. Oligosaccharide 2.1 Disaccharides (+) 1- 4 glycosidic bond

    (+) 1-2 glycosidic bond

    (+) 1- 4 glycosidic bond

    2.2 Trisaccharides

  • (Disaccharides) 2 condensation ( macromolecules monomers H2O dehydration)

    Covalent bond Glycosidic linkage

  • Examples of disaccharides synthesis

  • 3.Polysaccharide carbohydrate monosaccharides 11 - 1,000 glycosidic linkage

    polysaccharide

    1. monosaccharide

    2. Glycosidic linkage

    polysaccharide starch, glycogen, cellulose chitin

  • Cellulose glucose 1-4 glycosidic linkage cellulose

  • Chitin, a structural polysaccharide

    Chitin forms the

    exoskeleton of

    Arthropods

    Chitin is used to make a strong

    and flexible surgical thread

  • Polysaccharide

    1.

    amylose

    amylopectin 1-4 glycosidic 1-6 glycosidic

    2. (glycogen) amylopectin

    3. (cellulose) 3,000

  • amylose amylopectin glycogen cellulose

  • carbohydrate

    Sugars :

    ribose deoxyribose nucleic acid

    Polysaccharide :

    starch glycogen

    Cellulose chitin

  • monomer carboxyl NH2 R R

    peptide bond polypeptide

    polypeptide NH2 COOH

    Protein

  • Amino acid covalent bond peptide bond

  • - amino N-terminus - carboxyl C-terminus

  • 2

    1. (fibrous protein)

    (fiber) (sheet)

    (collagen) (tendon)

    (matrix)

    (keratin)

    (fibroin) (elastin)

  • fibrous protein

    http://images.google.co.th/imgres?imgurl=http://www.chemistryexplained.com/images/chfa_02_img0322.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Fe-Ge/Fibrous-Protein.html&h=307&w=340&sz=29&hl=th&start=4&tbnid=k4j5wRnXW90pQM:&tbnh=107&tbnw=119&prev=/images?q=fibrous+protein&gbv=2&hl=th&sa=Ghttp://images.google.co.th/imgres?imgurl=http://www.daviddarling.info/images/hair.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/F/fibprot.html&h=199&w=200&sz=52&hl=th&start=12&tbnid=E1fccuJGU31_HM:&tbnh=103&tbnw=104&prev=/images?q=fibrous+protein&gbv=2&ndsp=20&hl=th&sa=Nhttp://images.google.co.th/imgres?imgurl=http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/techniques/dic/dicgallery/images/downfeathersmall.jpg&imgrefurl=http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/techniques/dic/dicgallery/downfeatherssmall.html&h=260&w=358&sz=49&hl=th&start=13&tbnid=70NGnwUaVOv5LM:&tbnh=88&tbnw=121&prev=/images?q=fibrous+protein&gbv=2&ndsp=20&hl=th&sa=Nhttp://images.google.co.th/imgres?imgurl=http://content.answers.com/main/content/img/McGrawHill/Encyclopedia/images/CE256000FG0010.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.answers.com/topic/fibrous-protein&h=320&w=248&sz=33&hl=th&start=1&tbnid=kZSMIL2zDTSsMM:&tbnh=118&tbnw=91&prev=/images?q=fibrous+protein&gbv=2&ndsp=20&hl=th&sa=N

  • 2. (globular protein)

    (antibody)

    globular protein

  • 4

    1. (primary structure)

  • The primary structure of a protein

    Primary structure amino acid

    Primary structure (DNA)

  • amino acid

    sickle-cell anemia

  • 2. (Secondary Structure)

  • Pleated sheet

  • 3. (tertiary structure)

  • Tertiary structure polypeptide R group R group

    H-bond

    Ionic bond

    Hydrophobic interaction

    Vander Waals interaction

    covalent bond

    disulfide bridges

  • 4. (Quaternary structure)

    (subunit)

    (oligomeric protein) 2

    2

  • Hemoglobin polypeptide 4

  • The four levels of protein structure

  • pH

    amino acid polypeptide Denaturation

    denaturation Renaturation

    Denaturation and renaturation of a protein

  • organelles

    keratin

    Hemoglobin

    Hormones

    Actin myosin

    Enzymes

  • (Arginine) (Methionie)

    (Histidine) (Phenylalanine)

    (Isoleucine) (Threonine)

    (Leucine) (Tryptophan)

    (Lysine) (Valine)

  • 1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5. pH

    6.

    CuSO4 NaOH

  • (Lipid) Lipids lipids nonpolar

    covalent bonds

    C,H,O H O 2 :1

    (Fat)

    Phospholipid

    Steroid

    (Wax)

  • 3

    (simple lipid)

    (complex lipid)

    (derived lipid)

    1.simple lipid

    1.1. (true fat)

    (glycerol) (fatty acid)

    Monoglyceride - Diglyceride

  • Triglyceride

    (fat)

    Fats :

    polymer

    Dehydration

    Glycerol (Fatty acid)

  • tail fatty acid hydrocarbon 16-18 fats (hydrophobic)

  • Triglyceride 1 Glycerol 1 3

  • 1.2. (wax)

    C 14-34

    2.complex lipid (glycolipid) 2.1. 1

  • Phospholipids

    cell membrane

    glycerol 1

    fatty acid 2

    phosphate group (phosphate group -)

    (hydrophilic) (hydrophobic)

  • phospholipids phospholipids micelle

    Micelle

  • cell membrane Phospholipids 2 hydrophilic head hydrophobic tail

    Phospholipid bilayer

    http://images.google.co.th/imgres?imgurl=http://www.fz-juelich.de/inb/inb-1/datapool/page/28/Figure1-500.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.fz-juelich.de/inb/inb-1/ion_channels/&h=394&w=500&sz=51&hl=th&start=1&tbnid=NIyF2-GwCvNbFM:&tbnh=102&tbnw=130&prev=/images?q=Phospholipid+bilayer&gbv=2&hl=th

  • 2.2.

    2.3.

  • 3.Derived lipid

    A, D, E, K

    3.1. 2

    3.1.1 (saturated fatty acid)

    3.1.2 (unsaturated fatty acid)

  • Saturated fat and fatty acid

    Unsaturated fat and fatty acid

  • (butyric acid)

    (palmitic acid)

    (linoleic acid)

    (linolenic acid)

    (arachidonic acid)

  • 3.2 Steroids lipids C 4

    Steroids functional group

  • (cholesterol) cell membrane (progesterone) (testosterone)

    . . .

  • (Nucleic acid)

    1. Nucleic acid

    Nucleic acid 2 Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

  • DNA m RNA

    DNA

    RNA

    protein

  • DNA

    DNA

    DNA

    nucleotide DNA

    nucleotide

  • 2. nucleic acid polymer nucleotides

    nucleotide 3

    Nitrogen base

    Pentose sugar

    Phosphate group

  • Nitrogen base 2

    Pyrimidines

    Purines

  • DNA RNA 4

    DNA A, G, C, T

    RNA A, G, C, U

    pentose RNA ribose DNA deoxyribose

  • 5 (5) pentose phosphate group

    pentose + nitrogen base + phosphate group nucleotide

  • The components of nucleic acids

  • Nucleotide polynucleotide

    phosphate pentose

    nitrogen base nucleic acid

    Bond nucleotide 2 Phosphodiester linkage

  • nitrogen base DNA mRNA

    base amino acid polypeptide

    3. DNA

    RNA polynucleotide

    DNA polynucleotide 2 double helix

  • DNA 5 DNA 3 H-bond A T G C

    base complementary

  • The DNA double helix and its replication

    DNA DNA DNA replication

  • nucleotide

  • (vitamins)

    (coenzyme)

  • 2 (fat soluble vitamins)

    (bile)

    (water soluble vitamins) 1 2 6 12 12

  • (hemophilia)

  • 2

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