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Nov 13, 2014

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. 30 (Goodnow, 1977). 50 . 19701980 (Davis, 1985. Gardner, 1980. Karmiloff-Smith, 1990. Kosslyn, Heldmeyer, & Locklear, 1977. Lange-Kuettner & Reith, 1992. Limont, 1992. Van Sommers, 1984). , , , . , , (Kosslyn et al., 1977. Laszlo & Broderick, 1985. Olson & Bialystok, 1983), (Girard, 1993. Lange-Kuettner & Reith, 1992. Loizou, 1993. , 1995. Nielsen, 1992, 1993. Willats, 1992. Zagorska, 1993). , , , , (. Poltrock & Brown, 1984). , , , - -

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. , , . Dennis (1985), , , , . (, ..) , : , .., , . , , (Karmiloff-Smith, 1990). , . . (Anderson, 1988. Leslie & Keeble, 1987. Mehler, Jusczyk, Lambertz, Halsted, Bertoncini, & Amiel-Tison, 1988). , Kellogg (1969) , , . (, , , , 3

, , ..) , , , () , , , ... , (Kellogg, 1969), (. 1), ( , ). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (1981), , , . - , , , , .., ( 2). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . , (. Read, 1970. Jung, 1973, 1978, 1987. Jung & Kerenyi, 1989). , , , . ( ) ( ) . 4

(, , ) , (. , 1981). , ( en face). , , , . , ( 3). . ( 3-3) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . , - . 3, 3. (. Cassels, 1991): , , , . , .., ,

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. , , , . , . , (, 1995), . . (Paivio, 1971. Paivio, Clark, & Khan., 1988. Baddeley, 1990) , . Marschark & Cornoldi (1991) . , , , , , , , (Case, 1985. , 1993. Goodnow, 1977, 1978. Harris, 1963. Karmiloff-Smith, 1990. Kellogg, 1969. Loizou, 1993). , , .

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, . , , , ( , ), . , , , : 1. . 2. . 3. , .

: 1. , , . , 60 (rnheim, 1971. Dennis, 1985. Goodnow, 1977. Harris, 1963. Luquet, 1967. Nielsen, 1992. Piaget & Inhelder, 1971). 2. , , . , (Paivio, Yuille, & Madigan, 1968). (- et al., 1979, 1984) (Paivio, 1969. Richardson, 1991. Segal, 1971). , , -

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. 3. , , . , , (. Richardson, 1980. Marschark & Cornoldi, 1991). , , (Dean, 1979. Fortuny, 1992. Girard, 1993. Goodnow, 1977. Kosslyn et al., 1977. Lange-Kuettner & Reith, 1992. Loizou, 1993. Piaget & Inhelder, 1971), . , (Day & Bellezza, 1983. Paivio et al., 1988), , . , , , , , .

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167 . 80 87 . - , (), . , 1.

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. *, (- et al., 1979, 1984).. *: Arnheim (1971), . , Paivio et al., (1968), ().

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. , , (ceiling effect), (7 ) . Goodenough-Harris (1963) . .

- . . .I. 1. (2 3 , , ""). 2. 3. . 4. . 5. ( ) . 6. ( .). 7. . ( , 6). : 7 . . . - . 1. ( 4 , , .) 2. . 3. . 4. (, .). 5. ( ) , , . , ). (..

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6. (.. 7. ( , 6). : 7 . ).

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3. , , 2. , / . 4. . 5. ( , 4). : 7 . . . - . 1. - : 2 . 2. : 2 . 3. , , , 2. , , 3. 4. . 5. ( , 4). : 7 . : 1. , . 2. , , , . 3. , . ============

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, , . , . , . , , , . 15-20 .

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. , Pillais . Bonferoni (= .10/ ) .. , , ... , Goodenough-Harris (1963, . 246) . , . . 4 4.5 . -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 () 2 () 8 ( ) . , F (7, 56)= 2.361, p= .000 (Pillais). -

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, , ) - , F (7, 151)= 2.953, p= .006, ) - , F (7, 151)= 2.163, p= .041, ) , F (7, 151)= 2.224, p= .035, ) , F (7, 151)= 8.077, p= .000 ) - , F (7, 151)= 6.959, p= .000 ) , F (1, 151)= 6.091, p= .000 (. 3). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- , , , F (1, 8)= 3.833, p= .000 (Pillais), (), F (1, 151)= 7.787, p= .006, - (), F (1, 151)= 9.665, p= .002. () , (.. 10 3.5 ), (-) , (.. 14 6.5 ). - (-), , F (1, 151)= 3.792, p= .053, . . - : -

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, t (166)= 14.30, p= .000 ( 5). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- , , (, ) (. , 1992). , , , ( & , 1988. . , 1993) , , . , , , t (166)= 7.14, p= .000. , (, - ., ..), , . , , (Crick & Koch, 1992. Farah, 1984. Kosslyn, 1987. . & , 1989, . 5). , , , , 18

, , , . - - [t (166)= 9.06, p= .000] ( 6). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- , , .

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, , 10-11 , , , () (). . (, , ..) , . (Goodnow, 1977. Kellogg, 1969. Read, 1970) . ( 16.5 ), (. 3) . , , , , . , , , . ( ) (, 1992. , 1993), : - . , , . 20

, , , . , 13-14 (- ). (. 5). Read (1970, . 119) (repression) , , , . .... -

, , () () (, 1993. Demetriou & Efklides, 1987). . , , , , , . , . , , , ( ), : , , (10-17 ) (

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- ) . Karmiloff-Smith (1990), , Dennis (1985), Pemberton & Nielsen (1987) Philips, Inall, & Lauder (1985). , . , .

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Anderson, M. (1988). Inspection time, information processing and the velopment of intelligence. British Journal of Developmental 43-57. Arnheim, R. (1971). Visual thinking. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Baddeley, A.D. (1990). Human Memory: Theory and Practice. Hillsdale (USA): Erlbaum. Case, R. (1985). The mind's staircase: Exploring the structural underpinnings of human thought and knowledge. Hillsdale: Erlbaum. Cassells, A. (1991). Remembering & Forgetting. Leicester, U.K.: British Psychological Society. Davi